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THE BLUET

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THE BLUET esh 0:99 | Since 2005 임희재 | 010-3338-3436 | wayne.tistory.com | wayne36@daum.net | 190815 16:20:30

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① {Be a Doer, Not a Dreamer} Shonda Lynn Rhimes is a famous American television producer and writer.
② Rhimes delivered the following speech at the graduation ceremony for Dartmouth College in 2014.
③ President Hanlon, staff, honored guests, parents, students, families, and friends, good morning and congratulations to the graduating class!
④ When people give graduation speeches, they usually tell you: Follow your dreams.
⑥ Don't stop dreaming until your dreams come true.
⑦ I think that's nonsense.


① {몽상가가 아닌, 행동가가 되어라} Shonda Lynn Rhimes는 미국의 유명한 텔레비전 프로그램 제작자이자 작가이다. ② Rhimes는 2014년 Dartmouth College 졸업식에서 다음과 같은 연설을 하였다. ③ Hanlon 학장님, 교직원 여러분, 귀빈 여러분, 부모님들, 학생들, 가족들, 그리고 친구들, 좋은 아침입니다, 그리고 졸업반 여러분 축하합니다! ④ 졸업식 연설을 할 때, 사람들은 보통 여러분에게 말합니다: 당신의 꿈을 쫓아라. ⑤ 꿈을 꾸고 또 크게 꾸어라! ⑥ 당신의 꿈이 이루어질 때까지 꿈꾸기를 멈추지 마라. ⑦ 저는 그것이 터무니없는 말이라고 생각합니다. 



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② And while they are busy dreaming, the really happy and successful people are busy doing.
③ Dreams are lovely, but they are just dreams.
④ Dreams do not come true just because you dream them.
⑤ It is hard work that makes things happen and creates change.
⑥ So, this is my first lesson for you: Be a doer, not a dreamer.
⑦ Maybe you know exactly what you want to do, or maybe you have no idea what you truly want to do.
⑩ You just have to keep moving forward.
⑪ You just have to keep doing something, seizing the next opportunity, and staying open to trying something new.
⑫ It doesn't have to be the perfect job or the perfect life that you dream of.
⑬ Perfect is boring, and dreams are not real.
㉑ Don't sit at home waiting for the magical opportunity.


① 많은 사람들이 꿈을 꿉니다. ② 그리고 그들이 꿈꾸느라 바쁜 동안에 정말로 행복하고 성공한 사람들은 행동하느라 바쁩니다. ③ 꿈은 아름답지만 단지 꿈일 뿐입니다. ④ 여러분이 그저 꿈을 꾼다고 해서 그 꿈이 실현되는 것은 아닙니다. ⑤ 어떤 일들을 일어나게 하고 변화를 만들어 내는 것은 바로 노력입니다. ⑥ 그러므로 이것이 제가 여러분에게 드리는 첫 번째 교훈입니다: 몽상가가 아니라, 행동가가 되십시오. ⑦ 아마도 여러분은 자신이 무엇을 하고 싶은지 정확히 알고 있을 수도 있고, 자신이 진정으로 하고 싶은 것이 무엇인지 모르고 있을지도 모릅니다. ⑧ 그것은 중요하지 않습니다. ⑨ 여러분이 (진정 하고 싶은 것을) 알 필요는 없습니다. ⑩ 여러분은 그저 꾸준히 앞으로 나아가기만 하면 됩니다. ⑪ 계속해서 무언가를 하고, 다음 기회를 포착하고, 새로운 것을 시도하려는 열린 태도를 계속 유지하기만 하면 됩니다. ⑫ 그것이 꼭 여러분이 꿈꾸던 완벽한 직업이거나 완벽한 삶일 필요는 없습니다. ⑬ 완벽한 것은 지루하고 꿈은 현실이 아닙니다. ⑭ 일단 해보세요! ⑮ 여행을 꿈꾸고 있다면, 당장 떠나세요. ⑯ 작가가 되고 싶으신가요? ⑰ 글쓰기를 시작하세요. ⑱ 작가는 날마다 글을 쓰는 사람입니다. ⑲ 직장이 없다면, 직장을 구하세요. ⑳ 어떤 직장이든 구하세요. ㉑ 마법과 같은 기회를 기다리면서 집에 앉아 있지 마세요. ㉒ 여러분이 다른 것을 할 수 있을 때까지 어떤 일이든 하세요. 



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① My second lesson is this: Don't be self-centered.
② Right after graduation, you may have the worst days of your lives.
③ But don't act like you're the most miserable person in the world, because you are not.
④ We are already a lot luckier than most people on the earth.
⑤ We live in the country where we are free to speak our own mind and most people believe that everyone should be treated equally regardless of gender or race.
⑥ In some parts of the world, girls are harmed simply because they want to get an education.
⑦ Slavery still exists.
⑧ Children still starve to death.
⑨ Even in the United States, there are countless people who are living much more difficult lives than we can ever imagine.
⑩ Crime and violence are part of the everyday lives of these people.
⑪ So before you complain, remember that you have been given a gift.
⑫ Your whole life so far has been a gift.


① 저의 두 번째 교훈은 이것입니다: 자기중심적이 되지 마세요. ② 졸업 직후에 여러분들은 여러분의 인생에서 최악의 나날을 보내게 될지도 모릅니다. ③ 하지만 여러분이 세상에서 제일 비참한 사람인것처럼 행동하지는 마세요, 왜냐하면 여러분은 그렇게 비참하지 않기 때문입니다. ④ 우리는 이미 지구상 대부분의 사람들보다 훨씬 더 운이 좋습니다. ⑤ 우리는 우리의 생각을 자유롭게 말할 수 있고, 대부분의 사람들이 모든 사람은 성별이나 인종에 관계없이 동등하게 대우받아야 한다고 믿는 나라에서 살고 있습니다. ⑥ 세계의 어떤 지역에서는 여자아이들이 단지 교육을 받고 싶다는 이유로 해를 당하고 있습니다. ⑦ 노예제도가 여전히 존재합니다. ⑧ 아이들이 여전히 굶어 죽고 있습니다. ⑨ 미국에서조차도 우리가 상상할 수 있는 것 이상으로 훨씬 어려운 삶을 살아가고 있는 사람들이 무수히 많습니다. ⑩ 범죄와 폭력은 이런 사람들의 일상생활의 일부입니다. ⑪ 그러므로 불평하기 전에 여러분이 선물을 받았다는 것을 기억하십시오. ⑫ 지금까지 여러분의 삶 전체가 선물이었습니다. ⑬ 세상을 위해 무언가를 함으로써 그 선물에 대한 대가를 지불할 때입니다. 



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① My third lesson is this: Accept that you cannot do everything.
② Since I'm a very successful woman and a mother with three children, many people ask me, "How do you do it all?
③ How do you become successful at your job while having a family?"
④ Now I'm going to give you an entirely honest answer: I don't.
⑤ Whenever I'm succeeding in one area of my life, I'm failing in another area.
⑥ If I'm writing really exciting stories for television, I'm not spending enough time with my children.
⑧ If I'm succeeding at one, I'm inevitably failing at the other.
⑨ This happens with all truly successful people.
⑩ It will happen to you when you become successful.
⑪ We all achieve one thing by failing to achieve something else.
⑫ Anyone who tells you they are doing it all perfectly is a liar.


① 저의 세 번째 교훈은 이것입니다: 여러분이 모든 것을 다 할 수는 없다는 것을 받아들이세요. ② 저는 매우 성공한 여성이자 세 자녀의 엄마인 까닭에 많은 사람들이 제게 묻습니다, "어떻게 그 모든 것을 다 해내세요? ③ 가정을 꾸리면서 어떻게 당신의 직업에서 성공할 수 있었나요?" ④ 이제 저는 정말 솔직한 답을 하려고 합니다: 전 그렇지 않습니다. ⑤ 제가 제 삶의 한 분야에서 성공할 때마다, 저는 다른 분야에서는 실패하고 있습니다. ⑥ 만일 제가 흥미진진한 TV 프로그램 방송 원고를 쓰고 있다면, 저는 제 아이들과 충분한 시간을 보내지 못하고 있는 겁니다. ⑦ 만일 제가 제 아이들과 가족휴가를 즐기고 있다면, 저는 끝내야 할 대본을 끝내지 못하고 있는 겁니다. ⑧ 만일 제가 한 가지 일에서 성공하고 있다면, 저는 불가피하게 다른 한 가지 일에서는 실패하고 있는 것입니다. ⑨ 이런 일은 실제로 성공한 모든 사람들에게서 일어납니다. ⑩ 여러분이 성공할 때도 이런 일은 일어날 겁니다. ⑪ 우리는 모두 다른 무언가를 이루지 못함으로써 한 가지를 성취합니다. ⑫ 모든 것을 다 완벽하게 해내고 있다고 여러분에게 말하는 사람은 누구나 거짓말쟁이입니다. 



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① I hope I didn't scare you.
③ Your dreams may not all come true.
④ You may sometimes feel like you're failing at work or at your home life.
⑤ The real world is hard.
⑥ And yet, you can still wake up in the morning and be amazed at everything you have and everything you have achieved.
⑦ And then 20 years from now, one of you can find yourself right here where I stand, giving a graduation speech.


① 제가 여러분을 겁주지 않았기를 바랍니다. ② 저는 그저 괜찮아 보이지 않을지라도 괜찮다고 말하고 싶었을 뿐입니다. ③ 여러분의 꿈이 모두 실현되지 않을 수도 있습니다. ④ 때로는 직장에서 혹은 가정생활에서 실패하고 있다고 느낄지도 모릅니다. ⑤ 실제 세상은 혹독합니다. ⑥ 그럼에도 불구하고, 여러분은 여전히 아침에 일어나서 여러분이 가지고 있는 모든 것과 성취한 모든 것에 깜짝 놀랄 수도 있습니다. ⑦ 그리고 지금으로부터 20년 후 여러분 가운데 누군가는 지금 제가 서 있는 바로 이곳에서 졸업 연설을 하고 있는 자기 자신을 발견할 수도 있습니다. 



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① Darwin's "survival of the fittest"is universally regarded as a simple reality in the game of life.
② Successful play sometimes requires a degree of selfishness.
③ However, across the animal kingdom, selfishness is only a very small part of an animal's life.
④ Often, animals help each other and work together for the greater good.
⑤ Cooperation prevails at every level of the animal kingdom.
⑥ In the following three examples, it is inspiring to see how animals cooperate to help each other.


① 보편적으로 Darwin의'적자생존'은 삶이라는 경기에서 단순한 사실로 여겨진다. ② 성공적인 행위는 때때로 어느 정도의 이기 심을 요구한다. ③ 그러나 동물의 왕국 전체에서 이기심은 동물의 삶에서 단지 매우 작은 부분일 뿐이다. ④ 종종 동물들은 더 큰 이익을 위해서 서로 돕고 함께 일한다. ⑤ 협동은 동물 왕국의 모든 면에서 널리 퍼져 있다. ⑥ 다음 세 개의 예시에서 동물 들이 서로 돕기 위해 어떻게 협력하는지를 보는 것은 매우 고무적인 일이다. 



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① Have you ever observed ants marching in and out of their nest?
② If so, it may have reminded you of a highway packed with cars.
③ But this comparison is not appropriate.
④ Ants never get into a traffic jam, no matter how fast they move or how many of them occupy the road.
⑤ This is because their movements are based on cooperation.
⑥ When there are a few ants moving in a single direction, some ants are likely to move slowly, some fast, and others even faster.
⑦ As their number increases, however, they communicate with each other so that they all move at the same speed.
⑧ The slow speed up while the fast and the superfast slow down.
⑨ There are times when ants leaving the nest for food encounter other ants coming back with food on their backs.
⑩ When this happens, the inbound ants, the ones carrying a burden, always have the right of way.
⑪ Outbound ants turn to to get of the way, while inbound ants continue in a straight line.
⑫ This arrangement makes sense because it is more difficult for inbound ants to change direction due to their heavy loads.
⑬ Following these rules and cooperating in this way, ants improve the traffic flow and make the delivery of food to the nest more efficient.


① 당신은 개미들이 집 안팎으로 행진하는 모습을 본 적이 있는가? ② 만약 그렇다면, 그 광경은 당신에게 자동차들로 가득한 고속도로를 떠오르게 했을지 모른다. ③ 그러나 이러한 비유는 적절하지 못하다. ④ 개미들은 아무리 빨리 움직이거나, 아무리 많은 수가 길을 차지하고 있더라도 결코 교통 혼잡에 빠지지 않는다. ⑤ 이것은 그들의 움직임이 협동에 근거하고 있기 때문 이다. ⑥ 한 방향으로 움직이는 개미 몇 마리가 있을 때, 일부는 천천히 움직이고, 일부는 빨리, 그리고 또 다른 일부는 더 빨리 움직인다. ⑦ 그러나 그들의 수가 증가할 때 개미들은 모두들 동일한 속도로 움직이기 위해 서로 의사소통한다. ⑧ 느린 개미 들은 속도를 올리고, 반면 빠른 개미들과 더 빨리 움직이던 개미들은 속도를 늦춘다. ⑨ 먹이를 구하기 위해 집을 떠나는 개미들이 등에 먹이를 지고 돌아오는 개미들과 우연히 마주치는 때가 있다. ⑩ 이런 일이 발생할 때는 들어오는 개미들, 다시 말해 짐을 지고 있는 개미들이 항상 우선 통행권을 갖는다. ⑪ 밖으로 나가는 개미들이 방향을 바꿔 길을 비켜주고, 집으로 들어가는 개미들은 계속해서 직전을 한다. ⑫ 집으로 들어오는 개미들이 무거운 짐들 때문에 방향을 바꾸기가 더 어렵기 때문에 이러한 합의는 이치에 맞는 것이다. ⑬ 이러한 규칙을 따르고, 이 방식으로 협동하면서 개미들은 교통흐름을 개선하고, 둥지로 먹이를 옮기는 일을 더욱 효율적으로 만든다. 



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① Fish also cooperate.
③ Sometimes, however, little fish help the big fish, so the big fish do not eat the little fish.
④ Tiny fish, which scientists refer to as "cleaners," swim into the mouths of bigger fish, which are referred to as "clients."
⑤ The cleaners eat parasites in the clients' mouths.
⑥ After the cleaners do their job, the clients let them go, instead of swallowing them.
⑦ The cleaners get a meal, and the clients get a healthier mouth.
⑧ Sometimes the cleaner fish chew on the wall of the client fish's mouth.
⑨ Although this may cause pain, the big fish still do not eat the little ones for two reasons.
⑩ First, the cleaners are too small to satisfy their hunger.
⑪ Second, it is hard to find good cleaners.
⑫ Once the cleaners and the clients establish trust, the clients want to cooperate with the cleaners and keep them around.


① 물고기들도 또한 협력을 한다. ② 모든 사람들이 알다시피 큰 물고기들은 작은 물고기를 먹는다. ③ 그러나 때로는 작은 물고기 들이 큰 물고기를 돕고, 그래서 큰 물고기들은 작은 물고기를 먹지 않는다. ④ 과학자들이'청소부들'이라고 부르는 작은 물고 기들은'고객들'이라고 불리는 큰 물고기들의 입으로 들어간다. ⑤ 청소부들은 고객들의 입속의 기생충을 먹는다. ⑥ 청소부들이 자신의 일을 마치고 난 후 고객들은 이들을 삼키는 대신 나가도록 내버려둔다. ⑦ 청소부들은 먹이를 먹고, 고객들은 더 건강 한 입을 갖게 되는 것이다. ⑧ 때로는 청소부 물고기들이 고객 물고기 입의 벽을 씹는다. ⑨ 비록 이것이 고통을 유발할지 모르지만, 큰 물고기들은 두 가지 이유로 작은 물고기들을 먹지 않는다. ⑩ 첫째, 청소부들이 너무 작아서 그들의 배고픔을 충족시켜줄 수 없다. ⑪ 둘째, 좋은 청소부 물고기를 찾기가 어렵다. ⑫ 일단 청소부와 고객 물고기가 신뢰를 형성하고 나면, 고객들은 청소부들과 협력하면서 그들을 주위에 두기를 원한다. 



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① Pied flycatchers are small birds that cooperate in dangerous situations.
② When a predator enters a flycatcher's area, the flycatcher makes a loud sound for help.
③ Other flycatchers hear the call, and they come to help.
④ As more and more birds join the group, the predator becomes frightened and runs away.
⑤ It is important to note that flycatchers go to the aid of another bird in danger only if that bird has helped other birds in the past.
⑥ They do not answer the calls of birds that have refused to help others before.
⑦ More Info.
⑧ Do you know how bats cooperate to survive?
⑨ One kind of bat has a system of food sharing.
⑪ As hunting for blood—heir only food—s not easy, younger bats fail to find food one night out of three.
⑫ But hunger is rare because bats that find blood share it with bats that don't.


① 알락딱새는 위험한 상황에서 협동하는 작은 새이다. ② 포식자가 알락딱새 영역에 들어올 때, 이 새는 도움을 요청하는 큰 소 리를 낸다. ③ 다른 새들은 그 울음소리를 듣고 도와주러 온다. ④ 점점 더 많은 새들이 무리에 합류함에 따라 포식자는 겁을 먹 고 달아난다. ⑤ 알락딱새들은 그 새가 과거에 다른 새들을 도와준 적이 있는 경우에만 위험에 처한 새를 돕는다는 점에 주 목하는 것이 중요하다. ⑥ 그들은 이전에 다른 새들을 돕기를 거절한 새의 부름에는 답하지 않는다. ⑦ More Info. ⑧ 박쥐들이 살아남기 위해 어떻게 협력하는지 알고 있나요? ⑨ 한 박쥐 종류는 먹이 공유 체계를 가지고 있다. ⑩ 박쥐들은 먹이 없이 이틀이 지나면 죽는다. ⑪ 그들의 유일한 식량인 피를 사 냥하는 것이 쉽지 않기 때문에 어린 박쥐들은 3일 중 1일은 먹이를 찾지 못한다. ⑫ 그러나 피를 발견한 박쥐들이 그러지 못 한 박쥐들과 피를 나누기 때문에 박쥐들이 굶는 일은 드물다. 



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① Cooperation is a process that started with the first single-celled creatures.
② Living things, from their beginnings more than three billion years ago, took over the planet by learning to cooperate.
③ We human beings cooperate in plenty of ways, from lining up at a bus stop to sharing knowledge on a website.
④ Sometimes, however, human cooperation can break down.
⑤ To foster cooperative success among humans, we should perhaps look to nature for inspiration.


① 협동은 최초의 단세포 생물과 함께 시작된 과정이다. ② 생명체들은 30억년 전 이상이나 되는 시작 시점부터 협동하는 법을 배움으로써 행성을 차지했다. ③ 우리 인간들도 버스 정류장에서 줄을 서는 것에서 부터 웹사이트상에서 지식을 공유하는 것 에 이르기까지 많은 방식으로 협동을 한다. ④ 그러나 때로는 인간 협력이 깨지기도 한다. ⑤ 인간 사이의 협력적 성공을 증진 시키기 위해서 우리는 영감을 얻기 위해 자연에 기대야 할지도 모른다. 



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① There are many team sports which require cooperation among the team members in order to win.
② Let' see the origins of a few of these sports.
④ Four-thousand-year-old drawings of men playing a simple version of a hockey game have been found in tombs in Egypt.
⑤ In the Middle Ages variations of hockey-like games were played in European countries.
⑥ Later England modernized it.
⑦ Soccer A Chinese game called cuju meaning "kick a ball" existed during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC and has been recognized as the first version of soccer with similar rules to the modern game.
⑩ Now 211 countries around the world are registered as members of FIFA.
⑪ Rowing Rowing has existed since humans first traveled on water by boat.
⑫ The first reference to rowing as a sport comes from 15thcentury BC Egypt.
⑬ It later spread throughout Europe.
⑭ Modern rowing as a competitive sport goes back to England in the 18th century.
⑮ Now one of the most famous competitions is the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race.


① 승리를 위해서 팀원들 간의 협력이 필요한 팀 스포츠가 많이 있다. ② 이들 중 몇 개의 기원을 살펴보자. ③ 필드하키 필드하키는 오랜 역사를 가지고 있다. ④ 단순한 형태의 하키 경기를 하고 있는 남성을 그린 4,000년된 그림이 이집트의 무 덤에서 발견되어 왔다. ⑤ 중세 시대에는 변형된 형태의 하키와 비슷한 경기들이 유럽 국가들에서 펼쳐졌다. ⑥ 이후 영국에서 하키 경기를 근대화시켰다. ⑦ 축구'공을 찬다'는 의미의 cuju (쿠주)라는 중국 경기가 기원전 2, 3세기에 존재했고, 이것이 근대 축구 경기와 유사한 규칙을 가진 최초의 축구 경기라고 인식된다. ⑧ 선수들은 손을 제외한 몸의 어떤 부분도 사용할 수 있었다. ⑨ 이후 일본, 호주, 그리고 유럽의 여러 나라에서 축구와 비슷한 경기가 행해졌다. ⑩ 이제 전 세계 211개국이 FIFA (국제축구연맹) 회원으로 등록되어 있다. ⑪ 조정 조정 경기는 인류가 보트로 물위를 처음 이동했을 때부터 존재했다. ⑫ 조정이 스포츠로 처음 언급된 것은 기원전 15세기 이 집트에서였다. ⑬ 그 후 유럽으로 퍼져 나갔다. ⑭ 경기 스포츠로서의 근대 조정은 18세기 영국으로 거슬러 올라간다. ⑮ 현재 가장 유명한 조정 경기 중의 하나가 옥스퍼드와 캠브리지 경정대회이다. 



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③ When you go to the movies or when you just want something refreshing to satisfy your thirst, a soda is often the first choice.
④ Soda, also called a soft drink, is a sweet drink with carbonation.
⑥ Every year, Americans consume 170 liters of soda per person, and the British 100 liters.
⑧ Most people, however, understand that sodas are not good for their health due to the ingredients.
⑩ Which ingredients are really not good for you?


① 당신이 피자, 햄버거, 또는 닭고기튀김과 같은 패스트푸드를 먹을 때, 그것과 함께 무얼 마시는가? ② 대부분의 사람들은 탄산음료를 마신다. ③ 당신이 영화를 보러 가거나 갈증을 해소하기 위해 뭔가 산뜻한 것을 원할 때 탄산음료가 흔히 첫 번째 로 선택되는 것이다. ④ 청량음료라고도 불리는 탄산음료는 탄산이 있는 달콤한 음료이다. ⑤ 전 세계 사람들이 탄산음료를 매우 좋아한다. ⑥ 매년 미국 인들은 인당 170리터의 탄산음료를 소비하고, 영국인들은 인당 100리터의 탄산음료를 소비한다. ⑦ 모든 연령 집단 중에서, 십 대들이 탄산음료를 가장 많이 마신다. ⑧ 그러나 대부분의 사람들은 탄산음료가 성분 때문에 건강에 좋지 않다는 것을 이 해하고 있다. ⑨ 탄산음료 안에는 무엇이 들어 있을까? ⑩ 어떤 성분이 당신에게 정말 좋지 않을까? 



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① {Sugar} Everyone knows that soft drinks are loaded with large amounts of sugar.
② A typical 250ml can of soda contains 30 grams of sugar.
③ WHO, the World Health Organization, recommends that people consume less than 25 grams of sugar a day.
④ Therefore, if you drink one small can of soda, your daily sugar intake already exceeds the recommended amount.
⑤ What is worse, people usually don't stop with one can.
⑥ Having extra sugar means adding unnecessary calories.
⑦ Over time, this can lead to obesity and other health problems, such as heart disease and diabetes.
⑧ Even diet sodas are not safe.
⑨ Diet sodas replace the sugar with artificial sweeteners.
⑩ Artificial sweeteners provide a sweet, sugary taste with fewer calories.
⑫ According to a recent study, artificial sweeteners make you want more sweet foods.
⑬ This means that you may easily gain weight if you keep drinking diet soda.
⑭ In addition, artificial sweeteners are known to generate headaches, emotional disorders, and sleeping problems.


① 모든 사람이 청량음료가 많은 양의 설탕으로 채워져 있다는 것을 알고 있다. ② 전형적인 250ml 탄산음료 한 캔은 설탕 30 그램을 함유한다. ③ 세계보건기구인 WHO는 사람들이 하루에 25그램 미만의 설탕을 소비할 것을 권장한다. ④ 따라서 작은 탄 산음료 캔 하나를 마시면 당신의 일일 설탕 섭취량은 이미 권장량을 초과하는 것이다. ⑤ 더 나쁜 것은, 사람들은 보통 한 캔 으로 끝내지 않는다는 것이다. ⑥ 설탕을 추가로 먹는 것은 불필요한 열량을 더하는 것을 의미한다. ⑦ 시간이 지나면서 이것이 비만, 그리고 심장병과 당뇨병과 같은 다른 건강 문제로 이어질 수 있다. ⑧ 다이어트 탄산음료조차도 안전하지 않다. ⑨ 다이어트 탄산음료는 설탕을 인공 감미료로 대체한다. ⑩ 인공 감미료는 더 적은 열량으로 달콤한 설탕 맛을 제공한다. ⑪ 이것은 좋은 일처럼 보일지도 모르지만, 실제로는 그렇지 않다. ⑫ 최근 연구에 따르면, 인공 감미료는 당신이 단 음식을 더 많이 원하게 만든다. ⑬ 이것은 당신이 계속 다이어트 탄산음료를 마시면 쉽게 체중이 늘 수도 있다는 것을 의미한다. ⑭ 게다가 인공 감미료는 두통, 정서 장애, 그리고 수면 문제를 일으키는 것으로 알려져 있다. 



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① {Acid} Most soda contains several types of acids.
② Acid is a chemical substance with a sour taste.
④ Acid also delays the growth of bacteria, which extends the expiration date of a product.
⑤ However, acid interferes with the body's ability to absorb calcium, and as a result, bone softening occurs.
⑥ Also, the acid in sodas interacts with stomach acid, slowing digestion and blocking nutrient absorption.
⑦ Furthermore, it can damage tooth enamel, the hard substance that protects your teeth.
⑧ If you drink sodas regularly, your teeth decay more easily.


① 대부분의 탄산음료는 몇몇 종류의 산을 함유한다. ② 산은 신맛이 나는 화학 물질이다. ③ 물에 더해지면 그것은 톡 쏘는 맛을 만들어 낸다. ④ 산은 또한 박테리아의 성장을 지연시키는데, 그것이 상품의 유통 기한을 늘린다. ⑤ 그러나 산은 칼슘을 흡수하 는 신체의 능력을 방해하고, 그 결과 뼈의 연화가 일어난다. ⑥ 또한 탄산음료 안의 산은 위산과 상호 작용하여 소화를 늦추 고 영양소 흡수를 막는다. ⑦ 게다가 그것은 당신의 치아를 보호하는 단단한 물질인 치아 에나멜을 손상시킬 수 있다. ⑧ 탄산음료를 정기적으로 마시면 당신의 치아는 더 쉽게 썩는다. 



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① {Caffeine} When you hear the word "caffeine," you most likely think of coffee.
② But some sodas, especially colas and carbonated energy drinks, also contain caffeine.
③ Caffeine makes you feel more awake, but it may bring about an irregular heartbeat.
④ A single can of cola may not affect you much, but if you consume colas regularly, they can make you feel more nervous and keep you from sleeping well at night.
⑤ Artificial Colors and Artificial Flavors Soft drink companies attract consumers by adding bright colors and sweet flavors to their products.
⑥ Most of these colors and flavors, however, are not natural.
⑦ They are artificial chemicals.
⑧ For example, the artificial color Yellow No_6, used in some pineapple juices, adds nothing to the taste.
⑨ It is just there to make the drink look pretty.
⑩ Also, the artificial flavor that gives the drink its pineapple taste is not real pineapple juice at all.
⑪ Studies have shown that excessive consumption of these kinds of chemicals can create problems such as kidney disease and ADHD.


① 당신은'카페인'이라는 단어를 들었을 때 아마 커피를 생각할 것이다. ② 하지만 일부 탄산음료들, 특히 콜라와 탄산에너지 음 료 또한 카페인을 함유한다. ③ 카페인은 당신을 깨어 있는 느낌이 더 들게 만들지만, 불규칙한 심장 박동을 초래할 수도 있 다. ④ 콜라 단 한 캔은 여러분에게 많은 영향을 끼치지 않을지도 모르지만, 콜라를 정기적으로 소비하면, 그것이 당신을 더 욱 긴장된 기분으로 만들고 밤에 숙면을 취하는 것을 막을 수 있다. ⑤ 인공 색소와 인공 향료 청량음료 회사들은 그들의 제품에 선명한 색과 달콤한 맛을 더해서 소비자들의 마음을 끈다. ⑥ 그러나 이런 색과 맛의 대부 분은 자연적인 것이 아니다. ⑦ 그것들은 인공 화학 물질이다. ⑧ 예를 들어, 몇몇 파인애플 주스에 사용되는 인공색소인 황색 6호는 아무런 맛도 더하지 않는다. ⑨ 그것은 단지 음료를 예쁘게 보이게 하려고 있는 것이다. ⑩ 또한 그 음료가 파인애플 맛이 나게 하는 인공 향료는 실제의 파인애플 주스가 전혀 아니다. ⑪ 연구들은 이런 종류의 화학 물질을 과도하게 섭취하면 신장 병과 ADHD (주의력 결핍 과잉행동 장애)와 같은 문제를 일으킬 수 있다는 것을 밝혀 왔다. 



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① You can see how the sugar, the acid, the caffeine, and the artificial chemicals in sodas are really not good for you.
② Perhaps you might now understand that you should stop drinking them.
③ However, if quitting sodas altogether sounds too difficult, cut down gradually.
④ For example, replace one regular soft drink or one diet soda per day with another more healthy drink.
⑤ Of course, the best choice would be water.
⑥ Water has no calories, no acid, no caffeine, and no chemicals of any kind.
⑧ If you can't break your soda drinking habits in a short period of time, don't be too hard on yourself.
⑨ Once you start cutting back, you are heading in the right direction.


① 당신은 탄산음료 안의 설탕, 산, 카페인, 그리고 인공 화학물질들이 어떻게 당신에게 실제로 좋지 않은지를 알 수 있다. ② 어쩌면 당신은 이제 그것을 그만 마셔야한다는 것을 이해할지도 모른다. ③ 그러나 탄산음료를 완전히 끊는 것이 너무 어려울 것 같다면 서서히 양을 줄여라. ④ 예를 들어, 하루에 정기적으로 마시던 청량음료 하나 또는 다이어트 탄산음료 하나를 다른 건강에 더 좋은 음료로 대체하라. ⑤ 물론 가장 좋은 선택은 물일 것이다. ⑥ 물에는 열량, 산, 카페인, 그리고 어떤 종류의 화학 물질도 없다. ⑦ 그리고 당신이 맛을 증진 시키기 위해 뭔가 더할 것을 원한다면 물에 레몬 한 조각을 넣어라. ⑧ 단기간에 탄산 음료를 마시는 습관을 고칠 수 없다고 해도 당신 자신에게 너무 심하게 굴지는 마라. ⑨ 일단 양을 줄이기 시작하면, 당신은 올바른 방향으로 향하고 있는 것이다. 



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① {RFCx} the Rainforest Savior Imagine you are standing in a rainforest.
② You are surrounded by tall trees, many of which are more than 40 meters tall.
③ You are a hundred kilometers away from the nearest city.
⑤ Do you think it is a quiet, peaceful place?
⑥ If so, you are wrong.
⑦ The rainforest is actually a very noisy place.
⑧ Insects, birds, and monkeys are responsible for much of this noise.
⑨ And sometimes there is another sound, one that does not belong in the forest at all.
⑩ It is the buzz of a chainsaw.
⑪ Every year some 13 million hectares of rainforest, an area about the size of England, disappears.


① RFCx: 열대 우림의 구세주 여러분이 열대 우림 속에 서 있다고 상상해 보라. ② 키 큰 나무들로 둘러싸여 있는데, 그중 많은 나무들이 40미터 이상이다. ③ 여러분은 가장 가까운 도시에서 1백 킬로미터 떨어져 있다. ④ 무엇이 들리는가? ⑤ 그곳이 조용하고 평화로운 장소라고 생각하 는가? ⑥ 만약 그렇다면, 여러분은 틀렸다. ⑦ 열대 우림은 실제로는 매우 시끄러운 곳이다. ⑧ 곤충, 새, 그리고 원숭이들이 이러한 소음에 상당한 책임이 있다. ⑨ 그리고 때때로 다른 소리가 있는데, 이 소리는 숲에는 전혀 어울리지 않는 소리이다. ⑩ 그것은 바로 전기톱의 윙윙거리는 소리이다. ⑪ 매년 1,300만 헥타르의 열대 우림, 대략 영국 크기만큼의 면적이 사라진다. 



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① This loss destroys the habitats for millions of species and has a major effect on the jungle's biodiversity.
② Also, it increases the amount of CO² in the air.
③ Destruction of the rainforest is caused by logging, farming, mining, and other human activities.
④ Among these, logging is the main reason for nature's loss.
⑤ Some 70 to 80 percent of the logging in the rainforests is thought to be illegal.
⑥ To address this problem, a young American engineer has invented a simple device that detects illegal logging the moment it occurs.
⑧ One day, he and some of the other volunteers set out from the ranger station on a walk into a protected rainforest.
⑨ After walking only five minutes, his group came upon people who were cutting down trees illegally.
⑩ The surprised loggers fled, but White was shocked.
⑪ Despite the fact that they were still fairly close to the ranger station, it had been impossible to hear anything from back there.
⑫ It is because the forest was so full of other sounds.


① 이러한 손실은 수백만 종의 서식지를 파괴하고 정글의 생물 다양성에 큰 영향을 미친다. ② 또한 그것은 대기 중 이산화탄소 의 양을 증가시킨다. ③ 열대 우림의 파괴는 벌목, 농사, 채광, 그리고 다른 인간의 활동으로 유발된다. ④ 이 중 벌목은 자연의 손실에 대한 주된 이유이다. ⑤ 열대 우림에서의 벌목 중 70~80퍼센트는 불법이라고 한다. ⑥ 이러한 문제를 해결하기 위해서, 미국의 한 젊은 엔지니어는 불법 벌목이 발생한 순간 그것을 감지하는 간단한 장치를 발명했다. ⑦ 그 모든 것은 2011년 Topher White가 자원봉사자로 인도네시아를 방문했을 때 시작되었다. ⑧ 어느 날, 그와 몇몇의 다른 자 원봉사자들이 산림 관리소에서 출발하여 열대 우림 보호 구역으로 걸어 들어갔다. ⑨ 걷기 시작한 지 단 5분 후에 그의 일행 은 불법으로 나무를 베고 있던 사람들과 우연히 마주쳤다. ⑩ 놀란 벌목꾼들은 도망쳤지만, White는 충격을 받았다. ⑪ 그들이 산림 관리소에 꽤 가까이 있었다는 사실에도 불구하고, 그곳에서는 어떠한 소리도 들을 수 없었다. ⑫ 숲이 다른 소리들로 너 무나 가득차 있었기 때문이다. 



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① White started thinking about ways to help.
② He knew that even in the jungle, far from the city, there was good cell phone service.
③ He thought that perhaps cell phone technology could solve the problem.
④ After he returned home to the U.S., in his father's garage he developed a small listening device using an old cell phone.
⑤ He attached a sensitive microphone to the cell phone so that it could detect chainsaw noise from up to three kilometers away.
⑥ This device would be placed high up in a tree.
⑦ When it picked up the buzz of a saw, it would send a message to a ranger's cell phone.
⑧ White knew that he had to protect the cell phone so that it could survive in the hot and wet rainforest environment.
⑨ His solution was to put the phone in a plastic box.
⑩ Since there was no electricity where the phone needed to be placed, the device had to be able to power itself.
⑪ White attached solar panels to the cell phone.
⑫ He was sure that the panels would work, even under the shade of the thick tree leaves.


① White는 도울 수 있는 방법에 대해 생각하기 시작했다. ② 그는 도시에서 멀리 떨어져 있는 정글에서도 휴대 전화 서비스가 좋다는 것을 알았다. ③ 그는 휴대 전화 기술이 아마도 그 문제를 해결할 수 있을 것이라는 생각을 했다. ④ 미국의 집으로 돌아 간 후에 그는 아버지의 차고에서 오래된 휴대 전화를 이용하여 작은 도청기를 개발했다. ⑤ 그는 최대 3킬로미터 떨어진 곳 에서 나는 전기톱 소리를 감지할 수 있도록 휴대 전화에 고감도 마이크를 부착했다. ⑥ 이 장치는 나무 높은 곳에 설치될 것 이었다. ⑦ 톱 소리를 감지하면, 그 장치는 산림 감시원의 휴대 전화로 메시지를 보낼 것이다. ⑧ White는 덥고 습한 열대 우림의 환경에서 견딜 수 있도록 휴대 전화를 보호해야 한다는 것을 알았다. ⑨ 그의 해결책은 전화 기를 플라스틱 상자에 넣어 두는 것이었다. ⑩ 전화기가 설치될 곳에는 전기가 없었기 때문에, 그 장치는 스스로 전력을 공급 할 수 있어야 했다. ⑪ White는 휴대 전화에 태양 전지판을 부착했다. ⑫ 두꺼운 나뭇잎의 그늘 아래에서도 태양 전지판이 작동 할 것이라고 그는 확신했다. 



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② Surprisingly, on only the second day after he installed the device, it picked up chainsaw noises.
③ An alert message was immediately sent to White and the forest rangers.
④ When they approached the logging spot, the illegal loggers ran away.
⑥ People living in other countries contacted White and asked if they could use the device.
⑧ These devices, called Rainforest Connection (RFCx), are now being used in the rainforests in Africa and South America.


① White는 그 장치를 시험하기 위해서 인도네시아로 돌아갔다. ② 놀랍게도 설치한 후 단지 이틀째에 그 장치는 전기톱 소리를 감지했다. ③ 경고 메시지가 White와 산림 감시원들에게 즉시 전송되었다. ④ 그들이 벌목 현장에 도착했을 때 불법벌목꾼들은 도망쳤다. ⑤ White는 자신의 이야기를 인터넷에 게재했고 소문은 빨리 퍼졌다. ⑥ 다른 나라에 사는 사람들이 White에게 연락해서 그 장 치를 사용할 수 있는지 물었다. ⑦ 세계 각지의 사람들은 그가 더 많은 장치를 만들 수 있도록 자신들의 중고 휴대 전화를 그에게 보내기 시작했다. ⑧ Rainforest Connection (RFCx)라고 불리는 이 장치는 현재 아프리카와 남아메리카의 열대 우림에 서 사용되고 있다. 



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① One RFCx can protect 300 hectares of forest.
② If a forest of this size is cut, 15,000 tons of CO² are released into the air.
③ Preventing this amount of CO² from being released has the same effect as taking 3,000 cars off the road for a year.
④ These devices are saving rainforests and providing new life for thousands of discarded cell phones.
⑤ Thanks to Topher White and his RFCx devices, the earth is now a better place to live.


① RFCx 한 대는 300헥타르의 숲을 보호할 수 있다. ② 만약 이러한 면적의 숲이 베어진다면 1만 5천 톤의 이산화탄소가 공기 중으로 배출될 것이다. ③ 이 정도 양의 이산화탄소 배출을 막는 것은 1년에 3천 대의 자동차를 도로에서 없애는 것과 같은 효과를 지닌다. ④ 이 장치는 열대 우림을 구하고 수천 대의 버려진 휴대 전화에 새 생명을 제공하고 있다. ⑤ Topher White와 RFCx 장치 덕분에 지구는 이제 살기 더 좋은 곳이 되었다. 



▢ 빈칸을 채우세요. [영시한 5-1]  (키워드+긴단어+연결어) *여러단어가 한 빈칸인 것도 있음.
① How to Handle Haters.
② Have you ever known someone you just did not get along with?
③ Maybe it was someone you had difficulty working with or it could have been someone you were always arguing with.
⑤ Should you ignore them, be extra nice to them, or stand up to them?
⑥ If you have ever been confused about what to do, you are not alone.
⑦ Luckily for us, Benjamin Franklin, the American politician and inventor, came up with an answer more than 200 years ago.


① 당신을 미워하는 사람들을 다루는 방법. ② 당신이 잘 어울리지 못하는 사람과 알고 지낸 적이 있는가? ③ 그 사람은 당신이 함께 일하는 데 어려움을 겪었던 사람이거나 당신이 항상 언쟁하고 있던 사람일 수도 있다. ④ 이러한 상황은 당신이 무엇을 해야 할지 계속 생각하게 만들 수 있다. ⑤ 당신은 그들을 무시하거나, 특별히 친절하게 대하거나, 아니면 그들에게 맞서야 할까? ⑥ 만일 당신이 무엇을 해야 할지에 대해 혼란스러웠던 적이 있다면, 당신은 혼자가 아니다. ⑦ 우리에게 다행히도, 미국인 정치가이자 발명가인 Benjamin Franklin 은 200년보다도 더 전에 해답을 생각해 냈다. 



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① Benjamin Franklin was a very smart man, not just in politics and science, but also in his ability to deal with people.
② Once, when Franklin was serving as a representative for the people of the state of Pennsylvania, a powerful opponent made a long speech criticizing him.
③ This speech was so powerful that it threatened Franklin's political career.
④ Franklin decided to try to change his enemy's opinion of him.
⑤ To do this, he sent a letter to the man asking for a favor.
⑥ He asked the man to lend him a very rare and valuable book, one that he knew the man had in his personal library.
⑦ The man, Franklin's enemy, immediately sent him the book.


① Benjamin Franklin은 정치와 과학에서뿐만 아니라 사람을 다루는 능력에서도 매우 영리한 사람이었다. ② 한번은 프랭클린이 펜실베이니아 주 하원의원으로 일할 때 강력한 상대가 그를 비판하는 긴 연설을 했다. ③ 이 연설은 너무 강력하여 프랭클린의 정치 경력을 위협했다. ④ 프랭클린은 자신에 대한 적의 의견을 바꿔 보기로 결심했다. ⑤ 이를 위해서 그는 그 남자에게 호의를 부탁하는 편지를 보냈다. ⑥ 프랭클린은 그 남자에게 매우 희귀하고 가치있는 책을 빌려 달라고 요청했는데, 프랭클 은 그 남자가 그 책을 개인 서재에 가지고 있다는 것을 알고 있었다. ⑦ 프랭클린의 적이었던 그 남자는 즉시 그에게 책을 보내 주었다. ⑧ 프랭클린은 그 책을 읽은 후 감사의 편지와 함께 돌려주었다. 



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① The next time Franklin met his enemy, the man was much nicer to him.
② They eventually became friends and remained so for the rest of their lives.
③ In his autobiography, Franklin explained what happened.
④ Franklin wrote, "He that has once done you a kindness will be more ready to do you another.
⑤ "By asking a small favor of his enemy, Franklin gave the man a chance to do him a kindness.
⑥ This turned his his enemy a friend.
⑦ Today this phenomenon is known as the Benjamin Franklin effect.
⑧ It is commonly thought that if you want people who do not like you to like you, you should do favors for them.
⑨ However, if you want to try to create a connection with someone who does not like you, asking that person to do you a favor is more effective.
⑩ To test this phenomenon, a psychologist performed an experiment and came to the same conclusion.


① 프랭클린이 그의 적을 다음에 만났을 때, 그 남자는 그에게 훨씬 더 친절했다. ② 그들은 결국 친구가 되었고 여생 동안 친구로 남았다. ③ 자신의 자서전에서 프랭클린은 무슨 일이 있었는지 설명했다. ④ '당신에게 한 번 친절을 베푼 사람은 또 다른 친절을 베풀 준비가 더 되어 있다'라고 프랭클린은 썼다. ⑤ 자신의 적에게 작은 부탁을 함으로써 프랭클린은 그 남자에게 친절을 베풀 기회를 주었다. ⑥ 이것이 그의 적을 친구로 바꾸었다. ⑦ 오늘날 이런 현상은 벤자민 프랭클린 효과로 알려져 있다. ⑧ 당신을 좋아하지 않는 사람들이 당신을 좋아하게 되길 원한다면 당신이 그들의 부탁을 들어줘야 한다는 것이 일반적인 생 각이다. ⑨ 그러나 당신을 좋아하지 않는 사람과 관계를 만들고자 노력하고 싶다면 당신의 부탁을 들어주기를 요청하는 것이 보다 효과적이다. ⑩ 이 현상을 시험하기 위해 한 심리학자가 실험을 수행했고 동일한 결론에 이르렀다. 



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① About 80 students were invited to participate in an experiment and were told they would be given some money after a series of tests.
② A researcher was hired and made the students dislike him by being rude to them.
③ The students took the tests and were all awarded the promised money.
④ They were then divided into three groups.
⑤ Group 1 was asked by the researcher to return some of the prize money.
⑥ He explained that he had used his own money for the tests and the study was in danger of running out of funds.
⑦ Group 2 was asked by a secretary to return some of the money to the institution because the budget was running low.
⑧ Group 3 was not asked to return any money.
⑨ Afterward, all three groups were asked to rate how much they liked the researcher.
⑩ The people in Group 1, who had done the researcher a personal favor by returning some of the money, rated the researcher the highest.
⑪ Despite the fact that they had had a bad impression of him during the experiment, they had more positive feelings for him after returning "his money."


① 대략 80명의 학생들이 실험에 참가하도록 초대되어 일련의 검사 후에 약간의 돈을 받게 될 것이라고 들었다. ② 한 연구원이 고용되어 학생들에게 무례하게 대함으로써 학생들이 자신을 싫어하도록 만들었다. ③ 학생들은 검사를 받았고 모두 약속한 돈을 받았다. ④ 그들은 그 다음 세 집단으로 나뉘었다. ⑤ 집단1은 그 연구원에 의해 상금의 일부를 돌려줄 것을 요청받았다. ⑥ 그는 그 검사를 위해 자신의 돈을 썼고, 그 연구가 자금이 바닥날 위기에 처했다고 설명했다. ⑦ 집단 2는 한 비서로부터 해당 기관의 예산이 다 떨어지려고 하기 때문에 돈의 일부를 돌려줄 것을 요청받았다. ⑧ 집단3은 아무런 돈도 돌려주기를 요청받지 않았다. ⑨ 후에 세 집단 모두 그들이 그 연구원을 얼마나 좋아하는지 평가하도록 요청됐다. ⑩ 돈의 일부를 돌려줌으로 써 그 연구원의 개인적인 부탁을 들어줬던 집단1의 사람들이 그 연구원을 가장 높게 평가했다. ⑪ 실험하는 동안 그에 대해 나쁜 인상을 가졌던 사실에도 불구하고 그들은 '그의 돈'을 돌려준 후 그에게 보다 긍정적인 감정을 가진 것이다. 



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① How can it be that we feel more positively toward people for whom we do favors?
② It is because of what psychologists refer to as "cognitive dissonance.
③ "We want our actions and our thoughts to be in harmony.
④ When we do something that we do not like, the balance is broken, and we feel unhappy.
⑤ If there is a conflict between our thoughts and our actions (cognitive dissonance), we will change one or the other to relieve the conflict.
⑥ After lending Franklin the book, Franklin's enemy experienced cognitive dissonance.
⑦ He felt troubled because he was doing something nice for someone he disliked.
⑧ Feeling anxious and unhappy, he had to find a way to resolve his feelings.
⑩ He justified doing the favor by telling himself that Franklin was not a bad person after all and convinced himself that he actually liked Franklin.
⑪ Is there someone with whom you would like to have a better relationship?
⑫ Try asking that person for a small favor, such as lending you a pencil or watching your bag while you go to the restroom.


① 어떻게 우리는 우리가 부탁들 들어준 사람들을 보다 긍정적으로 느끼는 것일까? ② 그것은 심리학자들이 '인지부조화'라고 부르는 것 때문이다. ③ 우리는 우리의 행동과 생각이 조화를 이루기를 원한다. ④ 우리가 좋아하지 않는 무언가를 할 때 그 균형이 깨지고 우리는 불쾌감을 느낀다. ⑤ 만약 우리의 생각과 행동 사이에 갈등(인지부조화)이 있다면, 우리는 그 갈등을 완화하기 위해 둘 중 하나를 바꿀 것이다. ⑥ 프랭클린에게 책을 빌려준 후 프랭클린의 적수는 인지부조화를 경험했다. ⑦ 자신이 싫어하는 사람에게 친절한 행동을 했기 때문에 그는 마음이 불편했다. ⑧ 불안하고 불쾌함을 느꼈기 때문에, 그는 자신의 감정을 해소할 방법을 찾아야 했다. ⑨ 그가 행하기에 가장 쉬운 방법은 프랭클린에 대한 자신의 생각을 바꾸는 것이었다. ⑩ 그는 자기 자신에게 프랭클린이 결국 나쁜 사람은 아니었다고 말함으로써 호의를 베푼 것을 정당화했고, 자신이 사실 프랭클린을 좋아한다고 스스로를 납득시켰다. ⑪ 당신이 더 나은 관계를 가지고 싶은 누군가가 있는가? ⑫ 당신에게 연필을 빌려주는 것이나 당신이 화장실에 간 사이 가방을 지켜봐 달라는 것과 같은 작은 부탁을 시도해 보라. ⑬ 그러고 난 뒤 당신에 대한 그들의 감정이 바뀌는지 보라. ⑭ 아마 그들의 감정이 바뀔 것이다. 



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① Every culture has proverbs about human relationships.
② Read the following proverbs different countries and cultures and think about the meaning of each one.
③ He who gets close to a good tree will have good shade - Spain.
⑥ As distance tests a horse' strength, so does time reveal a person' character - China.
⑦ Laughter is a language everyone understands - Chad.
⑧ A friend will cause you to weep, an enemy to laugh - Afghanistan.
⑩ If you want to go far, go together - Africa.
⑪ Lose your temper and you lose a friend; lie and you lose yourself - Native American.


① 모든 문화에는 인간관계에 대한 속담이 있다. ② 다음 여러 나라와 문화권의 속담들을 읽고 각각의 의미에 대해 생각해 보시오. ③ • 좋은 나무에 가까이 가는 사람은 좋은 그늘을 얻는다 - 스페인. ④ • 친절한 말은 뱀을 구멍에서 나오게 한다 - 터키. ⑤ • 네 친구들을 보면 네가 어떤 사람인지 알 수 있다 - 러시아. ⑥ • 긴 거리가 말의 체력을 증명하듯이, 시간이 그 사람의 성격을 드러나게 한다 - 중국. ⑦ • 웃음은 모두가 이해하는 언어이다 - 차드. ⑧ • 친구는 너를 울게 할 것이고, 적은 너를 웃게 할 것이다 - 아프가니스탄. ⑨ • 빨리 가고 싶으면 혼자 가라. ⑩ 멀리 가고 싶으면 함께 가라 - 아프리카. ⑪ • 이성을 잃고 화를 내면 친구를 잃고, 거짓말을 하면 자기 자신을 잃는다 - 아메리카 원주민. 



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① Dabbawalas: Mumbai's Lunch Box Delivery Men In India, many traditions are today being challenged as a a result globalization.
② The practice of eating a home-cooked meal for lunch, however, continues.
③ In Mumbai, many people who work in offices far from home rely on an express food delivery service run by dabbawalas.
④ Dabbawalas are delivery men who carry hot lunch boxes for Mumbai office workers from their homes to their offices.


① 다바왈라: 뭄바이의 도시락 배달원 인도에는 세계화의 결과로 지금 많은 전통이 도전을 받고 있다. ② 그러나 집에서 요리한 음식을 점심으로 먹는 관습은 계속 되고 있다. ③ 뭄바이에서는 집에서 멀리 떨어진 사무실에서 일하는 많은 사람들이 다바왈라가 운영하는 고속 음식 배달 서비스에 의존한다. ④ 다바왈라는 뭄바이의 사무실 노동자들에게 집에서 사무실까지 따뜻한 도시락을 가져다주는 배달원이다. ⑤ dabbawala라는 말은 '도시락'을 뜻하는 힌디어 dabba와 '그것을 배달해 주는 사람'을 뜻하는 wala에서 온다. 



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① Most dabbas, or lunches, reach their destination after passing through several pairs of hands.
② A typical scenario would have one person on a bicycle pick up a dabba by 9:00 a.m. from about thirty different addresses.
③ After collecting all of the dabbas assigned to him, he takes them to the nearest train station.
④ Another person loads each dabba onto the right train, sending them off in different directions.
⑥ Finally, a fourth person picks up the boxes at the receiving station and distributes them, again by bicycle, to each customerʼ office, all by 12:30 p.m.
⑦ The empty dabbas are picked up by 5:00 p.m. and are returned to their original addresses by the same team, following the same procedure in reverse.


① 대부분의 다바, 즉 도시락은 여러 사람의 손을 거친 후에 목적지에 도달한다. ② 전형적인 시나리오는 자전거를 탄한 사람이 오전 9시까지 서른 군데의 다른 주소에서 다바를 수거하는 것일 것이다. ③ 자신에게 할당된 모든 다바를 수거 한 후에 그는 그것들을 가장 가까운 기차역으로 가지고 간다. ④ 또 다른 사람이 각각의 다바를 알맞은 기차에 싣고 다른 방향으로 발송한다. ⑤ 세 번째 사람이 각각의 열차에 다바와 함께 탑승한다. ⑥ 마지막으로, 네 번째 사람은 받는 역에서 도시락을 수거해서 다시 자전거로 각 고객의 사무실에 오후 12시 30분까지 모두 배달한다. ⑦ 빈 다바는 오후 5시까지 수거되고 똑같은 팀에 의해 같은 절차를 역순으로 해서 원래 주소지로 되돌아간다. 



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① The dabbawala service began around 1890, when a banker hired a young man to deliver a lunch box from his home to his Mumbai office.
② Other people liked the idea and copied it.
③ When demand for the service expanded, a businessman started the lunch-delivery service in its present format.
⑤ Why do Mumbai workers not take their lunch boxes with them in the morning, when they leave for the office?
⑥ Those who use the dabbawala service are mostly middle-class office workers who live in one of Mumbai's suburbs.
⑦ They have to leave for the office early in the morning, riding on a packed train.
⑧ It would be difficult for them to carry their own dabba.
⑨ Also, they often have dietary restrictions, depending upon their religion.
⑪ As a result, it is not easy for workers to find the right food in restaurants near their office.
⑫ To meet their dietary needs, Indian workers prefer their home-cooked meals, made especially for them.


① 다바왈라 서비스는 1890년경에 시작되었는데, 그때 한 은행가가 자신의 집에서 뭄바이 사무실로 도시락을 배달해 줄 한 청년을 고용했다. ② 다른 사람들이 그 생각을 마음에 들어 했고 그것을 따라했다. ③ 서비스에 대한 수요가 확대되자, 한 사업가가 현재 형태의 점심 배달 서비스를 시작했다. ④ 그 후로 120년이 넘게 흐른 지금, 다바는 뭄바이 문화의 고유한 한 부분이다. ⑤ 왜 뭄바이 노동자들은 사무실로 출근하는 아침에 점심 도시락을 가지고 가지 않을까? ⑥ 다바왈라 서비스를 이용하는 사람들 은 대부분 뭄바이 교외 중 한 곳에 사는 중산층의 사무실 노동자들이다. ⑦ 그들은 아침 일찍 만원 열차를 타고 사무실로 출근한다. ⑧ 그들이 자신들의 다바를 가지고 가는 것은 어려울 것이다. ⑨ 또한, 그들은 흔히 종교에 따라서 식단에 제한이 있다. ⑩ 힌두교도들은 소고기를 먹지 않고, 이슬람교도들은 돼지고기를 먹지 않으며, 자인교도들은 양파와 감자를 먹지 않는다. ⑪ 그 결과, 노동자들이 사무실 근처의 식당에서 딱 맞는 음식을 찾기는 쉽지않다. ⑫ 식단상의 필요를 충족시키기 위해 인도 노동자들은 특별히 자신들을 위해 만들어진, 집에서 요리된 식사를 선호한다. 



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① Today approximately 5,000 dabbawalas cover 70 square kilometers in and around Mumbai.
② They conduct about 400,000 transactions daily.
③ 200,000 lunch boxes are delivered to offices every morning, six days a week, and 200,000 are returned home every afternoon.
④ They even deliver in the pouring rain and during political strife.
⑤ Surprisingly, hardly any cases of late or mistaken delivery are ever reported.
⑥ Their motto is "error is horror.
⑦ "The dabbawalas are proud of their 99.99 percent accuracy rate, which means just one mistake in every six million deliveries.
⑧ It is an amazing record, considering that most of the dabbawalas are illiterate and that not a single piece of paper is used in the delivery process.
⑨ The secret to this error-free system is in a coding system.
⑪ These codes tell the dabbawala where the food comes from and which railway stations it must pass through on its way to a specific office in a specific building, in Mumbai.


① 오늘날 대략 5,000명의 다바왈라가 70평방킬로미터에 달하는 뭄바이와 그 주변 지역을 담당한다. ② 그들은 매일 약 400,000건의 거래를 한다. ③ 200,000개의 도시락이 주 6일, 매일 아침 사무실로 배달되고, 200,000개가 매일 오후에 집으 로 돌아온다. ④ 그들은 심지어 폭우에도, 정치 투쟁 중에도 배달한다. ⑤ 놀랍게도, 늦게 배달되거나 잘못 배달된 경우가 지금까지 거의 보고되지 않았다. ⑥ 그들의 모토는 '실수는 공포이다. ⑦ 다바왈라는 99.99퍼센트 정확도를 자랑스러워하는데, 그것은 6백만 건의 배달당 고작 한 번의 실수를 의미한다. ⑧ 다바왈라의 대부분이 문맹이고 배달 과정에 단 한 장의 종이도 사용되지 않는다는 점을 고려할 때, 그것은 놀라운 기록이다. ⑨ 이러한 무결점 시스템의 비결은 부호화 시스템에 있다. ⑩ 각각의 다바에는 다양한 색깔, 숫자, 그리고 기호로 그려져 있는 부호가 있다. ⑪ 이 부호는 다바왈라에게 음식이 어디에서 오고, 어느 철도역을 거쳐 뭄바이에 있는 특정 건물의 특정 사무실로 가는지를 말해 준다. 



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① The dabbawala organization is an outstanding example of an efficient distribution system.
② It is simple, relies on teamwork, has a low operating cost, and delivers almost 100 percent customer satisfaction.
③ It is not surprising, then, that business schools and large corporations around the world learn from the dabbawala system.
④ Today, most people cannot imagine an efficient delivery system operating without the benefit of technology.
⑤ Dabbawalas, however, demonstrate that with no form of technology, some of the old ways may still be the best ways.


① 다바왈라 조직은 효율적인 배달 시스템의 뛰어난 사례이다. ② 그것은 단순하고, 팀워크에 의존하며 낮은 운영비가 들고, 거의 100 퍼센트에 달하는 고객 만족도를 자랑한다. ③ 그러므로 전 세계의 경영 대학원과 대기업이 다바왈라 시스템에서 배우는 것은 놀랄 일이 아니다. ④ 오늘날, 대부분의 사람들은 기술의 혜택 없이 효율적인 배달 시스템이 운영되는 것을 상상할 수 없다. ⑤ 그러나 다바왈라는 어떤 형태의 기술이 없어도 옛날 방식이 여전히 최고의 방식이 될 수 있다는 것을 증명한다. 



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① SWITZERLAND Watchmaking School Switzerland is world-renowned for its high-quality watches.
② Its first watchmaking school opened in the mid-1800s.
③ Now Switzerland has several watchmaking schools whose students take the traditional watchmaking course.
④ The class sizes are kept small to ensure that each student receives extensive individualized lessons from master watchmakers.
⑤ ITALY Central Institute of Restoration Italy is a country filled with valuable cultural assets.
⑥ Therefore, the restoration and protection of the nation' cultural heritage is guaranteed by the Italian Constitution.
⑦ The Central Institute of Restoration was founded in l939 to conserve and restore artworks and archaeological findings using scientific technology.
⑧ Each year the four-year course accepts about 20 students who are selected through exams that are held by the Ministry of Cultural Heritage.
⑨ BHUTAN Royal Textile Academy of Bhutan Bhutan is famous for its hand-woven textiles.
⑩ They are recognized for their abundance of color, different patterns, and weaving techniques.
⑪ With the aim to preserve and promote this living art, the Royal Textile Academy of Bhutan was created in 2005.
⑫ Its mission is to educate, promote and preserve Bhutanese textiles.


① 전 세계의 직업 학교 스위스 시계 제작 학교 스위스는 고품질의 시계로 세계적으로 유명하다. ② 첫 시계 제작 학교는 1800년대 중반에 문을 열었다. ③ 현재 스위스에는 학생들이 전통적인 시계 제작 과정을 이수하는 여러 시계 제작 학교가 있다. ④ 각각의 학생들이 시계 제작 장인으로부터 집중적인 개별 수업을 받게끔 보장하기 위해 수업은 소규모로 유지된다. ⑤ 이탈리아 중앙 복원 협회 이탈리아는 귀중한 문화 재산이 가득한 나라이다. ⑥ 그러므로 국가의 문화 유산의 복원과 보호가 이탈리아 헌법에 의해 보장된다. ⑦ 중앙 복원 협회(Central Institute of Restoration)는 과학 기술을 사용하여 예술 작품과 고고학적 발견물을 보호하고 복원하기 위하여 1939년에 창설되었다. ⑧ 4년 과정인 학교에 매년 20명의 학생이 입학한고, 이들은 문화재청이 시행하는 시험을 통해 선발된다. ⑨ 부탄 부탄 왕립 직물 학교 부탄은 손으로 짠 직물로 유명하다. ⑩ 그것들은 색감의 풍부함, 다양한 패턴, 그리고 직조 기술로 인정받는다. ⑪ 이 살아 있는 기술을 보존하고 홍보하기 위한 목적으로, 부탄 왕립 직물 학교 (Royal Textile Academy of Bhutan)가 2005년에 만들어졌다. ⑫ 그것의 임무는 부탄의 직물을 교육시키고, 홍보하고, 보존하는 것이다. 



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① Gaudi Architect Inspired by Nature Most industrialized countries have produced a number of good architects.
② Few countries, however, can claim to have produced a great architect.
③ One country that can make that claim without embarrassment is Spain.
④ There, at the summit of the nation's architectural genius, stands Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926).
⑤ Gaudi was born in Catalonia, Spain, in 1852.
⑥ As a child, he was fascinated by the natural wonders of the surrounding countryside.
⑦ Gaudi took an interest in architecture at a young age and studied architecture in Barcelona, the city that would become home to his greatest works.
⑧ Gaudi's designs were deeply influenced by forms in nature.
⑨ He understood that the natural world is full of curved lines, rather than straight lines.
⑩ As a result, most of his constructions use curved stones and animal- or plant-shaped designs.
⑫ He decorated many of his buildings with colorful tiles.
⑬ This combination of natural designs and bright colors creates a breathtaking visual experience.
⑭ Here are some of Gaudi's greatest works, all of which are found in the city of Barcelona.


① 가우디, 자연에서 영감을 받은 건축가 대부분의 산업화된 국가들은 수많은 훌륭한 건축가들을 배출해왔다. ② 그러나 위대한 건축가를 배출했다고 주장할 수 있는 나라는 거의 없다. ③ 이런 주장을 당황하지 않고 할 수 있는 한 나라가 스페인이다. ④ 거기 그 나라의 건축 천재들의 정상에 안토니 가우디(1852-1926)가 있다. ⑤ 가우디는 스페인의 카탈로니아에서 1852년에 태어났다. ⑥ 어렸을 때 그는 주변 시골의 자연의 경이로움에 매료되었다. ⑦ 가우디는 젊은 나이에 건축에 관심을 갖게 되었고 그의 위대한 작품의 고향이 된 도시인 바르셀로나에서 건축을 공부했다. ⑧ 가우디의 디자인은 자연의 형태에서 깊은 영향을 받았다. ⑨ 그는 자연 세계는 직선보다는 곡선으로 가득 차 있다는 것을 깨 달았다. ⑩ 그 결과, 그의 건축물 대부분은 곡선의 돌과 동물 또는 식물 모양의 디자인을 사용한다. ⑪ 가우디의 작품은 또한 선명한 색채를 사용한 것으로 알려져 있다. ⑫ 그는 많은 건물들을 형형색색의 타일로 장식했다. ⑬ 자연의 디자인과 밝은 색의 조화는 깜짝 놀랄 만한 시각적 경험을 만들어 낸다. ⑭ 여기 가우디의 위대한 작품 일부가 있는데, 이 모든 것들이 바르셀로 나라는 도시에서 발견된다. 



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① Parc Güell is a public park and is one of Gaudi's most decorative works.
② Gaudi completed this park in 1914.
③ It was built for Eusebi Güell, a rich businessman who admired Gaudi's style.
④ Parc Güell contains amazing stone structures, gorgeous tiles, and beautiful buildings.
⑤ At the entrance to the park are two buildings, both with curved roofs.
⑦ "The park is also home to a famous dragon fountain, covered with beautiful colored tiles.
⑧ Known as "El Drac," which means "the dragon" in the language of Catalonia, this colorful fountain is a symbol of Parc Güell.
⑨ On a hill within the park are curved terraces and multicolored tile seats where visitors can enjoy wonderful views of Barcelona and the sea beyond.


① Parc Güell Parc Guell은 대중공원이며 가우디의 가장 장식적인 작품 중 하나이다. ② 가우디는 이 공원을 1914년에 완성했다. ③ 그것은 가우디의 양식에 감탄했던 부유한 사업가인 Eusebi Guell을 위해 지어졌다. ④ Parc Guell에는 놀라운 석조 건축물, 아주 멋진 타일과 아름다운 건물들이 있다. ⑤ 공원의 입구에는 두 채의 건물이 있는데 둘 다 곡선의 지붕을 갖고 있다. ⑥ 이 건물들은 '헨젤과 그레텔'에서 바로 꺼내 온 것처럼 보인다. ⑦ 공원은 또한 아름다운 형형색색의 타일들로 덮여 있는 유명한 용 모양 분수대가 있는 곳이다. ⑧ 카탈로니아어로 '용'을 의미하는 'El Drac'이라고 알려진 이 알록달록한 분수대는 Parc Guell의 상징 물이다. ⑨ 공원 안의 언덕 위에는 방문객들이 바르셀로나와 그 너머에 있는 바다의 멋진 경치를 즐길 수 있는 곡선 모양의 테라스와 여러 가지 색깔의 타일 의자들이 있다. 



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① Casa Batllo is a house renovated by Gaudi between 1904 and 1906.
② Built in 1877, the original building was very different from what it is today.
③ When it was purchased by Joseph Batllo, he asked Gaudi to add his impressive touch to the design.
④ From the outside, Casa Batllo looks as if it has been made from skulls and bones.
⑤ The "skulls" are in fact balconies and the "bones" are supporting stone columns between the windows.
⑦ Gaudi decorated the building with colors and shapes found in the sea.
⑧ Indeed, the design of the green and blue tiles on the wall remind people of the sea, while the curved window frames were inspired by ocean waves.
⑨ The interior of the house is even more impressive.
⑩ Everything is curved, including the walls, the ceilings, and the wooden doors.
⑪ Because of the curves, the Batllo family could not fit their traditional, straight furniture against the curved surfaces.
⑫ Thus, Gaudi had to design special furniture for the family.


① Casa Batllo Casa Batllo는 1904~1906년 사이에 가우디에 의해 개조된 집이다. ② 1877년에 지어진 원래 건물은 오늘날의 모습과 매우 달랐다. ③ Joseph Batllo가 그 건물을 매입했을 때 그는 가우디에게 디자인에 인상적인 손길을 더해 달라고 부탁했다. ④ 외관상 Casa Batllo는 마치 해골과 뼈로 만들어진 것처럼 보인다. ⑤ '해골'은 사실은 발코니이며 '뼈'는 창문 사이에서 지지해 주는 석조 기둥이다. ⑥ 이러한 세세한 모습이 그 집에 '뼈의 집'이라는 별명을 붙여 주었다. ⑦ 가우디는 바다에서 발견되는 색 과 모양으로 건물을 장식했다. ⑧ 정말로, 벽에 있는 녹색과 파란색 타일 디자인은 사람들에게 바다를 생각나게 하는 한편, 곡선의 창틀은 파도에서 영감을 받았다. ⑨ 건물의 내부는 훨씬 더 인상적이다. ⑩ 벽과 천장과 목조 문을 포함하여 모든 것이 곡선이다. ⑪ 곡선들 때문에 Batllo 가족은 전통적인 직선형 가구들을 곡선의 표면에 붙일 수 없었다. ⑫ 그래서 가우디는 그 가족을 위해 특별한 가구들을 디자인해야 했다. 



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② Begun in 1882, it has been under construction for more than one hundred years.
③ It is expected that the church will be completed in 2026, on the 100th anniversary of Gaudi's death.
④ Despite its incomplete state, Sagrada Familia's incredible design draws an estimated 2.5 million tourists every year.
⑥ When completed, the highest tower will reach a height of 170 meters.
⑦ The walls are decorated with sculptures that describe events in the Bible.
⑧ When you step inside the church, the large columns supporting the ceiling immediately catch your eye.
⑨ The columns branch out at the top so that each column looks like a huge tree.
⑩ Between the columns are skylights to let natural light in.
⑪ The colorful stained glass windows filter the sunlight and project red, blue, and green light all over the interior space.
⑫ The tree-like columns and the different light at different times of the day transform the inside of the church into a stone forest.


① Sagrada Familia Sagrada Familia는 바르셀로나의 가장 널리 알려진 상징물이며 세계에서 가장 큰 성당 중 하나이다. ② 1882년에 시작되어 그것은 100년이 넘도록 건설 중이다. ③ 가우디가 사망한지 100번째 기념일인 2026년에 성당이 완공될 거라고 예상된다. ④ 미완의 상태임에도 불구하고 Sagrada Familia의 놀라운 디자인은 매년 약 250만 명의 관광객들을 끌어들이고 있다. ⑤ 그 성당은 외부에 18개의 높은 탑이 생길 것이다. ⑥ 완공되었을 때 가장 높은 탑은 170 미터의 높이에 이를 것이다. ⑦ 외벽들은 성경의 사건들을 묘사하는 조각들로 장식되어 있다. ⑧ 성당 안으로 들어가면 천장을 받쳐주는 커다란 기둥들이 바로 여러분의 시선을 사로잡을 것이다. ⑨ 각각의 기둥이 마치 한 그루의 거대한 나무처럼 보이게 하기 위해 기둥들은 꼭대기 부분에서 가지를 뻗고 있다. ⑩ 기둥 사이에는 자연 채광이 들어올 수 있는 채광창이 있다. ⑪ 형형색색의 스테인드글라스 창문은 빛을 통과시켜 빨간색, 파란색과 녹색 빛을 내부 공간 곳곳에 비춘다. ⑫ 나무같은 기둥과 하루의 시간대별로 다른 빛은 성당 내부를 돌숲으로 바꾸어 놓는다. 



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② All are recognized as important works of architecture, and seven have been named UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
③ These extraordinary works show how important Gaudi was to the development of modern architecture in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
④ Even today his imaginative, creative, unique architecture characterizes the city of Barcelona.


① 이것들은 바르셀로나 안의 또는 주변에 있는 가우디의 많은 작품 중 3개에 지나지 않는다. ② 모든 작품들이 중요한 건축 작품으로 인정받고 있고, 7개는 유네스코 세계문화유산으로 지정되어 있다. ③ 이러한 뛰어난 작품들은 19세기 후반과 20세기 초반의 근대 건축 발전에 가우디가 얼마나 중요했는지를 보여준다. ④ 심지어 오늘날에도 그의 상상력이 풍부하고 창의적이며 독특한 건축은 바르셀로나라는 도시에 특징을 부여하고 있다. ⑤ 바르셀로나의 어떤 방문객도 안토니 가우디의 이러한 작품들을 보지 않고 떠나고 싶지는 않을 것이다. 



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① Robots May Rescue You from Future Disasters In 2011, an earthquake and its accompanying tsunami destroyed Japan's Fukushima nuclear power plant.
② The resulting nuclear disaster released large amounts of radioactive material into the surrounding area.
③ Since it was impossible for humans to work in this environment, the Japanese government considered sending in robots to handle the situation.
④ The robots the Japanese were using, however, were not up to the task.
⑤ Eventually, humans had to do most of the extremely dangerous work.


① 로봇이 당신을 미래의 재난에서 구할지도 모른다 2011년, 지진과 그에 동반된 지진 해일은 일본의 후쿠시마 원자력 발전소를 파괴했다. ② 그 결과로 생긴 핵 재난은 많은 양의 방사능 물질을 주변 지역에 방출했다. ③ 인간이 이런 환경에서 작업하기는 불가능했기 때문에, 일본 정부는 그 상황을 해결하기 위해 로봇을 보내는 것을 고려했다. ④ 하지만, 일본에서 사용하고 있던 로봇은 그 작업에 부합하지 못했다. ⑤ 결국, 극도로 위험한 작업의 대부분을 인간이 해야만 했다. 



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① Since then, there has been renewed emphasis on developing robots that can serve in dangerous situations.
② In response to Japan's nuclear disaster, the 2015 DARPA Robotics Challenge was created to speed up the development of robots that could work in disaster-stricken areas.
③ The competition attracted 25 teams from around the world.
④ The winner was a Korean team from KAIST who developed a robot called HUBO.
⑤ During the competition, the robots had to solve a series of problems they might come upon in a disaster situation.
⑥ The tasks were: driving a vehicle, getting out of the vehicle, opening a door, locating and closing a leaking valve, using a drill to cut through a wall, pulling a plug out of a wall socket and then plugging it in, navigating rough terrain, and climbing stairs.
⑦ HUBO completed all eight tasks in the shortest time of all the competitors – 44 minutes and 28 seconds.
④ Scout와 Jem 그리고 그들의 친구인 Dill은 이웃에 있는 귀신이 나오는 집과 그곳에 사는 남자인 Arthur "Boo"Radley에 매료되어 있다. ⑤ Boo는 어렸을 때 아버지의 다리를 찌른 것 때문에 '괴물'로 알려져 있지만, 실제로 그 사건을 목격한 사람은 아무도 없었다. ⑥ 수년 동안 Boo의 모습을 본 사람이 아무도 없고, Maycomb 마을의 어른들은 그에 대해 얘기하고 싶어 하지 않는다. ⑦ Boo가 어떻게 생겼는지, 왜 숨어서 지내는지 호기심에 가득한 채, 이 아이들은 Boo에 대한 소문을 퍼뜨리고 그를 집 밖으로 나오게 하려고 노력한다. ⑧ 어느 날 그들이 Boo의 삶에 대한 이야기를 지어내서 연극 놀이를 하는데, Atticus가 그들을 멈추고는 다른 사람들의 관점에서 상황을 바라보라고 말한다. 

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① Despite the children's playful actions, Boo shows signs of affection for them.
② He leaves small gifts in a tree outside the Radley home, fixes and returns Jem's lost pants, and puts a blanket on Scout's shoulders, while she is out in the cold weather looking at a neighbor's house that is on fire.
③ However, he never shows himself, so Scout grows more and more curious about him.
④ Meanwhile, Atticus agrees to defend an African-American man named Tom Robinson, who has been accused of attacking a young white woman, Mayella Ewell.
⑤ Most of the white people in Maycomb do not understand why Atticus would defend this African-American man.
⑥ They are angered by Atticus's effort to give Tom the best defense possible.
⑦ Jem and Scout are also bullied by other children because of this.




① 아이들의 장난스런 행동에도 불구하고, Boo는 그들에 대한 애정의 표시를 보여 준다. ② 그는 Radley의 집 밖에 있는 나무 안에 작은 선물들을 남기고 Jem의 잃어버린 바지를 고쳐서 돌려주고, Scout이 추운 날씨에 밖에서 화재가 난 이웃집을 보고 있는 동안에 그녀의 어깨에 담요를 덮어 준다. ③ 그러나 그는 결코 자신을 드러내지 않아서 Scout은 점점 더 그에 대해 호기심이 생긴다. ④ 한편, Atticus는 한 젊은 백인 여성인 Mayella Ewell을 폭행한 혐의를 받고 있는 한 아프리카계 미국인 Tom Robinson을 변호하기로 한다. ⑤ Maycomb 마을의 대부분의 백인들은 왜 Atticus가 아프리카계 미국인을 변호하려는지 이해할 수가 없다. ⑥ 그들은 가능한 한 최선을 다해 Tom을 변호하려는 Atticus의 노력에 화를 낸다. ⑦ Jem과 Scout은 Atticus의 변호 때문에 다른 아이들에 의해 괴롭힘을 당한다. 

▢ 빈칸을 채우세요. [영시한 SP2-5]  (키워드+긴단어+연결어) *여러단어가 한 빈칸인 것도 있음.
① One day during the trial, Atticus provides clear evidence that Tom never attacked Mayella and that she and her father, Bob Ewell, are lying.
② Nevertheless, the all-white jury decides that Tom is guilty.
③ Tom later tries to escape from prison and is shot to death, and Scout finds that most of her neighbors don't care about this.
④ Both Atticus and his children are shocked by the injustice of what has happened to Tom.
⑤ Despite the fact that Tom has been convicted and is now dead, Bob Ewell feels that he has been insulted and tries to take his revenge.
⑥ He threatens Tom's wife, tries to to break the judge's house, and finally attacks Jem and Scout as they walk home from a Halloween party.
⑦ However, a strange man comes to rescue them.
⑧ Scout realizes that this man is Boo Radley.
⑨ She and the wounded Jem are brought back to their house by Boo.




① 재판을 하던 어느 날 Atticus는 Tom이 결코 Mayella를 공격하지 않았고 그녀와 그녀의 아버지인 Bob Ewell이 거짓말을 하고 있다는 명백한 증거를 제시한다. ② 그럼에도 불구하고, 모두 백인인 배심원단은 Tom이 유죄라고 판결을 내린다. ③ Tom은 이후에 교도소에서 도망치다가 총 맞아 죽고, Scout은 대부분의 이웃들이 이 사건에 대해 신경 쓰지 않는 것을 알게 된다. ④ Atticus와 그의 아이들은 Tom에게 일어났던 일의 부당함에 충격을 받는다. ⑤ Tom이 유죄를 선고 받았고 지금은 죽었다는 사실에도 불구하고, Bob Ewell은 자신이 모욕을 받았다고 느끼고 복수를 하려고 한다. ⑥ 그는 Tom의 아내를 위협하고 판사의 집으로 침입하려 하고, 마침내 Jem과 Scout이 핼러윈 파티 후에 집으로 걸어올 때 이들을 공격한다. ⑦ 그러나 한 낯선 남자가 와서 이들을 구해준다. ⑧ Scout은 이 낯선 사람이 Boo임을 깨닫는다. ⑨ Boo는 Scout와 부상을 입은 Jem을 이들의 집으로 안전하게 데려다 준다. 

▢ 빈칸을 채우세요. [영시한 SP2-6]  (키워드+긴단어+연결어) *여러단어가 한 빈칸인 것도 있음.
① When the sheriff arrives, he discovers that Ewell was stabbed to death during the fight.
② However, he does not charge anyone with murder.
③ He knows that any further investigation will harm Boo, and he doesn't want to do that because he knows that Boo has risked himself to save the children.
④ After the sheriff leaves and Jem is safely put to bed, Scout and Boo walk arm-in-arm back to Boo's house.
⑤ When Boo disappears into the house, never to be seen again, Scout thinks about all the things he has done for her and Jem and regrets that they have never given him anything in return.
⑥ Standing on the porch of the Radley house, she sees the village as Boo has always seen it.
⑦ She imagines seeing herself and her brother from Boo's perspective and finally understands what her father meant when he told her to put herself in other people's places.




① 보안관이 도착했을 때, 그는 싸움 중에 Bob Ewell이 칼에 찔려 죽었다는 것을 발견한다. ② 그러나 이 보안관은 어느 누구도 살인으로 기소하지 않는다. ③ 그는 어떤 추가 조사라도 Boo에게 해가 될 것임을 안다. ④ 그는 Boo가 아이들을 구하기 위해 위험을 무릅썼다는 것을 알기 때문에 Boo를 기소하고 싶지 않다. ⑤ 보안관이 떠나고 Jem을 안전하게 침대에 눕힌 후에, Scout과 Boo는 서로 팔짱을 끼고 Boo의 집으로 걸어서 돌아간다. ⑥ Boo가 집으로 사라져 다시는 보이지 않게 되었을때, Scout은 그가 그녀와 Jem을 위해 해 주었던 모든 일들에 대해 생각하고 자신들이 그에게 보답으로 아무것도 해 주지 않았던 것을 후회한다. ⑦ Scout은 Boo Radley 집의 현관에 서서, Boo가 항상 마을을 보았던 대로 마을을 바라본다. ⑧ 그녀는 Boo의 시각에서 그녀 자신과 오빠를 보는 것을 상상하고 마침내 아버지가 그녀에게 자신을 다른 사람들의 입장에 두어 보라고 했을 때 무엇을 의미했는지를 이해한다. 

▢ 빈칸을 채우세요. [영시한 SP2-7]  (키워드+긴단어+연결어) *여러단어가 한 빈칸인 것도 있음.
② "One time he said you never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them.
③ Just standing there on the Radley porch was enough.
④ "The various events that she experienced taught Scout how unjust and ugly the adult world was.
⑤ However, they also taught her the importance of sympathy, understanding, and a sense of justice.




① "아버지가 옳았다. ② "라고 그녀는 생각한다. ③ "언젠가 그는 네가 상대의 입장이 되어서 한동안 지내보기까지는 그 사람을 결코 진정으로 알지 못할 거라고 말했다. ④ Boo의 현관에 서 있는 것만으로도 충분했다. ⑤ "Scout이 경험했던 다양한 사건들은 그녀에게 어른 세계가 얼마나 부당하고 추악한지를 가르쳐 주었다. ⑥ 하지만 그것들은 또한 그녀에게 연민, 이해심과 정의감의 중요성을 가르쳐 주었다. 

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esh 0:99 \w | Since 2005 블루티쳐 영어학원, 임희재 | wayne.tistory.com | 01033383436 | 제작일 190815 16:14:28


MEANINGmean2

✈︎ 영시한 1-1

1. ceremony ① 의식 ② 의례
2. graduating ① 졸업생 ② 대학원생
3. graduation ① 졸업 ② 학위 수여식
4. honored ① 명예로운 ② 영광으로 생각하여



✈︎ 영시한 1-2

1. seizing ① 점유 ② 압류



✈︎ 영시한 1-3

1. centered ① 중앙에 있는 ② 중축을 가지는
2. complain ① 불평하다 ② 호소하다
3. countless ① 많은 ② 셀 수 없는
4. crime ① 범죄 ② 죄
5. exists ① 존재하다 ② 존속하다
6. gender ① 성별 ② 성
7. graduation ① 졸업 ② 학위 수여식
8. harmed ① 해치다 ② 손상하다
9. miserable ① 비참한 ② 불행한
10. regardless ① 상관없이 ② 관계없이
11. slavery ① 노예제 ② 노예 제도
12. starve ① 굶기다 ② 굶주리다
13. violence ① 폭력 ② 범죄



✈︎ 영시한 1-4

1. entirely ① 완전히 ② 전적으로
2. inevitably ① 불가피하게 ② 필연적으로
3. liar 거짓말쟁이



✈︎ 영시한 1-5

1. graduation ① 졸업 ② 학위 수여식



✈︎ 영시한 2-1

1. cooperate ① 협력하다 ② 협조하다
2. cooperation ① 협력 ② 협조
3. fittest ① 알맞은 ② 감당할 수 있는
4. inspiring ① 영감 ② 고무
5. prevails ① 널리 퍼져 있다 ② 능가하다
6. reality ① 현실 ② 실제
7. regarded ① ~을 간주하다 ② ~을 보다
8. selfishness ① 이기주의 ② 이기심
9. survival ① 생존 ② 살아남기
10. universally ① 도처에 ② 널리



✈︎ 영시한 2-2

1. arrangement ① 배열 ② 합의
2. communicate ① 의사소통하다 ② 대화하다
3. comparison ① 비교 ② ~에 비해
4. continue ① 계속하다 ② 지속시키다
5. cooperating ① 협력하다 ② 서로 작용하여 하다
6. cooperation ① 협력 ② 협조
7. efficient ① 효율적인 ② 효과적
8. encounter ① 만나다 ② 마주치다
9. inbound ① 본국행의 ② 귀항하는
10. increases ① 늘리다 ② ~의 크게 하다
11. loads ① 무게 ② 부담량
12. movements ① 운동 ② 움직임
13. observed ① ~을 보다 ② 관찰하다
14. occupy ① 점령하다 ② 차지하다
15. outbound ① 외국행의 ② 시외로 가는
16. packed ① 꽉 찬 ② 혼잡한
17. reminded ① 생각나게 하다 ② 생각나게 하다
18. superfast 엄청 빠른



✈︎ 영시한 2-3

1. chew ① ~을 씹다 ② 씹어서 으깨다
2. client ① 고객 ② 클라이언트
3. cooperate ① 협력하다 ② 협조하다
4. establish ① 설립하다 ② 세우다
5. parasites ① 기생충 ② 기생물
6. referred ① 조회하다 ② 지시하다
7. satisfy ① 만족시키다 ② 충족시키다



✈︎ 영시한 2-4

1. blood ① 혈액 ② 피
2. cooperate ① 협력하다 ② 협조하다
3. frightened ① 두려움을 느끼는 ② 깜짝 놀란
4. heir ① 후계자 ② 상속인
5. info ① 「정보의」의 뜻 ② 정보
6. predator ① 포식자 ② 약탈자
7. rare ① 희귀한 ② 드문



✈︎ 영시한 2-5

1. celled ① 「~의 세포를 가진」의 뜻 ② ~세포의
2. cooperate ① 협력하다 ② 협조하다
3. cooperation ① 협력 ② 협조
4. cooperative ① 협력적인 ② 협동하는
5. inspiration ① 영감 ② 자극



✈︎ 영시한 2-6

1. competitive ① 경쟁의 ② 경쟁력을 지닌
2. cooperation ① 협력 ② 협조
3. existed ① 존재하다 ② 존속하다
4. modernized ① ~을 현대화하다 ② 현대어로 번역하다
5. origins ① 기원 ② 원인
6. recognized ① 인정받은 ② 알려진
7. reference ① 참고 ② 기준
8. registered ① 등록된 ② 등기의
9. require ① 필요하다 ② 요구하다
10. thcentury ① 세기 ② 100년
11. variations ① 변화 ② 변형
12. version ① 버전 ② 판



✈︎ 영시한 3-1

1. carbonation ① 탄산포화 ② 탄소염화
2. choice ① 선택 ② 결정
3. consume ① 소비하다 ② 먹어치우다
4. ingredients ① 재료 ② 성분
5. refreshing ① 상쾌한 ② 심신을 상쾌하게 하는
6. satisfy ① 만족시키다 ② 충족시키다
7. thirst ① 갈증 ② 갈망



✈︎ 영시한 3-2

1. calories ① 칼로리 ② 열량
2. consume ① 소비하다 ② 먹어치우다
3. contains ① ~을 포함하다 ② 억누르다
4. diabetes 당뇨병
5. diet ① 식단 ② 다이어트
6. disorders ① 무질서 ② 불규칙
7. emotional ① 감정적인 ② 감정의
8. exceeds ① 보다 크다 ② 보다 심하다
9. generate ① 생성하다 ② 발생시키다
10. headaches ① 두통 ② 골칫거리
11. intake ① 섭취 ② 흡입
12. loaded ① 짐을 실은 ② 만원인
13. obesity ① 비만 ② 과체중
14. recent ① 최근 ② 최신
15. replace ① 대체하다 ② 교체하다
16. sugary ① 설탕의 ② 감미로운
17. sweeteners ① 감미료 ② 뇌물
18. therefore ① 따라서 ② 그러므로
19. typical ① 전형적인 ② 일반적인
20. unnecessary ① 불필요한 ② 쓸데없는



✈︎ 영시한 3-3

1. absorb ① 흡수하다 ② 열중하다
2. absorption ① 흡수 ② 몰두
3. acid ① 산 ② 신
4. calcium 칼슘
5. chemical ① 화학적인 ② 화학물질
6. contains ① ~을 포함하다 ② 억누르다
7. decay ① 부패 ② 붕괴하다
8. delays ① 느릿느릿 행동하다 ② 꾸물거리다
9. digestion ① 소화 ② 소화력
10. expiration ① 만기 ② 만료
11. extends ① ~을 잡아 늘이다 ② 뻗다
12. interacts ① 서로 작용하다 ② 교류하다
13. interferes ① 방해하다 ② 간섭하다
14. nutrient 영양
15. occurs ① 생기다 ② 나오다
16. product ① 제품 ② 상품
17. stomach ① 위장 ② 배
18. substance ① 물질 ② 본질



✈︎ 영시한 3-4

1. affect ① 영향을 주다 ② 작용하다
2. caffeine 카페인
3. carbonated 탄산가스를 포함시킨
4. consume ① 소비하다 ② 먹어치우다
5. consumption ① 소비 ② 소비량
6. contain ① 들어있다 ② 포함하다
7. excessive ① 과도한 ② 지나친
8. heartbeat ① 심장 박동 ② 심박
9. irregular ① 비정규의 ② 불규칙의



✈︎ 영시한 3-5

1. acid ① 산 ② 신
2. altogether ① 전적으로 ② 모두 함께
3. caffeine 카페인
4. calories ① 칼로리 ② 열량
5. choice ① 선택 ② 결정
6. diet ① 식단 ② 다이어트
7. quitting ① 면제된 ② 해방된
8. replace ① 대체하다 ② 교체하다



✈︎ 영시한 4-1

1. belong ① 속하다 ② ~의 것이다
2. chainsaw 벌채용 휴대 전동 쇠사슬 톱
3. hectares 헥타아르, 100아아르
4. noisy ① 시끄러운 ② 요란한
5. rainforest ① 열대 우림 ② 레인포리스트
6. savior ① 구세주 ② 구원자



✈︎ 영시한 4-2

1. biodiversity 생물의 다양성
2. caused ① 원인이 되는 사람 ② 근거
3. despite 불구하고
4. destruction ① 파괴 ② 파멸
5. detects ① 찾아내다 ② 정체를 간파하다
6. fled flee의 과거·과거 분사형
7. illegal ① 불법적인 ② 법으로 금지된
8. increases ① 늘리다 ② ~의 크게 하다
9. loggers ① 나무꾼 ② 통나무 적재기
10. logging ① 벌목 ② 로그인
11. occurs ① 생기다 ② 나오다
12. protected ① 보호하다 ② 보존에 쓰이다
13. rainforest ① 열대 우림 ② 레인포리스트
14. ranger ① 레인저 ② 관리원



✈︎ 영시한 4-3

1. chainsaw 벌채용 휴대 전동 쇠사슬 톱
2. detect ① 찾아내다 ② 감지하다
3. microphone 마이크
4. panels ① 패널 ② 위원단
5. rainforest ① 열대 우림 ② 레인포리스트
6. ranger ① 레인저 ② 관리원
7. shade ① 그늘 ② 색조



✈︎ 영시한 4-4

1. alert ① 경계 ② 주의하다
2. approached ① 다가가다 ② ~에 가까워지다
3. chainsaw 벌채용 휴대 전동 쇠사슬 톱
4. connection ① 연결 ② 관계
5. contacted ① 접촉하다 ② 접촉의
6. illegal ① 불법적인 ② 법으로 금지된
7. immediately ① 즉시 ② 바로
8. installed ① 설치하다 ② 맡게 하다
9. loggers ① 나무꾼 ② 통나무 적재기
10. logging ① 벌목 ② 로그인
11. rainforest ① 열대 우림 ② 레인포리스트
12. rangers ① 레인저 ② 관리원
13. spot ① 장소 ② 발견하다



✈︎ 영시한 4-5

1. discarded 버린
2. hectares 헥타아르, 100아아르
3. providing ① 제공하는 ② 지원하는
4. rainforests ① 열대 우림 ② 레인포리스트
5. released ① 발표했다 ② 개봉된



✈︎ 영시한 5-1

1. arguing ① ~을 논하다 ② 설득하여 하게 하다
2. confused ① 혼란한 ② 헛갈리는
3. haters 미운 사람, 원수, 적
4. ignore ① 무시하다 ② 모르는 체하다
5. politician 정치가



✈︎ 영시한 5-2

1. criticizing ① 비평하다 ② 흠을 찾다
2. deal ① 다루다 ② 거래
3. immediately ① 즉시 ② 바로
4. opponent ① 반대의 ② 상대
5. political ① 정치의 ② 정당의
6. politics ① 정치 ② 정계
7. rare ① 희귀한 ② 드문
8. representative ① 대표적인 ② 국회의원
9. threatened ① 위협당한 ② 협박당한



✈︎ 영시한 5-3

1. autobiography ① 자서전 ② 전기
2. connection ① 연결 ② 관계
3. effective ① 효과적인 ② 효율적인
4. eventually ① 결국 ② 마침내
5. performed ① 행하다 ② 상연하다
6. phenomenon ① 현상 ② 장관
7. psychologist ① 심리학자 ② 정신과 의사
8. remained ① 여전히 있다 ② 머무르다



✈︎ 영시한 5-4

1. afterward ① 그후 ② 곧 이어
2. awarded ① 수여하다 ② 재정하다
3. despite 불구하고
4. dislike ① 싫어하다 ② 싫음
5. funds ① 자금 ② 소지금
6. hired ① 고용한 ② 세 주는
7. secretary ① 장관 ② 비서



✈︎ 영시한 5-5

1. anxious ① 불안한 ② 하고 싶어하는
2. cognitive ① 인식의 ② 인지의
3. conflict ① 갈등 ② 분쟁
4. convinced ① 확신하는 ② 설득했다
5. disliked ① ~을 싫어하다 ② 싫음
6. dissonance ① 불협화음 ② 불일치
7. justified ① 정당한 이유가 있는 ② 행의 길이에 꼭 맞게 들어간
8. psychologists ① 심리학자 ② 정신과 의사
9. relieve ① 완화시키다 ② 안도하다
10. resolve ① 해결하다 ② 결의하다



✈︎ 영시한 5-6

1. laughter ① 웃음 ② 웃는
2. native ① 원주민의 ② 토착의
3. reveal ① 보여주다 ② 드러내다
4. shade ① 그늘 ② 색조
5. strength ① 힘 ② 강함
6. temper ① 성격 ② 화
7. weep ① 울다 ② 눈물을 흘리다



✈︎ 영시한 6-1

1. globalization ① 세계화 ② 국제화



✈︎ 영시한 6-2

1. assigned ① 재산권을 양도하다 ② 양수인
2. destination ① 목적지 ② 관광지
3. distributes ① 분포하다 ② ~을 분배하다
4. loads ① 무게 ② 부담량
5. lunches ① 점심을 먹다 ② 점심을 대접하다
6. procedure ① 절차 ② 과정
7. reverse ① 반대의 ② 뒤집다
8. scenario ① 시나리오 ② 각본
9. typical ① 전형적인 ② 일반적인



✈︎ 영시한 6-3

1. businessman ① 사업가 ② 기업인
2. copied ① 사본 ② 인쇄 원고
3. deliver ① 전달하다 ② 배달하다
4. demand ① 요구하다 ② 수요
5. depending ① 따라 ② 의존하다
6. dietary ① 규정식의 ② 규정식
7. expanded ① 확장된 ② 확대된
8. format ① 형식 ② 포맷
9. hired ① 고용한 ② 세 주는
10. packed ① 꽉 찬 ② 혼잡한
11. religion ① 종교 ② 신앙
12. restrictions ① 제한 ② 규제
13. suburbs 발전해 가는 교외



✈︎ 영시한 6-4

1. accuracy ① 정확도 ② 정확
2. approximately ① 약~ ② ~여
3. conduct ① 실시하다 ② 수행하다
4. deliver ① 전달하다 ② 배달하다
5. error ① 오차 ② 오류
6. horror ① 공포 ② 무서움
7. illiterate 문맹
8. mistaken ① 오해한 ② 잘못된
9. motto ① 모토 ② 좌우명
10. political ① 정치의 ② 정당의
11. railway 철도
12. reported ① 보고 ② 성적 보고서
13. specific ① 특정한 ② 구체적인
14. strife ① 분쟁 ② 투쟁
15. transactions ① 거래 ② 트랜잭션



✈︎ 영시한 6-5

1. benefit ① 이익 ② 혜택
2. corporations ① 기업 ② 회사
3. delivers ① 배달하다 ② 내주다
4. demonstrate ① 증명하다 ② 입증하다
5. distribution ① 분포 ② 분배
6. efficient ① 효율적인 ② 효과적
7. operating ① 작용하는 ② 수술의
8. outstanding ① 현저한 ② 뛰어난
9. relies ① 의지하다 ② 믿다
10. satisfaction ① 만족 ② 충족



✈︎ 영시한 6-6

1. abundance ① 풍부 ② 대량
2. academy ① 아카데미 ② 학술원
3. archaeological ① 고고학적인 ② 고고학상의
4. assets ① 자산 ② 재산
5. conserve ① ~을 보존하다 ② 보호하다
6. constitution ① 헌법 ② 규약
7. educate ① 교육하다 ② 가르치다
8. ensure ① ~하기 위해 ② 보장하다
9. exams ① 시험 ② 건강 진단
10. extensive ① 광범위한 ② 대규모의
11. guaranteed ① 보장하다 ② 보증
12. individualized ① ~의 개성을 뚜렷하게 하다 ② ~을 낱낱으로 말하다
13. institute ① 연구소 ② 전문교육기관
14. ministry ① 정부의 부서 ② 장관의 직무
15. preserve ① 보존하다 ② 보호하다
16. promote ① 홍보하다 ② 증진하다
17. protection ① 보호 ② 방지
18. quality ① 품질 ② 질
19. recognized ① 인정받은 ② 알려진
20. renowned ① 유명한 ② 세계적인
21. restoration ① 복원 ② 복구
22. restore ① 복원하다 ② 회복하다
23. selected ① 선택된 ② 선발된
24. techniques ① 기법 ② 기술
25. textile ① 섬유 ② 직물
26. therefore ① 따라서 ② 그러므로
27. weaving ① 짜기 ② 베틀로 베를 짬
28. woven weave(짜다)의 과거 분사형



✈︎ 영시한 7-1

1. architect ① 건축가 ② 설계하다
2. breathtaking ① 아슬아슬한 ② 깜짝 놀랄 만한
3. claim ① 주장하다 ② 말하다
4. combination ① 조합 ② 결합
5. countryside ① 시골 ② 지방
6. curved ① 곡선 모양의 ② 굽은
7. embarrassment ① 당황 ② 부끄러움
8. fascinated 매료된
9. industrialized 공업화된
10. summit ① 최고봉 ② 정상 회담
11. surrounding ① 둘러싸는 ② 주변의
12. tiles ① 타일 ② 기와
13. visual ① 시각의 ② 눈에 보이는



✈︎ 영시한 7-2

1. admired ① ~을 칭찬하다 ② ~을 넋을 잃고 보다
2. businessman ① 사업가 ② 기업인
3. contains ① ~을 포함하다 ② 억누르다
4. curved ① 곡선 모양의 ② 굽은
5. decorative ① 장식의 ② 장식적인
6. entrance ① 입구 ② 들어가기
7. fountain ① 분수 ② 샘
8. multicolored ① 다색의 ② 다채로운
9. terraces 테라스



✈︎ 영시한 7-3

1. balconies ① 발코니 ② 객석
2. columns ① 기둥 ② 칼럼
3. curved ① 곡선 모양의 ② 굽은
4. curves ① ~을 굽히다 ② 굽은
5. furniture 가구
6. including ① 포함해 ② 등
7. indeed ① 정말로 ② 사실은
8. interior ① 실내 ② 내부
9. purchased ① ~을 사다 ② 얻다
10. renovated ① ~을 양호한 상태로 되돌리다 ② ~을 기운나게 하다
11. skulls ① 두개골 ② 해골
12. tiles ① 타일 ② 기와



✈︎ 영시한 7-4

1. anniversary ① 주년 ② 기념일
2. begun 시작되었다
3. branch ① 가지 ② 지점
4. column ① 기둥 ② 칼럼
5. despite 불구하고
6. estimated ① 추정된다 ② 약
7. expected ① 예상된 ② 보인다
8. immediately ① 즉시 ② 바로
9. incomplete ① 불완전한 ② 불충분한
10. interior ① 실내 ② 내부
11. sculptures ① 조각하다 ② 조각품
12. skylights ① 천창 ② 천공광
13. stained ① 명사와 결합하여 「~으로 더럽혀진」의 뜻 ② 얼룩진
14. transform ① 바꾸어 놓다 ② 변화시키다



✈︎ 영시한 7-5

1. architecture ① 건축 ② 설계
2. characterizes ① 간주하다 ② ~의 특징을 나타내다
3. extraordinary ① 특별한 ② 뛰어난
4. imaginative ① 상상의 ② 창의적인
5. recognized ① 인정받은 ② 알려진



✈︎ 영시한 8-1

1. accompanying ① 부수하는 ② 동봉의
2. considered ① 여겨진다 ② 간주된다
3. disaster ① 재난 ② 재앙
4. earthquake 지진
5. eventually ① 결국 ② 마침내
6. nuclear ① 핵의 ② 원자력
7. radioactive ① 방사성 ② 방사능
8. released ① 발표했다 ② 개봉된
9. surrounding ① 둘러싸는 ② 주변의
10. task ① 과제 ② 업무
11. tsunami ① 쓰나미 ② 해일



✈︎ 영시한 8-2

1. attracted ① 끌다 ② 매혹하다
2. competitors ① 경쟁자 ② 선수
3. decisively ① 결정적으로 ② 단호히
4. disaster ① 재난 ② 재앙
5. drill ① 훈련 ② 뚫다
6. emphasis ① 강조 ② 중점
7. leaking ① 새는 곳 ② 누전
8. locating ① 자리잡다 ② 정착하다
9. navigating ① 항해하다 ② 조종하다
10. nuclear ① 핵의 ② 원자력
11. plug ① 플러그 ② 꽂다
12. position ① 위치 ② 입장
13. renewed ① 새롭게 한 ② 회복된
14. response ① 반응 ② 대응
15. socket ① 소켓 ② 구멍
16. stricken ① 시달린 ② 피해
17. tasks ① 일 ② 힘든 일
18. terrain ① 지형 ② 지세
19. valve ① 밸브 ② 판막
20. vehicle ① 차량 ② 자동차
21. wheels ① 바퀴 ② 자동차의 핸들



✈︎ 영시한 8-3

1. attempt ① 시도하다 ② 노력
2. avoid ① 피하다 ② 회피하다
3. drill ① 훈련 ② 뚫다
4. encountered ① 마주치다 ② ~과 만나다
5. plug ① 플러그 ② 꽂다
6. position ① 위치 ② 입장
7. progressively ① 점진적으로 ② 점차적으로
8. reflected ① 반사하다 ② ~의 상을 비추다
9. simultaneously ① 동시에 ② 일제히
10. smoothly ① 순조롭게 ② 부드럽게
11. socket ① 소켓 ② 구멍
12. sped ① 속력을 냈다 ② 서두르다
13. task ① 과제 ② 업무
14. trial ① 재판 ② 실험
15. vehicle ① 차량 ② 자동차



✈︎ 영시한 8-4

1. awkward ① 어색한 ② 거북한
2. caused ① 원인이 되는 사람 ② 근거
3. clever ① 영리한 ② 똑똑한
4. completing ① 완전한 ② 완성된
5. effortlessly ① 손쉽게 ② 어려움 없이
6. rotating ① 회전하다 ② 순환하다
7. scan ① 스캔 ② 촬영
8. task ① 과제 ② 업무



✈︎ 영시한 8-5

1. approached ① 다가가다 ② ~에 가까워지다
2. burned ① 타다 ② 켜지다
3. caused ① 원인이 되는 사람 ② 근거
4. complicated ① 복잡한 ② 어려운
5. disasters ① 재난 ② 재앙
6. eventually ① 결국 ② 마침내
7. motor ① 모터 ② 자동차 3. 운동근육
8. tasks ① 일 ② 힘든 일
9. terrain ① 지형 ② 지세



✈︎ 영시한 SP1-1

1. awaited ① ~을 기다리다 ② 기다리다
2. destination ① 목적지 ② 관광지



✈︎ 영시한 SP1-2

1. educational 교육의
2. endless ① 끝없는 ② 무한한
3. entire ① 전체의 ② 내내
4. freshman ① 신입생 ② 1학년
5. inspiring ① 영감 ② 고무
6. kanga ① 캥거루 ② 돈
7. kilimanjaro 킬리만자로
8. positivity ① 확신 ② 확실
9. possessions ① 소유 ② 재산
10. strength ① 힘 ② 강함
11. ugali 우갈리
12. witness ① 보다 ② 목격자



✈︎ 영시한 SP1-3

1. appreciation ① 이해 ② 감사
2. diversity ① 다양성 ② 상이
3. granted ① 당연히 ② 허가
4. gratitude ① 감사 ② 고마움
5. literally ① 그대로 ② 정말로
6. opportunities ① 기회 ② 출세의 기회
7. overwhelmingly ① 압도적으로 ② 대단히
8. rural ① 농업의 ② 시골의



✈︎ 영시한 SP1-4

1. addict ① 중독되다 ② 중독자
2. commitment ① 몰입 ② 약속
3. continue ① 계속하다 ② 지속시키다
4. exploration ① 탐사 ② 탐험
5. unmatched ① 유례가 없다 ② 비교할 수 없다



✈︎ 영시한 SP1-5

1. bathed ① ② 목욕
2. graduated ① 눈금을 매긴 ② 누진적인
3. grateful ① 감사하는 ② 고마운
4. gratitude ① 감사 ② 고마움
5. principles ① 원칙 ② 원리
6. ugali 우갈리



✈︎ 영시한 SP1-6

1. activated ① 활성화된 ② 술취한
2. additional ① 추가의 ② 더
3. convincing ① 설득력있는 ② 납득이 가는
4. greatest ① 잘 ② 썩 좋게
5. inherit ① 물려받다 ② 유전되다
6. meaningful ① 의미 있는 ② 의미심장한
7. nap 낮잠
8. path ① 경로 ② 길
9. rushes ① 돌진하다 ② 갑자기 덤벼들다
10. sensation ① 감각 ② 센세이션
11. term ① 임기 ② 용어
12. wealthier ① 부자 ② 부유한



✈︎ 영시한 SP1-7

1. motto ① 모토 ② 좌우명
2. orders ① 명령을 내리다 ② 순서
3. profit ① 이익 ② 수익



✈︎ 영시한 SP2-1

1. bluejays ① 아메리카어치 ② 큰어치
2. clever ① 영리한 ② 똑똑한
3. gun ① 총 ② 무기
4. heroine ① 여주인공 ② 여장부
5. maudie ① 모드 ② 회색 격자 무늬의 모직 숄
6. mockingbird 흉내지빠귀
7. novel ① 소설 ② 기발한 3. 새로운
8. sin ① 죄 ② 죄를 짓다
9. steal ① 훔치다 ② 절도



✈︎ 영시한 SP2-2

1. criticism ① 비판 ② 비난
2. cruelly ① 끔찍하게 ② 참혹하게
3. harmless ① 무해한 ② 순진한
4. heroine ① 여주인공 ② 여장부
5. innocent ① 죄 없는 ② 순수한
6. mockingbird 흉내지빠귀
7. novel ① 소설 ② 기발한 3. 새로운
8. racism ① 인종주의 ② 인종 차별
9. remain ① 남다 ② 머무르다
10. society ① 사회 ② 연구회
11. translated ① 번역하다 ② 해석하다



✈︎ 영시한 SP2-3

1. dill ① 딜 ② 그 씨
2. discrimination ① 차별 ② 편견
3. fascinated 매료된
4. generation ① 세대 ② 시대
5. haunted ① 사로잡힌 ② 불안한
6. heroine ① 여주인공 ② 여장부
7. maycomb 남자 이름
8. mockingbird 흉내지빠귀
9. remains ① 유해 ② 유적
10. rumors ① 소문 ② 소문내다
11. scout ① 스카우트 ② 정찰
12. severe ① 심각한 ② 무거운
13. stabbing ① 찌르는 듯한 ② 신랄한
14. witnessed ① 증명하다 ② ~을 목격하다



✈︎ 영시한 SP2-4

1. accused ① 비난 받은 ② 혐의를 받다
2. affection ① 애정 ② 애착
3. angered ① 노여움 ② 화나게 하다
4. attacking ① 공격을 시작하다 ② ~을 공격하다
5. blanket ① 담요 ② 뒤덮다
6. bullied ① 불량배 ② 못살게 굴다
7. defense ① 국방 ② 방어
8. despite 불구하고
9. fixes ① 끌다 ② 고정시키다
10. maycomb 남자 이름
11. mayella ① 마르셀라 ② 여자 이름
12. playful ① 장난스러운 ② 쾌활한
13. scout ① 스카우트 ② 정찰



✈︎ 영시한 SP2-5

1. attacks ① 공격을 시작하다 ② ~을 공격하다
2. convicted ① 유죄 선고를 받은 사람 ② 기결수
3. despite 불구하고
4. guilty ① 유죄의 ② 죄책감
5. injustice ① 부정 ② 부당
6. insulted ① 뽐내다 ② 거드름 피우다
7. jury ① 배심 ② 심사위원
8. mayella ① 마르셀라 ② 여자 이름
9. nevertheless ① 그럼에도 불구하고 ② 그렇지만
10. revenge ① 복수 ② 보복
11. scout ① 스카우트 ② 정찰
12. threatens ① ~이라고 위협하다 ② 위협하여 시키다
13. trial ① 재판 ② 실험
14. wounded ① 상처를 입은 ② 부상자



✈︎ 영시한 SP2-6

1. charge ① 혐의 ② 충전
2. further ① 더 ② 더 나아가
3. investigation ① 조사 ② 연구
4. murder ① 살인 ② 살해
5. perspective ① 관점 ② 시각
6. porch ① 현관 ② 문간
7. regrets ① 후회하다 ② 유감스럽지만 ~하다
8. risked ① 위험 ② 위험
9. scout ① 스카우트 ② 정찰
10. sheriff 보안관
11. stabbed ① 찌르다 ② 찌르는 듯이 아프게 하다



✈︎ 영시한 SP2-7

1. porch ① 현관 ② 문간
2. scout ① 스카우트 ② 정찰
3. sympathy ① 동정 ② 공감
4. unjust 부당한


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THE BLUET esh 0:99 | Since 2005 임희재 | 010-3338-3436 | wayne.tistory.com | wayne36@daum.net | 190815 16:11:37

▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 1-1]

{Be a Doer, Not a Dreamer} Shonda Lynn Rhimes is a famous American television producer and writer.
(A) When people give graduation speeches, they usually tell you: Follow your dreams. Dream and dream big! 1
(B) Don't stop dreaming until your dreams come true. I think that's nonsense. 2
(C) Rhimes delivered the following speech at the graduation ceremony for Dartmouth College in 2014. President Hanlon, staff, honored guests, parents, students, families, and friends, good morning and congratulations to the graduating class! 0

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 1-2]

A lot of people dream.
(A) Do you want to be a writer? Start writing. A writer is someone who writes every day. If you don't have a job, get one. Get any job. Don't sit at home waiting for the magical opportunity. Do something until you can do something else. 2
(B) You don't have to know. You just have to keep moving forward. You just have to keep doing something, seizing the next opportunity, and staying open to trying something new. It doesn't have to be the perfect job or the perfect life that you dream of. Perfect is boring, and dreams are not real. Just do! If you're dreaming of traveling, leave right now. 1
(C) And while they are busy dreaming, the really happy and successful people are busy doing. Dreams are lovely, but they are just dreams. Dreams do not come true just because you dream them. It is hard work that makes things happen and creates change. So, this is my first lesson for you: Be a doer, not a dreamer. Maybe you know exactly what you want to do, or maybe you have no idea what you truly want to do. It doesn't matter. 0

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 1-3]

My second lesson is this: Don't be self-centered.
(A) Right after graduation, you may have the worst days of your lives. But don't act like you're the most miserable person in the world, because you are not. We are already a lot luckier than most people on the earth. We live in the country where we are free to speak our own mind and most people believe that everyone should be treated equally regardless of gender or race. 0
(B) Crime and violence are part of the everyday lives of these people. So before you complain, remember that you have been given a gift. Your whole life so far has been a gift. It's time to pay for it by doing something for the world. 2
(C) In some parts of the world, girls are harmed simply because they want to get an education. Slavery still exists. Children still starve to death. Even in the United States, there are countless people who are living much more difficult lives than we can ever imagine. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 1-4]

My third lesson is this: Accept that you cannot do everything.
(A) If I'm writing really exciting stories for television, I'm not spending enough time with my children. If I'm enjoying a family holiday with my children, I'm not finishing the script that I should. If I'm succeeding at one, I'm inevitably failing at the other. This happens with all truly successful people. 1
(B) It will happen to you when you become successful. We all achieve one thing by failing to achieve something else. Anyone who tells you they are doing it all perfectly is a liar. 2
(C) Since I'm a very successful woman and a mother with three children, many people ask me, "How do you do it all? How do you become successful at your job while having a family?" Now I'm going to give you an entirely honest answer: I don't. Whenever I'm succeeding in one area of my life, I'm failing in another area. 0

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 1-5]

I hope I didn't scare you.
(A) You may sometimes feel like you're failing at work or at your home life. The real world is hard. 1
(B) I just wanted to say that it is okay, even if it doesn't look okay. Your dreams may not all come true. 0
(C) And yet, you can still wake up in the morning and be amazed at everything you have and everything you have achieved. And then 20 years from now, one of you can find yourself right here where I stand, giving a graduation speech. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 2-1]

Darwin's "survival of the fittest"is universally regarded as a simple reality in the game of life.
(A) Successful play sometimes requires a degree of selfishness. However, across the animal kingdom, selfishness is only a very small part of an animal's life. 0
(B) Often, animals help each other and work together for the greater good. Cooperation prevails at every level of the animal kingdom. 1
(C) In the following three examples, it is inspiring to see how animals cooperate to help each other. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 2-2]

Have you ever observed ants marching in and out of their nest?
(A) When there are a few ants moving in a single direction, some ants are likely to move slowly, some fast, and others even faster. As their number increases, however, they communicate with each other so that they all move at the same speed. The slow speed up while the fast and the superfast slow down. There are times when ants leaving the nest for food encounter other ants coming back with food on their backs. 1
(B) If so, it may have reminded you of a highway packed with cars. But this comparison is not appropriate. Ants never get into a traffic jam, no matter how fast they move or how many of them occupy the road. This is because their movements are based on cooperation. 0
(C) When this happens, the inbound ants, the ones carrying a burden, always have the right of way. Outbound ants turn to get out of the way, while inbound ants continue in a straight line. This arrangement makes sense because it is more difficult for inbound ants to change direction due to their heavy loads. Following these rules and cooperating in this way, ants improve the traffic flow and make the delivery of food to the nest more efficient. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 2-3]

Fish also cooperate.
(A) As everyone knows, big fish often eat little fish. Sometimes, however, little fish help the big fish, so the big fish do not eat the little fish. Tiny fish, which scientists refer to as "cleaners," swim into the mouths of bigger fish, which are referred to as "clients." The cleaners eat parasites in the clients' mouths. 0
(B) After the cleaners do their job, the clients let them go, instead of swallowing them. The cleaners get a meal, and the clients get a healthier mouth. Sometimes the cleaner fish chew on the wall of the client fish's mouth. Although this may cause pain, the big fish still do not eat the little ones for two reasons. 1
(C) First, the cleaners are too small to satisfy their hunger. Second, it is hard to find good cleaners. Once the cleaners and the clients establish trust, the clients want to cooperate with the cleaners and keep them around. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 2-4]

Pied flycatchers are small birds that cooperate in dangerous situations.
(A) They do not answer the calls of birds that have refused to help others before. More Info. Do you know how bats cooperate to survive? One kind of bat has a system of food sharing. 1
(B) When a predator enters a flycatcher's area, the flycatcher makes a loud sound for help. Other flycatchers hear the call, and they come to help. As more and more birds join the group, the predator becomes frightened and runs away. It is important to note that flycatchers go to the aid of another bird in danger only if that bird has helped other birds in the past. 0
(C) Bats die if they go two nights without food. As hunting for blood—heir only food—s not easy, younger bats fail to find food one night out of three. But hunger is rare because bats that find blood share it with bats that don't. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 2-5]

Cooperation is a process that started with the first single-celled creatures.
(A) Living things, from their beginnings more than three billion years ago, took over the planet by learning to cooperate. 0
(B) Sometimes, however, human cooperation can break down. To foster cooperative success among humans, we should perhaps look to nature for inspiration. 2
(C) We human beings cooperate in plenty of ways, from lining up at a bus stop to sharing knowledge on a website. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 2-6]

There are many team sports which require cooperation among the team members in order to win.
(A) Soccer A Chinese game called cuju meaning "kick a ball" existed during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC and has been recognized as the first version of soccer with similar rules to the modern game. Players could use any part of their body except their hands. Later soccer-like games were played in Japan Australia and several countries in Europe. Now 211 countries around the world are registered as members of FIFA. Rowing Rowing has existed since humans first traveled on water by boat. 1
(B) The first reference to rowing as a sport comes from 15thcentury BC Egypt. It later spread throughout Europe. Modern rowing as a competitive sport goes back to England in the 18th century. Now one of the most famous competitions is the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race. 2
(C) Let' see the origins of a few of these sports. Field hockey has a long history. Four-thousand-year-old drawings of men playing a simple version of a hockey game have been found in tombs in Egypt. In the Middle Ages variations of hockey-like games were played in European countries. Later England modernized it. 0

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 3-1]

{What Is Soda Doing to You} When you eat fast food, such as pizza, hamburger, or fried chicken, what do you drink with it?
(A) People all over the world love sodas. Every year, Americans consume 170 liters of soda per person, and the British 100 liters. Of all age groups, teenagers drink the most soda. 1
(B) Most people have a soda. When you go to the movies or when you just want something refreshing to satisfy your thirst, a soda is often the first choice. Soda, also called a soft drink, is a sweet drink with carbonation. 0
(C) Most people, however, understand that sodas are not good for their health due to the ingredients. What is in a soda? Which ingredients are really not good for you? 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 3-2]

{Sugar} Everyone knows that soft drinks are loaded with large amounts of sugar.
(A) A typical 250ml can of soda contains 30 grams of sugar. WHO, the World Health Organization, recommends that people consume less than 25 grams of sugar a day. Therefore, if you drink one small can of soda, your daily sugar intake already exceeds the recommended amount. What is worse, people usually don't stop with one can. 0
(B) Having extra sugar means adding unnecessary calories. Over time, this can lead to obesity and other health problems, such as heart disease and diabetes. Even diet sodas are not safe. Diet sodas replace the sugar with artificial sweeteners. 1
(C) Artificial sweeteners provide a sweet, sugary taste with fewer calories. This may seem like a good thing, but it really isn't. According to a recent study, artificial sweeteners make you want more sweet foods. This means that you may easily gain weight if you keep drinking diet soda. In addition, artificial sweeteners are known to generate headaches, emotional disorders, and sleeping problems. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 3-3]

{Acid} Most soda contains several types of acids.
(A) Also, the acid in sodas interacts with stomach acid, slowing digestion and blocking nutrient absorption. Furthermore, it can damage tooth enamel, the hard substance that protects your teeth. If you drink sodas regularly, your teeth decay more easily. 2
(B) Acid also delays the growth of bacteria, which extends the expiration date of a product. However, acid interferes with the body's ability to absorb calcium, and as a result, bone softening occurs. 1
(C) Acid is a chemical substance with a sour taste. When added to water, it produces a sharp flavor. 0

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 3-4]

{Caffeine} When you hear the word "caffeine," you most likely think of coffee.
(A) Artificial Colors and Artificial Flavors Soft drink companies attract consumers by adding bright colors and sweet flavors to their products. Most of these colors and flavors, however, are not natural. They are artificial chemicals. 1
(B) For example, the artificial color Yellow No_6, used in some pineapple juices, adds nothing to the taste. It is just there to make the drink look pretty. Also, the artificial flavor that gives the drink its pineapple taste is not real pineapple juice at all. Studies have shown that excessive consumption of these kinds of chemicals can create problems such as kidney disease and ADHD. 2
(C) But some sodas, especially colas and carbonated energy drinks, also contain caffeine. Caffeine makes you feel more awake, but it may bring about an irregular heartbeat. A single can of cola may not affect you much, but if you consume colas regularly, they can make you feel more nervous and keep you from sleeping well at night. 0

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 3-5]

You can see how the sugar, the acid, the caffeine, and the artificial chemicals in sodas are really not good for you.
(A) Of course, the best choice would be water. Water has no calories, no acid, no caffeine, and no chemicals of any kind. And if you want something to add a boost of flavor, put a slice of lemon in the water. 1
(B) If you can't break your soda drinking habits in a short period of time, don't be too hard on yourself. Once you start cutting back, you are heading in the right direction. 2
(C) Perhaps you might now understand that you should stop drinking them. However, if quitting sodas altogether sounds too difficult, cut down gradually. For example, replace one regular soft drink or one diet soda per day with another more healthy drink. 0

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 4-1]

{RFCx} the Rainforest Savior Imagine you are standing in a rainforest.
(A) You are surrounded by tall trees, many of which are more than 40 meters tall. You are a hundred kilometers away from the nearest city. What do you hear? 0
(B) Insects, birds, and monkeys are responsible for much of this noise. And sometimes there is another sound, one that does not belong in the forest at all. It is the buzz of a chainsaw. Every year some 13 million hectares of rainforest, an area about the size of England, disappears. 2
(C) Do you think it is a quiet, peaceful place? If so, you are wrong. The rainforest is actually a very noisy place. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 4-2]

This loss destroys the habitats for millions of species and has a major effect on the jungle's biodiversity.
(A) Also, it increases the amount of CO² in the air. Destruction of the rainforest is caused by logging, farming, mining, and other human activities. Among these, logging is the main reason for nature's loss. Some 70 to 80 percent of the logging in the rainforests is thought to be illegal. 0
(B) The surprised loggers fled, but White was shocked. Despite the fact that they were still fairly close to the ranger station, it had been impossible to hear anything from back there. It is because the forest was so full of other sounds. 2
(C) To address this problem, a young American engineer has invented a simple device that detects illegal logging the moment it occurs. It all started in 2011, when Topher White visited Indonesia as a volunteer. One day, he and some of the other volunteers set out from the ranger station on a walk into a protected rainforest. After walking only five minutes, his group came upon people who were cutting down trees illegally. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 4-3]

White started thinking about ways to help.
(A) He knew that even in the jungle, far from the city, there was good cell phone service. He thought that perhaps cell phone technology could solve the problem. After he returned home to the U.S., in his father's garage he developed a small listening device using an old cell phone. He attached a sensitive microphone to the cell phone so that it could detect chainsaw noise from up to three kilometers away. 0
(B) Since there was no electricity where the phone needed to be placed, the device had to be able to power itself. White attached solar panels to the cell phone. He was sure that the panels would work, even under the shade of the thick tree leaves. 2
(C) This device would be placed high up in a tree. When it picked up the buzz of a saw, it would send a message to a ranger's cell phone. White knew that he had to protect the cell phone so that it could survive in the hot and wet rainforest environment. His solution was to put the phone in a plastic box. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 4-4]

White returned to Indonesia to test the device.
(A) When they approached the logging spot, the illegal loggers ran away. White published his story on the Internet and word quickly spread. 1
(B) Surprisingly, on only the second day after he installed the device, it picked up chainsaw noises. An alert message was immediately sent to White and the forest rangers. 0
(C) People living in other countries contacted White and asked if they could use the device. Others, from around the world, started sending him their old cell phones so he could build more devices. These devices, called Rainforest Connection (RFCx), are now being used in the rainforests in Africa and South America. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 4-5]

One RFCx can protect 300 hectares of forest.
(A) These devices are saving rainforests and providing new life for thousands of discarded cell phones. Thanks to Topher White and his RFCx devices, the earth is now a better place to live. 2
(B) Preventing this amount of CO² from being released has the same effect as taking 3,000 cars off the road for a year. 1
(C) If a forest of this size is cut, 15,000 tons of CO² are released into the air. 0

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 5-1]

How to Handle Haters.
(A) Have you ever known someone you just did not get along with? Maybe it was someone you had difficulty working with or it could have been someone you were always arguing with. 0
(B) This kind of situation can leave you wondering what you should do. Should you ignore them, be extra nice to them, or stand up to them? 1
(C) If you have ever been confused about what to do, you are not alone. Luckily for us, Benjamin Franklin, the American politician and inventor, came up with an answer more than 200 years ago. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 5-2]

Benjamin Franklin was a very smart man, not just in politics and science, but also in his ability to deal with people.
(A) Franklin decided to try to change his enemy's opinion of him. To do this, he sent a letter to the man asking for a favor. 1
(B) Once, when Franklin was serving as a representative for the people of the state of Pennsylvania, a powerful opponent made a long speech criticizing him. This speech was so powerful that it threatened Franklin's political career. 0
(C) He asked the man to lend him a very rare and valuable book, one that he knew the man had in his personal library. The man, Franklin's enemy, immediately sent him the book. Franklin read the book and returned it with a note of thanks. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 5-3]

The next time Franklin met his enemy, the man was much nicer to him.
(A) They eventually became friends and remained so for the rest of their lives. In his autobiography, Franklin explained what happened. Franklin wrote, "He that has once done you a kindness will be more ready to do you another. 0
(B) It is commonly thought that if you want people who do not like you to like you, you should do favors for them. However, if you want to try to create a connection with someone who does not like you, asking that person to do you a favor is more effective. To test this phenomenon, a psychologist performed an experiment and came to the same conclusion. 2
(C) "By asking a small favor of his enemy, Franklin gave the man a chance to do him a kindness. This turned his enemy into a friend. Today this phenomenon is known as the Benjamin Franklin effect. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 5-4]

About 80 students were invited to participate in an experiment and were told they would be given some money after a series of tests.
(A) Group 3 was not asked to return any money. Afterward, all three groups were asked to rate how much they liked the researcher. The people in Group 1, who had done the researcher a personal favor by returning some of the money, rated the researcher the highest. Despite the fact that they had had a bad impression of him during the experiment, they had more positive feelings for him after returning "his money." 2
(B) A researcher was hired and made the students dislike him by being rude to them. The students took the tests and were all awarded the promised money. They were then divided into three groups. 0
(C) Group 1 was asked by the researcher to return some of the prize money. He explained that he had used his own money for the tests and the study was in danger of running out of funds. Group 2 was asked by a secretary to return some of the money to the institution because the budget was running low. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 5-5]

How can it be that we feel more positively toward people for whom we do favors?
(A) It is because of what psychologists refer to as "cognitive dissonance. "We want our actions and our thoughts to be in harmony. When we do something that we do not like, the balance is broken, and we feel unhappy. If there is a conflict between our thoughts and our actions (cognitive dissonance), we will change one or the other to relieve the conflict. 0
(B) He justified doing the favor by telling himself that Franklin was not a bad person after all and convinced himself that he actually liked Franklin. Is there someone with whom you would like to have a better relationship? Try asking that person for a small favor, such as lending you a pencil or watching your bag while you go to the restroom. Then see if their feelings toward you change. The chances are they will. 2
(C) After lending Franklin the book, Franklin's enemy experienced cognitive dissonance. He felt troubled because he was doing something nice for someone he disliked. Feeling anxious and unhappy, he had to find a way to resolve his feelings. The easiest way for him to do that was to change how he thought about Franklin. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 5-6]

Every culture has proverbs about human relationships.
(A) Read the following proverbs different countries and cultures and think about the meaning of each one. He who gets close to a good tree will have good shade - Spain. Kind words take the snake out of its hole - Turkey. 0
(B) Show me your friends and I'l tell you who you are - Russia. As distance tests a horse' strength, so does time reveal a person' character - China. Laughter is a language everyone understands - Chad. 1
(C) A friend will cause you to weep, an enemy to laugh - Afghanistan. If you want to go fast, go alone. If you want to go far, go together - Africa. Lose your temper and you lose a friend; lie and you lose yourself - Native American. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 6-1]

Dabbawalas: Mumbai's Lunch Box Delivery Men In India, many traditions are today being challenged as a result of globalization.
(A) Dabbawalas are delivery men who carry hot lunch boxes for Mumbai office workers from their homes to their offices. The word dabbawala comes from the Hindi dabba meaning "lunch box," and wala meaning "the person who carries it." 2
(B) The practice of eating a home-cooked meal for lunch, however, continues. 0
(C) In Mumbai, many people who work in offices far from home rely on an express food delivery service run by dabbawalas. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 6-2]

Most dabbas, or lunches, reach their destination after passing through several pairs of hands.
(A) Finally, a fourth person picks up the boxes at the receiving station and distributes them, again by bicycle, to each customerʼ office, all by 12:30 p.m. The empty dabbas are picked up by 5:00 p.m. and are returned to their original addresses by the same team, following the same procedure in reverse. 2
(B) A typical scenario would have one person on a bicycle pick up a dabba by 9:00 a.m. from about thirty different addresses. After collecting all of the dabbas assigned to him, he takes them to the nearest train station. 0
(C) Another person loads each dabba onto the right train, sending them off in different directions. A third person rides on each of the trains with the dabbas. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 6-3]

The dabbawala service began around 1890, when a banker hired a young man to deliver a lunch box from his home to his Mumbai office.
(A) Those who use the dabbawala service are mostly middle-class office workers who live in one of Mumbai's suburbs. They have to leave for the office early in the morning, riding on a packed train. It would be difficult for them to carry their own dabba. Also, they often have dietary restrictions, depending upon their religion. 1
(B) Other people liked the idea and copied it. When demand for the service expanded, a businessman started the lunch-delivery service in its present format. Now, more than 120 years later, the dabba is a unique part of the Mumbai culture. Why do Mumbai workers not take their lunch boxes with them in the morning, when they leave for the office? 0
(C) Hindus do not eat beef, Muslims do not eat pork, and Jains do not eat onions and potatoes. As a result, it is not easy for workers to find the right food in restaurants near their office. To meet their dietary needs, Indian workers prefer their home-cooked meals, made especially for them. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 6-4]

Today approximately 5,000 dabbawalas cover 70 square kilometers in and around Mumbai.
(A) They conduct about 400,000 transactions daily. 200,000 lunch boxes are delivered to offices every morning, six days a week, and 200,000 are returned home every afternoon. They even deliver in the pouring rain and during political strife. 0
(B) It is an amazing record, considering that most of the dabbawalas are illiterate and that not a single piece of paper is used in the delivery process. The secret to this error-free system is in a coding system. Each dabba carries a code, painted with different colors, numbers, and symbols. These codes tell the dabbawala where the food comes from and which railway stations it must pass through on its way to a specific office in a specific building, in Mumbai. 2
(C) Surprisingly, hardly any cases of late or mistaken delivery are ever reported. Their motto is "error is horror. "The dabbawalas are proud of their 99.99 percent accuracy rate, which means just one mistake in every six million deliveries. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 6-5]

The dabbawala organization is an outstanding example of an efficient distribution system.
(A) It is not surprising, then, that business schools and large corporations around the world learn from the dabbawala system. 1
(B) Today, most people cannot imagine an efficient delivery system operating without the benefit of technology. Dabbawalas, however, demonstrate that with no form of technology, some of the old ways may still be the best ways. 2
(C) It is simple, relies on teamwork, has a low operating cost, and delivers almost 100 percent customer satisfaction. 0

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 6-6]

SWITZERLAND Watchmaking School Switzerland is world-renowned for its high-quality watches.
(A) They are recognized for their abundance of color, different patterns, and weaving techniques. With the aim to preserve and promote this living art, the Royal Textile Academy of Bhutan was created in 2005. Its mission is to educate, promote and preserve Bhutanese textiles. 2
(B) Therefore, the restoration and protection of the nation' cultural heritage is guaranteed by the Italian Constitution. The Central Institute of Restoration was founded in l939 to conserve and restore artworks and archaeological findings using scientific technology. Each year the four-year course accepts about 20 students who are selected through exams that are held by the Ministry of Cultural Heritage. BHUTAN Royal Textile Academy of Bhutan Bhutan is famous for its hand-woven textiles. 1
(C) Its first watchmaking school opened in the mid-1800s. Now Switzerland has several watchmaking schools whose students take the traditional watchmaking course. The class sizes are kept small to ensure that each student receives extensive individualized lessons from master watchmakers. ITALY Central Institute of Restoration Italy is a country filled with valuable cultural assets. 0

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 7-1]

Gaudi Architect Inspired by Nature Most industrialized countries have produced a number of good architects.
(A) As a result, most of his constructions use curved stones and animal- or plant-shaped designs. Gaudi's work is also known for its use of bold colors. He decorated many of his buildings with colorful tiles. This combination of natural designs and bright colors creates a breathtaking visual experience. Here are some of Gaudi's greatest works, all of which are found in the city of Barcelona. 2
(B) As a child, he was fascinated by the natural wonders of the surrounding countryside. Gaudi took an interest in architecture at a young age and studied architecture in Barcelona, the city that would become home to his greatest works. Gaudi's designs were deeply influenced by forms in nature. He understood that the natural world is full of curved lines, rather than straight lines. 1
(C) Few countries, however, can claim to have produced a great architect. One country that can make that claim without embarrassment is Spain. There, at the summit of the nation's architectural genius, stands Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926). Gaudi was born in Catalonia, Spain, in 1852. 0

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 7-2]

Parc Güell is a public park and is one of Gaudi's most decorative works.
(A) At the entrance to the park are two buildings, both with curved roofs. These buildings seem to be taken directly from "Hansel and Gretel. "The park is also home to a famous dragon fountain, covered with beautiful colored tiles. 1
(B) Known as "El Drac," which means "the dragon" in the language of Catalonia, this colorful fountain is a symbol of Parc Güell. On a hill within the park are curved terraces and multicolored tile seats where visitors can enjoy wonderful views of Barcelona and the sea beyond. 2
(C) Gaudi completed this park in 1914. It was built for Eusebi Güell, a rich businessman who admired Gaudi's style. Parc Güell contains amazing stone structures, gorgeous tiles, and beautiful buildings. 0

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 7-3]

Casa Batllo is a house renovated by Gaudi between 1904 and 1906.
(A) Built in 1877, the original building was very different from what it is today. When it was purchased by Joseph Batllo, he asked Gaudi to add his impressive touch to the design. From the outside, Casa Batllo looks as if it has been made from skulls and bones. The "skulls" are in fact balconies and the "bones" are supporting stone columns between the windows. 0
(B) Everything is curved, including the walls, the ceilings, and the wooden doors. Because of the curves, the Batllo family could not fit their traditional, straight furniture against the curved surfaces. Thus, Gaudi had to design special furniture for the family. 2
(C) These details have given the house the nickname, the House of Bones. Gaudi decorated the building with colors and shapes found in the sea. Indeed, the design of the green and blue tiles on the wall remind people of the sea, while the curved window frames were inspired by ocean waves. The interior of the house is even more impressive. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 7-4]

Sagrada Familia is the most widely-known symbol of Barcelona and one of the world's largest churches.
(A) Between the columns are skylights to let natural light in. The colorful stained glass windows filter the sunlight and project red, blue, and green light all over the interior space. The tree-like columns and the different light at different times of the day transform the inside of the church into a stone forest. 2
(B) Begun in 1882, it has been under construction for more than one hundred years. It is expected that the church will be completed in 2026, on the 100th anniversary of Gaudi's death. Despite its incomplete state, Sagrada Familia's incredible design draws an estimated 2.5 million tourists every year. On the outside, the church will have 18 high towers. 0
(C) When completed, the highest tower will reach a height of 170 meters. The walls are decorated with sculptures that describe events in the Bible. When you step inside the church, the large columns supporting the ceiling immediately catch your eye. The columns branch out at the top so that each column looks like a huge tree. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 7-5]

These are only three of Gaudi's many works in or near Barcelona.
(A) These extraordinary works show how important Gaudi was to the development of modern architecture in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 1
(B) Even today his imaginative, creative, unique architecture characterizes the city of Barcelona. No visitor to Barcelona would want to leave without seeing these works of Antoni Gaudi. 2
(C) All are recognized as important works of architecture, and seven have been named UNESCO World Heritage Sites. 0

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 8-1]

Robots May Rescue You from Future Disasters In 2011, an earthquake and its accompanying tsunami destroyed Japan's Fukushima nuclear power plant.
(A) The resulting nuclear disaster released large amounts of radioactive material into the surrounding area. 0
(B) Since it was impossible for humans to work in this environment, the Japanese government considered sending in robots to handle the situation. 1
(C) The robots the Japanese were using, however, were not up to the task. Eventually, humans had to do most of the extremely dangerous work. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 8-2]

Since then, there has been renewed emphasis on developing robots that can serve in dangerous situations.
(A) In response to Japan's nuclear disaster, the 2015 DARPA Robotics Challenge was created to speed up the development of robots that could work in disaster-stricken areas. The competition attracted 25 teams from around the world. The winner was a Korean team from KAIST who developed a robot called HUBO. 0
(B) During the competition, the robots had to solve a series of problems they might come upon in a disaster situation. The tasks were: driving a vehicle, getting out of the vehicle, opening a door, locating and closing a leaking valve, using a drill to cut through a wall, pulling a plug out of a wall socket and then plugging it in, navigating rough terrain, and climbing stairs. HUBO completed all eight tasks in the shortest time of all the competitors – 44 minutes and 28 seconds. 1
(C) The key to HUBO's success was its ability to move from a standing position to a kneeling position. HUBO had wheels attached to its knees and feet. When kneeling, HUBO was able to use these wheels to move around quickly and decisively. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 8-3]

From the beginning, HUBO was better than the other robots at performing the tasks.
(A) The task that took the longest time for HUBO was the sixth one, pulling a plug out of a wall socket and putting it back into another. It takes a human less than 10 seconds to perform the task, but it took HUBO 13 minutes and 30 seconds. 2
(B) It was able to drive a vehicle fast and when it encountered a barrier, it was able to turn the vehicle smoothly to avoid it. Next, it was able to get out of the car in less than four minutes and, once out of the vehicle, got on its knees and sped away. As the series of eight tasks became progressively more difficult, HUBO's performance on the tasks reflected the growing difficulty. 0
(C) On the fifth task, for which it had to use a drill to cut through a wall, HUBO failed on its first attempt. Generally speaking, it was difficult for a robot to hold a drill in the right position and simultaneously press an on/off button. On the second trial, however, HUBO successfully completed the task. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 8-4]

For the final task, climbing stairs, it was important that the robot be able to see its feet.
(A) Other robots had difficulty doing this because they had to bend their bodies forward to see over their knees to scan the stairs. This awkward move caused them to lose their balance. HUBO solved this problem in a clever way. 0
(B) It climbed the stairs backward. But how did it see the steps if it was moving backwards? By rotating its upper body 180 degrees. 1
(C) That way, the robot's knees did not block the camera's view of either the feet or the floor. After scanning the stairs, the robot set off to climb to the top, completing the task effortlessly. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 8-5]

This amazing robot was not made in a day.
(A) The KAIST team had already built four HUBOs and had been improving them for years. They practiced outdoors, in good weather and bad, and on rough terrain. They burned up motor after motor, but never gave up. 0
(B) They approached each failure as a challenge to make a faster, stronger, and better robot. The DARPA Robotics Challenge eventually ended, but it is only the beginning. In the future, there will be other robots like HUBO. 1
(C) They will be called upon to perform complicated tasks that will be too dangerous for humans. Scientists expect that these robots will save lives and reduce the damage caused by future disasters. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 SP1-1]

How Volunteering Abroad Changed My Life by Susan Shain I was about to board a plane, and I was scared.
(A) I'd never traveled anywhere so different before, and I had no idea what to expect. That scared me. But I had never been one to turn away from adventure, so when the rest of my group started boarding, I did, too. Little did I know that the next six weeks would change my life forever. 2
(B) The year was 2005. The plane's destination? Tanzania. 1
(C) Not because I was afraid of flying, but because I was afraid of what awaited me at my destination. "I could turn around now," I said to myself. "I could just go back to my part-time job and have a nice quiet summer." 0

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 SP1-2]

What Volunteering in Tanzania Was Like I traveled to Tanzania as part of a university program the summer after my freshman year.
(A) We spent several weeks volunteering at a community center and an orphanage. Though we did many other exciting things like going on safari and climbing Mt Kilimanjaro, it was our volunteering time that stuck with me. Volunteering allowed me to truly connect with the people in Tanzania. If I had not volunteered, I would never have got an inside look at their way of life. 0
(B) I learned to cook ugali, milk a cow, and wear a kanga –. inspiring to witness their close family ties and endless positivity. Volunteering abroad taught me so much about the world and about myself. I grew more in those few weeks than I did my entire first year of college. 2
(C) By volunteering, I became part of the lives of local families — sharing meals, playing with their kids, and visiting their homes. These experiences were eye-opening, educational, and inspiring:. – eye-opening to see how few possessions they had, yet how much love and personal strength they had –. educational to experience their culture:. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 SP1-3]

How Volunteering Abroad Changed Me These are what volunteering gave me:.
(A) Volunteering gave me deep gratitude for the comforts and opportunities I used to take for granted. Appreciation for new cultures The local people are welcoming, strong, and overwhelmingly positive. Their language, clothing, and culture are beautiful. 1
(B) Gratitude for what I have When I returned home, I literally hugged my toilet, and I cried during my first hot shower. I didn't have these things in Tanzania. To this day, I sometimes say a silent "Thank you" as I turn on the tap to get a drink of water. 0
(C) Growing up in rural New York State, I had never before experienced people so different from me. During my time in Tanzania, I learned to appreciate those differences. Volunteering abroad taught me the beauty of diversity. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 SP1-4]

Hunger for exploration Though I was happy to return home, I was confident it would not be my last adventure.
(A) Commitment to helping people I will be honest: Volunteering feels good. Giving back to others and seeing the smiles on their faces is a feeling unmatched by anything else. 1
(B) After experiencing this in Tanzania, I decided to help people wherever and whenever I could for them and for myself. It is something I try to do every day. 2
(C) I knew I wanted to continue exploring, meeting people from different backgrounds, trying new foods, and discovering unique landscapes. It made me a travel addict. 0

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 SP1-5]

It has now been 10 years since I traveled to Tanzania, and these principles still guide me.
(A) I graduated from college in 2008, and ever since, I have been working and traveling around the world. I have volunteered everywhere from Korea to France to Nicaragua to North Carolina. I practice gratitude daily and am always trying to meet new people and learn about different ways of life. 0
(B) Sometimes I wonder what my life would be like if I had not got on that plane to East Africa. Would I have ever tasted ugali, danced with the Masai, or bathed an elephant? Would I be the person I am today? 1
(C) I will never know the answers to these questions. But I do know I will be forever grateful I got on that plane. Volunteering abroad led me to the life I have today — which I wouldn't change for anything. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 SP1-6]

< ADDITIONAL READING > The Secret to Happiness There is a Chinese saying that goes: "If you want happiness for an hour, take a nap If you want happiness for a day, go fishing If you want happiness for a year, inherit a fortune If you want happiness for the rest of your life, help somebody" For centuries, the greatest thinkers have suggested the same thing: Happiness is found in helping others And so we learn early: It is better to give than to receive But is there a deeper truth behind this statement?
(A) The answer is yes Scientific research provides convincing data to support the evidence that giving is a powerful path to lasting happiness Researchers have found that the areas in our brains that feel pleasure become activated when we give —meaning that besides doing good, donating our money or time actually makes us feel good This feeling is similar to a "runner's high," a term created for that feel-good sensation that rushes through your body after a run They use the term "helper's high" to describe what happens to your body and your brain when you are kind to another person or give to them in some way Helping others may just be the secret to living a life that is not only happier but also healthier, wealthier, more productive, and meaningful. 2
(B) 0
(C) 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 SP1-7]

< CULTURE > Volunteers around the World Mealshare Mealshare is a non-profit organization founded by two young men from Canada in 2013.
(A) Teens for Jeans Started by a non-profit organization, it is a campaign in which teenagers in the U.S. collect pairs of jeans and give them to local homeless youth. Many schools and teenagers have donated over five million pairs of jeans since the campaign started in 2008. COASTSWEEP It is an international clean-up campaign organized in the U.S. 1
(B) With "uy One, Give One"motto, Mealshare partners with restaurants, and places its symbol next to a few menu items. When a customer orders a Mealshare item, the restaurant donates $1 to Mealshare. With the collected money, meals for people in need are served. 0
(C) Volunteers gather for the clean-up and are provided with cleaning tools such as plastic gloves and bags. Volunteers record what they pick up and the data is used to find out the sources of trash, and to study how to reduce trash. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 SP2-1]

To Kill a Mockingbird In the early part of the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, the heroine and her brother are told by their father never to kill a mockingbird.
(A) Miss Maudie answers: "Your father's right. All mockingbirds do is make music for us to enjoy. They don't eat up people's gardens or steal their food. 1
(B) "I hope you shoot only tin cans in the garden, but I know you'll want to hunt birds," he says to his children, who are learning how to shoot a gun. "Shoot as many bluejays as you want, but remember that it's a sin to kill a mockingbird. "Puzzled, the heroine asks Miss Maudie, her kind and clever neighbor, why she should not kill a mockingbird. 0
(C) They only sing their hearts out for us. That's why it's a sin to kill a mockingbird." 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 SP2-2]

In To Kill a Mockingbird, there are characters like mockingbirds, who are innocent and harmless.
(A) For this reason, To Kill a Mockingbird has long been a book loved not only by Americans but also by many people around the world. It has been translated in 40 different languages, and more than 40 million copies have been sold. 2
(B) Lee wrote To Kill a Mockingbird based on her own childhood experiences. Just like the heroine of the novel, she grew up in Alabama and saw many African-American people treated cruelly and unfairly. Her criticism against racism and her wish for a more fair and understanding world are well expressed in this book. 1
(C) However, they are often hurt and sometimes even killed by others. Through their stories, the author Harper Lee shows how an unfair society harms innocent people and prevents others from helping them. At the same time, she also shows how important it is to remain just, fair, and understanding in such a society. 0

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 SP2-3]

To Kill a Mockingbird is the story of a young girl growing up in a southern town during the 1930s, when African-American people were facing severe discrimination.
(A) The six-year-old heroine, Scout Finch, lives with her brother Jem and their father Atticus in Maycomb, a little town in Alabama where things do not change quickly. Here, the same families have been doing the same things for generation after generation, and Atticus is a lawyer just like his father was. 0
(B) He has not been seen by anyone for many years, and the adults of Maycomb do not want to talk about him. Curious about what he looks like and why he remains hidden, the children share rumors about him and try to get him to come out of his house. While they are acting out the story of his life one day, Atticus stops them, telling them to see things from other people's points of view. 2
(C) Scout, Jem, and their friend Dill are fascinated by the haunted house in their neighborhood and the man who lives there, Arthur "Boo"Radley. Boo is known as a "Monster" for stabbing his father in his leg when he was a boy, but no one actually witnessed the accident. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 SP2-4]

Despite the children's playful actions, Boo shows signs of affection for them.
(A) They are angered by Atticus's effort to give Tom the best defense possible. Jem and Scout are also bullied by other children because of this. 2
(B) He leaves small gifts in a tree outside the Radley home, fixes and returns Jem's lost pants, and puts a blanket on Scout's shoulders, while she is out in the cold weather looking at a neighbor's house that is on fire. However, he never shows himself, so Scout grows more and more curious about him. 0
(C) Meanwhile, Atticus agrees to defend an African-American man named Tom Robinson, who has been accused of attacking a young white woman, Mayella Ewell. Most of the white people in Maycomb do not understand why Atticus would defend this African-American man. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 SP2-5]

One day during the trial, Atticus provides clear evidence that Tom never attacked Mayella and that she and her father, Bob Ewell, are lying.
(A) Despite the fact that Tom has been convicted and is now dead, Bob Ewell feels that he has been insulted and tries to take his revenge. He threatens Tom's wife, tries to break into the judge's house, and finally attacks Jem and Scout as they walk home from a Halloween party. However, a strange man comes to rescue them. 1
(B) Nevertheless, the all-white jury decides that Tom is guilty. Tom later tries to escape from prison and is shot to death, and Scout finds that most of her neighbors don't care about this. Both Atticus and his children are shocked by the injustice of what has happened to Tom. 0
(C) Scout realizes that this man is Boo Radley. She and the wounded Jem are brought back to their house by Boo. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 SP2-6]

When the sheriff arrives, he discovers that Ewell was stabbed to death during the fight.
(A) After the sheriff leaves and Jem is safely put to bed, Scout and Boo walk arm-in-arm back to Boo's house. When Boo disappears into the house, never to be seen again, Scout thinks about all the things he has done for her and Jem and regrets that they have never given him anything in return. 1
(B) However, he does not charge anyone with murder. He knows that any further investigation will harm Boo, and he doesn't want to do that because he knows that Boo has risked himself to save the children. 0
(C) Standing on the porch of the Radley house, she sees the village as Boo has always seen it. She imagines seeing herself and her brother from Boo's perspective and finally understands what her father meant when he told her to put herself in other people's places. 2

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)



▢ 다음 글의 순서로 바른 것은? [영시한 SP2-7]

"Atticus was right," she thinks.
(A) "One time he said you never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them. 0
(B) "The various events that she experienced taught Scout how unjust and ugly the adult world was. However, they also taught her the importance of sympathy, understanding, and a sense of justice. 2
(C) Just standing there on the Radley porch was enough. 1

① (A)-(B)-(C)  ② (A)-(C)-(B)  ③ (B)-(A)-(C)  
④ (B)-(C)-(A)  ⑤ (C)-(A)-(B)  ⑥ (C)-(B)-(A)


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THE BLUET esh 0:99 | Since 2005 임희재 | 010-3338-3436 | wayne.tistory.com | wayne36@daum.net | 190815 16:05:43

▢ 다음 문장의 어순을 완성하세요.

[영시한 1-1]

1. Rhimes [speech / the / delivered / following] at [ceremony / the / graduation / for] Dartmouth [College / in / 2014] 


2. President [honored / guests, / Hanlon, / staff,] parents, [students, / friends, / families, / and] good [and / congratulations / to / morning] the [graduating / class] 


3. When [graduation / give / speeches, / people] they [tell / Follow / usually / you:] your dreams 


4. {Be [Doer, / a / Not / a] Dreamer} [Rhimes / Shonda / is / Lynn] a [television / American / famous / producer] and writer 


5. Don't [until / stop / dreaming / your] dreams [come / true] 




[영시한 1-2]

1. Don't [sit / home / waiting / at] for [opportunity / the / magical] 


2. Maybe [what / exactly / know / you] you [do, / to / or / want] maybe [have / idea / no / you] what [want / truly / you / to] do 


3. And [while / they / are / busy] dreaming, [really / the / happy / and] successful [people / doing / busy / are] 


4. It [work / hard / is / that] makes [happen / creates / and / things] change 


5. Perfect [and / boring, / is / dreams] are [not / real] 


6. A [writer / is / who / someone] writes [day / every] 


7. If [traveling, / dreaming / of / you're] leave [right / now] 


8. You [to / keep / just / have] doing [next / the / something, / seizing] opportunity, [and / open / staying / to] trying [new / something] 


9. If [don't / have / a / you] job, [one / get] 


10. Do [you / until / can / something] do [else / something] 


11. Dreams [do / not / come / true] just [them / dream / because / you] 


12. It [have / be / to / doesn't] the [the / or / job / perfect] perfect [that / you / dream / life] of 


13. Dreams [but / are / lovely, / they] are [just / dreams] 


14. So, [my / this / is / first] lesson [a / Be / you: / for] doer, [a / dreamer / not] 




[영시한 1-3]

1. Your [whole / life / so / far] has [gift / a / been] 


2. Right [after / may / you / graduation,] have [the / of / days / worst] your lives 


3. We [the / in / country / live] where [are / free / we / to] speak [our / and / own / mind] most [people / everyone / that / believe] should [regardless / treated / be / equally] of [or / race / gender] 


4. It's [pay / for / to / time] it [doing / by / something / for] the world 


5. Crime [part / violence / and / are] of [everyday / the / of / lives] these people 


6. My [second / lesson / is / this:] Don't [be / self-centered] 


7. Even [the / United / States, / in] there [who / countless / people / are] are [much / more / difficult / living] lives [we / than / can / ever] imagine 


8. So [remember / before / complain, / you] that [been / have / given / you] a gift 


9. We [already / are / lot / a] luckier [on / people / than / most] the earth 


10. In [of / some / the / parts] world, [are / girls / simply / harmed] because [get / to / they / want] an education 


11. But [don't / act / like / you're] the [most / in / person / miserable] the [you / world, / are / because] not 




[영시한 1-4]

1. My [third / this: / lesson / is] Accept [cannot / do / that / you] everything 


2. Since [a / successful / I'm / very] woman [mother / a / with / and] three [many / people / ask / children,] me, [you / do / "How / do] it all 


3. We [all / one / achieve / thing] by [achieve / failing / something / to] else 


4. If [a / enjoying / I'm / family] holiday [my / with / children, / I'm] not [that / the / finishing / script] I should 


5. Now [going / give / to / I'm] you [entirely / an / answer: / honest] I [don't] 


6. If [succeeding / I'm / one, / at] I'm [inevitably / the / failing / at] other 


7. If [writing / exciting / I'm / really] stories [I'm / television, / for / not] spending [time / enough / my / with] children 


8. It [you / happen / will / to] when [become / you / successful] 


9. How [do / become / successful / you] at [job / having / your / while] a [family"] 


10. Whenever [I'm / one / in / succeeding] area [I'm / life, / of / my] failing [in / another / area] 


11. Anyone [who / you / tells / they] are [all / it / doing / perfectly] is [a / liar] 




[영시한 1-5]

1. And [from / years / then / 20] now, [you / can / one / of] find [right / where / here / yourself] I [a / giving / stand, / graduation] speech 


2. You [sometimes / like / feel / may] you're [at / failing / or / work] at [life / your / home] 


3. I [just / wanted / to / say] that [is / even / it / okay,] if [okay / doesn't / look / it] 


4. And [yet, / you / can / still] wake [the / morning / in / up] and [amazed / everything / be / at] you [you / have / everything / and] have achieved 




[영시한 2-1]

1. In [three / examples, / the / following] it [to / inspiring / is / see] how [help / cooperate / animals / to] each other 


2. Often, [other / animals / each / help] and [together / for / the / work] greater good 


3. However, [animal / kingdom, / across / the] selfishness [is / only / very / a] small [an / animal's / of / part] life 


4. Cooperation [at / every / prevails / level] of [kingdom / animal / the] 


5. Successful [a / play / requires / sometimes] degree [selfishness / of] 


6. Darwin's [fittest"is / "survival / the / of] universally [regarded / as / simple / a] reality [game / in / of / the] life 




[영시한 2-2]

1. If [so, / have / may / it] reminded [of / highway / a / you] packed [cars / with] 


2. When [happens, / this / the / inbound] ants, [ones / carrying / the / a] burden, [always / the / right / have] of way 


3. This [is / their / because / movements] are [based / cooperation / on] 


4. As [however, / their / increases, / number] they [communicate / other / with / each] so [they / all / move / that] at [same / the / speed] 


5. Outbound [get / turn / ants / to] out [way, / the / while / of] inbound [continue / ants / a / in] straight line 


6. When [a / few / are / there] ants [single / in / a / moving] direction, [ants / likely / are / some] to [move / some / slowly, / fast,] and [faster / others / even] 


7. Have [you / ever / ants / observed] marching [in / out / and / of] their nest 


8. There [are / times / ants / when] leaving [for / food / nest / the] encounter [ants / back / coming / other] with [food / on / backs / their] 


9. This [because / makes / arrangement / sense] it [is / for / difficult / more] inbound [ants / to / direction / change] due [heavy / to / loads / their] 


10. Following [and / rules / these / cooperating] in [this / improve / ants / way,] the [traffic / flow / and / make] the [of / to / food / delivery] the [efficient / more / nest] 


11. The [slow / while / up / speed] the [fast / superfast / and / the] slow down 


12. Ants [get / a / into / never] traffic [matter / no / jam, / how] fast [move / or / how / they] many [occupy / of / them / the] road 




[영시한 2-3]

1. Sometimes [fish / the / cleaner / chew] on [of / wall / the / the] client [fish's / mouth] 


2. Tiny [scientists / which / refer / fish,] to [swim / into / as / "cleaners,"] the [mouths / fish, / of / bigger] which [are / as / to / referred] "clients" 


3. As [big / knows, / fish / everyone] often [little / fish / eat] 


4. First, [are / the / cleaners / too] small [their / satisfy / hunger / to] 


5. Sometimes, [help / little / however, / fish] the [so / fish, / big / the] big [eat / fish / do / not] the [fish / little] 


6. After [do / the / cleaners / their] job, [the / them / let / clients] go, [of / swallowing / them / instead] 


7. The [eat / in / cleaners / parasites] the [mouths / clients'] 


8. Once [the / and / the / cleaners] clients [clients / the / trust, / establish] want [to / the / cooperate / with] cleaners [them / and / around / keep] 


9. The [cleaners / a / get / meal,] and [the / get / clients / a] healthier mouth 


10. Although [this / cause / pain, / may] the [still / big / fish / do] not [little / the / eat / ones] for [reasons / two] 


11. Second, [to / is / hard / it] find [cleaners / good] 




[영시한 2-4]

1. They [the / not / do / answer] calls [have / that / birds / of] refused [help / before / to / others] 


2. One [bat / of / kind / has] a [food / sharing / of / system] 


3. Bats [if / go / die / they] two [food / nights / without] 


4. It [is / to / note / important] that [go / flycatchers / to / the] aid [another / in / bird / of] danger [if / that / bird / only] has [helped / other / in / birds] the past 


5. But [hunger / because / rare / is] bats [share / find / that / blood] it [bats / with / that / don't] 


6. When [enters / a / predator / a] flycatcher's [area, / makes / the / flycatcher] a [for / loud / sound / help] 


7. Do [you / how / bats / know] cooperate [survive / to] 


8. As [blood—heir / only / hunting / for] food—s [younger / bats / easy, / not] fail [food / one / find / to] night [of / out / three] 


9. As [more / more / and / birds] join [the / group, / the / predator] becomes [and / away / runs / frightened] 


10. Other [the / flycatchers / call, / hear] and [come / to / they / help] 


11. Pied [birds / flycatchers / small / are] that [in / dangerous / situations / cooperate] 




[영시한 2-5]

1. To [foster / success / cooperative / among] humans, [perhaps / should / we / look] to [nature / inspiration / for] 


2. Living [things, / beginnings / their / from] more [than / three / years / billion] ago, [planet / the / took / over] by [cooperate / learning / to] 


3. We [beings / in / human / cooperate] plenty [lining / ways, / from / of] up [stop / at / bus / a] to [on / a / sharing / knowledge] website 


4. Cooperation [is / process / that / a] started [first / single-celled / the / with] creatures 




[영시한 2-6]

1. In [variations / the / Ages / Middle] of [played / were / games / hockey-like] in [countries / European] 


2. Now [countries / around / the / 211] world [registered / members / are / as] of FIFA 


3. Players [use / part / could / any] of [except / their / their / body] hands 


4. Soccer [A / Chinese / called / game] cuju ["kick / ball" / meaning / a] existed [during / 2nd / and / the] 3rd [BC / centuries / has / and] been [first / the / recognized / as] version [of / soccer / with / similar] rules [the / game / modern / to] 


5. Rowing [since / existed / has / Rowing] humans [traveled / on / water / first] by boat 


6. Four-thousand-year-old [drawings / of / men / playing] a [of / version / simple / a] hockey [found / game / have / been] in [in / tombs / Egypt] 


7. Let' [of / origins / the / see] a [these / of / few / sports] 


8. Later [played / soccer-like / were / games] in [and / several / Australia / Japan] countries [Europe / in] 


9. Modern [as / a / rowing / competitive] sport [back / to / England / goes] in [18th / century / the] 


10. There [many / team / sports / are] which [the / require / cooperation / among] team [order / members / in / to] win 


11. The [first / rowing / to / reference] as [a / comes / from / sport] 15thcentury [Egypt / BC] 


12. Now [one / most / of / the] famous [Oxford / competitions / the / is] and [Boat / Cambridge / Race] 




[영시한 3-1]

1. Which [ingredients / not / are / really] good [for / you] 


2. Of [groups, / teenagers / all / age] drink [most / soda / the] 


3. Every [170 / consume / Americans / year,] liters [per / of / person, / soda] and [liters / British / the / 100] 


4. When [go / the / to / you] movies [when / you / just / or] want [something / satisfy / refreshing / to] your [thirst, / is / a / soda] often [choice / first / the] 


5. Most [that / understand / however, / people,] sodas [good / for / are / not] their [the / to / health / due] ingredients 


6. Soda, [soft / also / called / a] drink, [sweet / drink / is / a] with carbonation 


7. {What [Is / Soda / Doing / to] You} [fast / eat / When / you] food, [hamburger, / such / pizza, / as] or [fried / chicken, / what / do] you [it / drink / with] 




[영시한 3-2]

1. WHO, [Organization, / Health / the / World] recommends [consume / that / people / less] than [sugar / of / 25 / grams] a day 


2. Therefore, [drink / you / if / one] small [your / can / soda, / of] daily [exceeds / intake / sugar / already] the [amount / recommended] 


3. Diet [replace / sodas / sugar / the] with [artificial / sweeteners] 


4. Artificial [sweeteners / provide / sweet, / a] sugary [calories / taste / fewer / with] 


5. {Sugar} [soft / that / Everyone / knows] drinks [with / large / loaded / are] amounts [sugar / of] 


6. What [usually / is / people / worse,] don't [can / stop / with / one] 


7. This [like / may / seem / a] good [it / thing, / really / but] isn't 


8. A [of / can / 250ml / typical] soda [grams / of / 30 / contains] sugar 


9. This [you / may / that / means] easily [you / if / gain / weight] keep [diet / drinking / soda] 


10. Over [lead / this / can / time,] to [other / and / obesity / health] problems, [disease / heart / as / such] and diabetes 


11. According [to / study, / a / recent] artificial [you / want / sweeteners / make] more [foods / sweet] 


12. In [sweeteners / artificial / addition, / are] known [to / generate / headaches, / emotional] disorders, [sleeping / problems / and] 




[영시한 3-3]

1. Acid [a / is / substance / chemical] with [taste / sour / a] 


2. Also, [sodas / in / acid / the] interacts [stomach / slowing / with / acid,] digestion [absorption / blocking / nutrient / and] 


3. {Acid} [several / contains / soda / Most] types [of / acids] 


4. If [regularly, / you / sodas / drink] your [decay / teeth / easily / more] 


5. Acid [growth / also / the / delays] of [the / extends / which / bacteria,] expiration [a / date / product / of] 


6. When [to / it / added / water,] produces [a / flavor / sharp] 


7. Furthermore, [tooth / it / can / damage] enamel, [substance / the / hard / that] protects [teeth / your] 


8. However, [with / the / acid / interferes] body's [calcium, / to / absorb / ability] and [result, / a / bone / as] softening occurs 




[영시한 3-4]

1. But [sodas, / some / especially / colas] and [also / carbonated / drinks, / energy] contain caffeine 


2. A [cola / single / of / can] may [you / affect / much, / not] but [colas / you / consume / if] regularly, [you / make / they / can] feel [and / keep / nervous / more] you [from / at / well / sleeping] night 


3. Studies [shown / excessive / have / that] consumption [kinds / these / of / of] chemicals [problems / such / can / create] as [disease / and / kidney / ADHD] 


4. Most [these / and / colors / of] flavors, [however, / natural / are / not] 


5. For [the / color / example, / artificial] Yellow [No_6, / in / some / used] pineapple [adds / juices, / nothing / to] the taste 


6. It [just / to / is / there] make [look / the / drink / pretty] 


7. Artificial [Flavors / Artificial / Colors / and] Soft [consumers / attract / drink / companies] by [and / colors / adding / bright] sweet [flavors / to / their / products] 


8. Caffeine [more / you / feel / makes] awake, [bring / may / it / but] about [irregular / heartbeat / an] 


9. Also, [that / flavor / artificial / the] gives [pineapple / the / its / drink] taste [pineapple / not / real / is] juice [all / at] 


10. {Caffeine} [the / you / When / hear] word [likely / you / most / "caffeine,"] think [of / coffee] 




[영시한 3-5]

1. If [your / you / can't / break] soda [in / drinking / a / habits] short [period / time, / of / don't] be [on / yourself / hard / too] 


2. Of [the / course, / choice / best] would [water / be] 


3. However, [altogether / if / sodas / quitting] sounds [down / too / difficult, / cut] gradually 


4. You [can / how / the / see] sugar, [the / acid, / the / caffeine,] and [the / artificial / in / chemicals] sodas [not / good / really / are] for you 


5. And [something / if / you / want] to [add / boost / of / a] flavor, [put / of / slice / a] lemon [the / in / water] 


6. Once [back, / cutting / you / start] you [in / the / are / heading] right direction 


7. Water [no / calories, / has / no] acid, [and / no / caffeine, / no] chemicals [of / kind / any] 


8. Perhaps [now / might / understand / you] that [should / stop / you / drinking] them 


9. For [one / example, / replace / regular] soft [diet / drink / or / one] soda [per / another / with / day] more [drink / healthy] 




[영시한 4-1]

1. The [actually / is / a / rainforest] very [place / noisy] 


2. Do [is / think / it / you] a [quiet, / place / peaceful] 


3. Every [million / year / some / 13] hectares [rainforest, / an / of / area] about [size / England, / of / the] disappears 


4. {RFCx} [Rainforest / the / Savior / Imagine] you [in / a / standing / are] rainforest 


5. You [are / kilometers / a / hundred] away [city / from / the / nearest] 


6. And [sometimes / there / is / another] sound, [not / does / that / one] belong [in / at / the / forest] all 


7. You [are / surrounded / tall / by] trees, [of / which / many / are] more [40 / tall / meters / than] 


8. Insects, [birds, / monkeys / are / and] responsible [of / this / much / for] noise 




[영시한 4-2]

1. One [day, / he / some / and] of [the / set / volunteers / other] out [the / station / ranger / from] on [a / walk / a / into] protected rainforest 


2. Among [logging / these, / the / is] main [loss / reason / nature's / for] 


3. Despite [fact / they / the / that] were [close / fairly / still / to] the [ranger / station, / it / had] been [impossible / anything / to / hear] from [back / there] 


4. To [a / problem, / address / this] young [engineer / American / invented / has] a [simple / device / detects / that] illegal [moment / logging / the / it] occurs 


5. It [forest / the / is / because] was [of / full / so / other] sounds 


6. Destruction [the / rainforest / of / is] caused [farming, / logging, / by / mining,] and [activities / human / other] 


7. After [minutes, / only / walking / five] his [upon / people / came / group] who [trees / were / down / cutting] illegally 


8. Some [70 / 80 / percent / to] of [logging / in / the / the] rainforests [is / to / be / thought] illegal 


9. Also, [amount / the / it / increases] of [in / air / CO² / the] 


10. This [habitats / destroys / loss / the] for [and / species / millions / of] has [major / a / on / effect] the [jungle's / biodiversity] 


11. It [2011, / all / started / in] when [Indonesia / Topher / visited / White] as [volunteer / a] 


12. The [fled, / loggers / but / surprised] White [shocked / was] 




[영시한 4-3]

1. White [attached / solar / panels / to] the [cell / phone] 


2. This [be / device / placed / would] high [a / tree / in / up] 


3. When [picked / it / up / the] buzz [of / saw, / a / it] would [a / to / send / message] a [cell / phone / ranger's] 


4. He [microphone / sensitive / attached / a] to [cell / the / phone / so] that [detect / could / it / chainsaw] noise [from / to / three / up] kilometers away 


5. His [was / solution / to / put] the [plastic / a / phone / in] box 


6. He [that / thought / cell / perhaps] phone [solve / technology / the / could] problem 


7. After [he / to / returned / home] the [his / in / father's / US,] garage [small / developed / a / he] listening [using / device / an / old] cell phone 


8. He [sure / the / was / that] panels [under / work, / even / would] the [of / thick / shade / the] tree leaves 


9. Since [there / no / electricity / was] where [the / phone / needed / to] be [had / the / device / placed,] to [power / be / to / able] itself 


10. White [had / that / he / knew] to [protect / phone / the / cell] so [it / survive / could / that] in [hot / the / wet / and] rainforest environment 


11. He [knew / that / even / in] the [from / far / the / jungle,] city, [cell / was / there / good] phone service 




[영시한 4-4]

1. White [to / to / Indonesia / returned] test [device / the] 


2. An [message / was / alert / immediately] sent [and / to / the / White] forest rangers 


3. Others, [around / the / from / world,] started [him / their / old / sending] cell [phones / so / he / could] build [more / devices] 


4. When [they / approached / logging / the] spot, [loggers / ran / the / illegal] away 


5. People [in / other / living / countries] contacted [and / White / if / asked] they [use / the / could / device] 


6. White [his / published / story / on] the [word / quickly / and / Internet] spread 


7. Surprisingly, [only / the / second / on] day [he / installed / the / after] device, [picked / up / chainsaw / it] noises 


8. These [Rainforest / devices, / called / Connection] (RFCx), [are / now / used / being] in [in / rainforests / Africa / the] and [America / South] 




[영시한 4-5]

1. If [this / of / a / forest] size [tons / is / 15,000 / cut,] of [are / CO² / released / into] the air 


2. Thanks [White / to / and / Topher] his [RFCx / devices, / earth / the] is [better / a / now / place] to live 


3. Preventing [CO² / of / this / amount] from [being / the / has / released] same [3,000 / effect / taking / as] cars [for / the / road / off] a year 


4. One [can / protect / 300 / RFCx] hectares [forest / of] 


5. These [devices / rainforests / saving / are] and [new / for / life / providing] thousands [cell / of / phones / discarded] 




[영시한 5-1]

1. Luckily [Franklin, / for / us, / Benjamin] the [and / American / inventor, / politician] came [with / answer / up / an] more [years / ago / than / 200] 


2. Maybe [was / it / someone / you] had [or / difficulty / with / working] it [been / someone / could / have] you [always / arguing / with / were] 


3. This [can / situation / kind / of] leave [you / you / wondering / what] should do 


4. Should [ignore / be / you / them,] extra [or / them, / to / nice] stand [them / to / up] 


5. Have [you / ever / known / someone] you [not / did / just / get] along with 


6. If [have / ever / been / you] confused [do, / about / what / to] you [not / alone / are] 




[영시한 5-2]

1. Franklin [and / the / read / book] returned [note / it / a / with] of thanks 


2. Once, [Franklin / serving / was / when] as [for / a / the / representative] people [the / of / state / of] Pennsylvania, [a / powerful / made / opponent] a [long / him / criticizing / speech] 


3. Franklin [to / to / try / decided] change [opinion / of / enemy's / his] him 


4. He [to / asked / man / the] lend [rare / very / him / a] and [that / valuable / one / book,] he [man / the / knew / had] in [his / personal / library] 


5. The [man, / immediately / enemy, / Franklin's] sent [him / book / the] 


6. This [speech / was / powerful / so] that [Franklin's / political / it / threatened] career 


7. To [this, / he / do / sent] a [the / to / letter / man] asking [for / a / favor] 


8. Benjamin [very / Franklin / was / a] smart [not / just / man, / in] politics [also / but / science, / and] in [deal / his / ability / to] with people 




[영시한 5-3]

1. However, [if / want / to / you] try [to / a / create / connection] with [does / who / someone / not] like [person / you, / that / asking] to [a / favor / you / do] is [more / effective] 


2. They [eventually / became / friends / and] remained [so / the / for / rest] of [lives / their] 


3. To [phenomenon, / test / this / a] psychologist [an / performed / experiment / and] came [to / the / conclusion / same] 


4. Franklin [wrote, / has / that / "He] once [you / kindness / done / a] will [be / ready / more / to] do [another / you] 


5. "By [asking / small / favor / a] of [enemy, / his / gave / Franklin] the [to / chance / man / a] do [him / kindness / a] 


6. It [is / that / thought / commonly] if [you / who / people / want] do [you / not / to / like] like [do / you / should / you,] favors [them / for] 


7. Today [phenomenon / this / known / is] as [Benjamin / the / Franklin / effect] 


8. The [Franklin / met / time / next] his [man / the / enemy, / was] much [to / nicer / him] 




[영시한 5-4]

1. The [took / tests / students / the] and [were / the / awarded / all] promised money 


2. He [had / explained / that / he] used [own / his / money / for] the [the / tests / and / study] was [danger / running / of / in] out [of / funds] 


3. A [hired / researcher / was / and] made [students / the / dislike / him] by [them / rude / to / being] 


4. About [invited / 80 / were / students] to [participate / an / experiment / in] and [told / were / would / they] be [given / money / some / after] a [tests / series / of] 


5. Afterward, [groups / all / were / three] asked [to / much / how / rate] they [the / liked / researcher] 


6. Group [asked / was / by / 1] the [some / to / return / researcher] of [prize / the / money] 


7. Despite [fact / they / the / that] had [had / bad / impression / a] of [experiment, / him / during / the] they [positive / feelings / had / more] for ["his / returning / him / after] money" 


8. Group [2 / by / was / asked] a [secretary / to / some / return] of [the / the / money / to] institution [was / budget / the / because] running low 


9. The [in / people / Group / 1,] who [researcher / done / the / had] a [by / returning / personal / favor] some [of / money, / the / rated] the [highest / researcher / the] 


10. Group [was / asked / not / 3] to [return / money / any] 




[영시한 5-5]

1. Then [if / feelings / see / their] toward [you / change] 


2. It [is / because / of / what] psychologists [as / "cognitive / refer / to] dissonance 


3. He [the / favor / justified / doing] by [that / himself / Franklin / telling] was [person / not / a / bad] after [and / all / himself / convinced] that [actually / Franklin / he / liked] 


4. Try [person / for / asking / that] a [as / favor, / such / small] lending [or / pencil / a / you] watching [bag / while / your / you] go [to / restroom / the] 


5. How [that / be / it / can] we [more / positively / feel / toward] people [for / do / whom / we] favors 


6. He [he / because / troubled / felt] was [doing / something / for / nice] someone [he / disliked] 


7. Feeling [and / anxious / he / unhappy,] had [find / to / way / a] to [feelings / his / resolve] 


8. The [way / for / easiest / him] to [to / that / was / do] change [he / about / how / thought] Franklin 


9. After [lending / book, / the / Franklin] Franklin's [experienced / cognitive / dissonance / enemy] 


10. If [there / a / conflict / is] between [thoughts / our / our / and] actions [dissonance), / (cognitive / we / will] change [other / or / one / the] to [relieve / the / conflict] 


11. When [we / that / do / something] we [the / do / not / like,] balance [we / is / and / broken,] feel unhappy 


12. Is [there / someone / whom / with] you [to / like / would / have] a [relationship / better] 


13. "We [our / and / actions / want] our [in / thoughts / to / be] harmony 




[영시한 5-6]

1. He [to / gets / close / who] a [good / will / tree / have] good [Spain / - / shade] 


2. Laughter [everyone / language / a / is] understands [Chad / -] 


3. If [go / to / you / want] far, [go / - / Africa / together] 


4. Lose [temper / and / your / you] lose [and / lie / friend; / a] you [- / Native / lose / yourself] American 


5. Show [and / me / your / friends] I'l [who / you / tell / you] are [- / Russia] 


6. A [cause / will / friend / you] to [an / weep, / to / enemy] laugh [- / Afghanistan] 


7. Kind [snake / take / the / words] out [- / its / hole / of] Turkey 


8. Read [proverbs / following / different / the] countries [and / think / cultures / and] about [each / the / meaning / of] one 


9. If [you / go / want / to] fast, [go / alone] 


10. As [a / distance / horse' / tests] strength, [so / time / reveal / does] a [China / person' / - / character] 




[영시한 6-1]

1. In [who / Mumbai, / people / many] work [far / in / from / offices] home [on / rely / express / an] food [delivery / run / by / service] dabbawalas 


2. The [of / a / practice / eating] home-cooked [however, / lunch, / for / meal] continues 


3. The [from / dabbawala / word / comes] the [dabba / "lunch / Hindi / meaning] box," [meaning / and / wala / "the] person [carries / who / it"] 


4. Dabbawalas: [Box / Delivery / Mumbai's / Lunch] Men [many / India, / traditions / In] are [today / challenged / being / as] a [of / result / globalization] 


5. Dabbawalas [are / delivery / who / men] carry [boxes / for / hot / lunch] Mumbai [office / workers / from / their] homes [offices / their / to] 




[영시한 6-2]

1. Finally, [fourth / picks / person / a] up [the / at / the / boxes] receiving [and / station / them, / distributes] again [to / each / bicycle, / by] customerʼ [12:30 / by / all / office,] pm 


2. After [all / the / collecting / of] dabbas [him, / assigned / he / to] takes [nearest / them / to / the] train station 


3. A [on / rides / person / third] each [of / with / the / trains] the dabbas 


4. The [dabbas / empty / are / picked] up [by / and / 5:00 / pm] are [to / original / returned / their] addresses [same / by / team, / the] following [procedure / in / the / same] reverse 


5. Most [reach / dabbas, / or / lunches,] their [passing / after / destination / through] several [of / pairs / hands] 


6. A [scenario / have / typical / would] one [person / a / on / bicycle] pick [up / a / by / dabba] 9:00 [am / about / thirty / from] different addresses 


7. Another [person / each / dabba / loads] onto [the / train, / right / sending] them [off / directions / in / different] 




[영시한 6-3]

1. To [meet / their / needs, / dietary] Indian [home-cooked / prefer / their / workers] meals, [made / them / especially / for] 


2. Also, [dietary / they / often / have] restrictions, [upon / their / depending / religion] 


3. Why [Mumbai / not / do / workers] take [their / lunch / with / boxes] them [the / when / in / morning,] they [for / leave / office / the] 


4. Other [people / liked / the / idea] and [it / copied] 


5. It [for / difficult / would / be] them [carry / their / own / to] dabba 


6. Hindus [do / not / beef, / eat] Muslims [pork, / not / do / eat] and [eat / do / Jains / not] onions [potatoes / and] 


7. When [demand / the / for / service] expanded, [started / the / a / businessman] lunch-delivery [in / service / present / its] format 


8. As [a / result, / it / is] not [easy / to / for / workers] find [food / in / right / the] restaurants [office / their / near] 


9. Now, [than / years / 120 / more] later, [a / the / is / dabba] unique [of / the / Mumbai / part] culture 


10. They [leave / for / to / have] the [in / the / early / office] morning, [a / riding / packed / on] train 


11. Those [use / who / the / dabbawala] service [mostly / are / middle-class / office] workers [live / in / one / who] of [Mumbai's / suburbs] 


12. The [around / service / dabbawala / began] 1890, [banker / when / a / hired] a [to / young / man / deliver] a [box / from / his / lunch] home [to / his / office / Mumbai] 




[영시한 6-4]

1. Today [5,000 / approximately / dabbawalas / cover] 70 [in / kilometers / square / and] around Mumbai 


2. The [error-free / this / secret / to] system [is / in / coding / a] system 


3. They [deliver / the / in / even] pouring [rain / and / political / during] strife 


4. Surprisingly, [hardly / of / any / cases] late [are / or / delivery / mistaken] ever reported 


5. "The [proud / dabbawalas / are / of] their [9999 / percent / rate, / accuracy] which [one / just / means / mistake] in [six / deliveries / million / every] 


6. It [amazing / an / record, / is] considering [of / that / the / most] dabbawalas [illiterate / and / that / are] not [a / of / piece / single] paper [is / used / in / the] delivery process 


7. These [codes / tell / the / dabbawala] where [food / the / comes / from] and [which / railway / it / stations] must [through / pass / its / on] way [to / a / office / specific] in [a / in / building, / specific] Mumbai 


8. Each [code, / dabba / a / carries] painted [different / colors, / with / numbers,] and symbols 


9. 200,000 [boxes / delivered / lunch / are] to [morning, / every / six / offices] days [week, / a / 200,000 / and] are [returned / afternoon / every / home] 




[영시한 6-5]

1. It [is / not / then, / surprising,] that [schools / business / large / and] corporations [around / learn / the / world] from [system / the / dabbawala] 


2. Dabbawalas, [that / with / however, / demonstrate] no [form / technology, / some / of] of [ways / may / the / old] still [be / the / best / ways] 


3. It [is / simple, / on / relies] teamwork, [operating / low / a / has] cost, [delivers / almost / 100 / and] percent [satisfaction / customer] 


4. The [organization / an / dabbawala / is] outstanding [example / of / efficient / an] distribution system 


5. Today, [imagine / most / people / cannot] an [efficient / system / operating / delivery] without [of / the / technology / benefit] 




[영시한 6-6]

1. Each [four-year / the / course / year] accepts [students / who / about / 20] are [that / selected / through / exams] are [Ministry / by / held / the] of [Heritage / Cultural] 


2. Now [watchmaking / several / Switzerland / has] schools [take / students / the / whose] traditional [watchmaking / course] 


3. BHUTAN [Academy / Textile / Royal / of] Bhutan [for / famous / Bhutan / is] its [textiles / hand-woven] 


4. With [aim / preserve / the / to] and [art, / promote / living / this] the [of / Textile / Royal / Academy] Bhutan [in / created / 2005 / was] 


5. SWITZERLAND [is / School / Watchmaking / Switzerland] world-renowned [watches / its / high-quality / for] 


6. The [Restoration / Institute / of / Central] was [in / founded / to / l939] conserve [and / and / restore / artworks] archaeological [using / findings / scientific / technology] 


7. They [recognized / their / are / for] abundance [patterns, / color, / different / of] and [techniques / weaving] 


8. Its [is / educate, / to / mission] promote [and / textiles / preserve / Bhutanese] 


9. ITALY [Restoration / Institute / of / Central] Italy [filled / a / is / country] with [assets / cultural / valuable] 


10. The [class / are / sizes / kept] small [that / ensure / each / to] student [receives / extensive / lessons / individualized] from [watchmakers / master] 


11. Therefore, [protection / the / restoration / and] of [heritage / cultural / the / nation'] is [the / by / guaranteed / Italian] Constitution 


12. Its [school / opened / first / watchmaking] in [the / mid-1800s] 




[영시한 7-1]

1. There, [of / summit / the / at] the [architectural / nation's / stands / genius,] Antoni [(1852-1926) / Gaudi] 


2. As [child, / he / was / a] fascinated [natural / the / by / wonders] of [surrounding / countryside / the] 


3. Gaudi [took / an / in / interest] architecture [at / young / age / a] and [studied / architecture / in / Barcelona,] the [that / become / city / would] home [to / greatest / his / works] 


4. This [designs / combination / natural / of] and [bright / creates / colors / a] breathtaking [visual / experience] 


5. One [can / make / that / country] that [claim / is / embarrassment / without] Spain 


6. Gaudi's [deeply / influenced / were / designs] by [nature / in / forms] 


7. Gaudi [in / born / was / Catalonia,] Spain, [in / 1852] 


8. He [many / of / decorated / his] buildings [colorful / tiles / with] 


9. Here [some / Gaudi's / are / of] greatest [works, / all / which / of] are [city / the / found / in] of Barcelona 


10. Gaudi [Inspired / by / Architect / Nature] Most [produced / countries / industrialized / have] a [good / architects / number / of] 


11. As [result, / of / a / most] his [constructions / stones / curved / use] and [or / animal- / designs / plant-shaped] 


12. He [understood / that / natural / the] world [of / is / curved / full] lines, [straight / lines / than / rather] 


13. Gaudi's [known / work / also / is] for [of / its / use / bold] colors 


14. Few [claim / however, / can / countries,] to [great / have / a / produced] architect 




[영시한 7-2]

1. Parc [Güell / contains / stone / amazing] structures, [tiles, / and / gorgeous / beautiful] buildings 


2. At [to / the / entrance / the] park [both / two / buildings, / are] with [roofs / curved] 


3. These [seem / buildings / to / be] taken [directly / from / "Hansel / and] Gretel 


4. Known [Drac," / as / "El / which] means [the / "the / dragon" / in] language [colorful / of / this / Catalonia,] fountain [a / of / symbol / is] Parc Güell 


5. On [within / hill / a / the] park [are / and / curved / terraces] multicolored [tile / seats / visitors / where] can [enjoy / of / wonderful / views] Barcelona [sea / and / the / beyond] 


6. "The [is / park / also / home] to [dragon / fountain, / famous / a] covered [colored / with / tiles / beautiful] 


7. Parc [is / a / public / Güell] park [is / and / one / of] Gaudi's [most / decorative / works] 


8. It [for / built / Eusebi / was] Güell, [businessman / rich / a / who] admired [Gaudi's / style] 




[영시한 7-3]

1. When [by / was / it / purchased] Joseph [he / Batllo, / asked / Gaudi] to [add / impressive / touch / his] to [the / design] 


2. Gaudi [decorated / with / building / the] colors [and / shapes / in / found] the sea 


3. Indeed, [design / the / the / of] green [on / blue / and / tiles] the [of / people / wall / remind] the [the / sea, / curved / while] window [by / inspired / were / frames] ocean waves 


4. The [the / house / of / interior] is [even / impressive / more] 


5. Casa [a / Batllo / is / house] renovated [by / 1904 / between / Gaudi] and 1906 


6. These [given / details / have / the] house [the / the / nickname, / House] of Bones 


7. Thus, [Gaudi / to / had / design] special [for / the / family / furniture] 


8. From [Casa / the / outside, / Batllo] looks [has / if / it / as] been [skulls / from / and / made] bones 


9. Built [in / the / original / 1877,] building [different / from / very / was] what [it / is / today] 


10. Because [the / the / curves, / of] Batllo [family / fit / could / not] their [traditional, / against / furniture / straight] the [surfaces / curved] 


11. Everything [is / including / curved, / the] walls, [and / ceilings, / the / the] wooden doors 


12. The [fact / "skulls" / in / are] balconies [and / are / the / "bones"] supporting [the / stone / columns / between] windows 




[영시한 7-4]

1. On [outside, / the / church / the] will [towers / 18 / have / high] 


2. The [walls / with / are / decorated] sculptures [events / describe / in / that] the Bible 


3. It [the / that / is / expected] church [in / will / completed / be] 2026, [the / anniversary / 100th / on] of [Gaudi's / death] 


4. The [and / columns / tree-like / the] different [light / times / at / different] of [the / transform / day / the] inside [church / of / the / into] a [stone / forest] 


5. Despite [its / state, / incomplete / Sagrada] Familia's [incredible / an / design / draws] estimated [every / tourists / 25 / million] year 


6. The [at / columns / branch / out] the [so / top / each / that] column [like / huge / looks / a] tree 


7. When [step / the / inside / you] church, [the / supporting / columns / large] the [your / immediately / ceiling / catch] eye 


8. Between [the / are / skylights / columns] to [let / natural / light / in] 


9. The [glass / colorful / stained / windows] filter [the / and / project / sunlight] red, [green / blue, / and / light] all [the / over / space / interior] 


10. When [completed, / tower / highest / the] will [a / height / reach / of] 170 meters 


11. Begun [it / has / 1882, / in] been [for / under / construction / more] than [hundred / one / years] 


12. Sagrada [is / most / Familia / the] widely-known [and / of / Barcelona / symbol] one [of / world's / largest / the] churches 




[영시한 7-5]

1. Even [creative, / today / imaginative, / his] unique [the / architecture / characterizes / city] of Barcelona 


2. No [would / visitor / Barcelona / to] want [leave / to / without / seeing] these [works / of / Antoni / Gaudi] 


3. These [show / extraordinary / works / how] important [was / the / Gaudi / to] development [architecture / modern / of / in] the [late / early / 19th / and] 20th centuries 


4. All [recognized / are / as / important] works [and / architecture, / seven / of] have [named / World / UNESCO / been] Heritage Sites 


5. These [of / are / only / three] Gaudi's [in / or / many / works] near Barcelona 




[영시한 8-1]

1. Since [was / it / impossible / for] humans [to / in / work / this] environment, [considered / the / government / Japanese] sending [to / in / robots / handle] the situation 


2. The [disaster / resulting / nuclear / released] large [amounts / of / radioactive / material] into [the / surrounding / area] 


3. Eventually, [to / do / humans / had] most [the / extremely / of / dangerous] work 


4. Robots [Rescue / You / from / May] Future [an / 2011, / Disasters / In] earthquake [accompanying / its / and / tsunami] destroyed [power / Fukushima / nuclear / Japan's] plant 


5. The [the / robots / were / Japanese] using, [were / up / however, / not] to [task / the] 




[영시한 8-2]

1. Since [has / then, / there / been] renewed [on / robots / developing / emphasis] that [can / in / dangerous / serve] situations 


2. HUBO [eight / completed / all / tasks] in [shortest / the / time / of] all [– / the / competitors / 44] minutes [28 / and / seconds] 


3. In [response / Japan's / nuclear / to] disaster, [the / 2015 / Robotics / DARPA] Challenge [created / speed / was / to] up [of / development / the / robots] that [in / disaster-stricken / work / could] areas 


4. During [the / the / robots / competition,] had [solve / a / series / to] of [problems / come / might / they] upon [disaster / situation / a / in] 


5. The [attracted / teams / competition / 25] from [around / the / world] 


6. The [success / HUBO's / to / key] was [move / its / ability / to] from [a / position / to / standing] a [kneeling / position] 


7. The [tasks / were: / a / driving] vehicle, [getting / out / the / of] vehicle, [opening / locating / a / door,] and [valve, / closing / leaking / a] using [a / drill / to / cut] through [a / pulling / a / wall,] plug [a / wall / of / out] socket [then / it / plugging / and] in, [terrain, / and / navigating / rough] climbing stairs


8. When [HUBO / kneeling, / able / was] to [use / these / wheels / to] move [around / and / quickly / decisively] 


9. HUBO [had / to / attached / wheels] its [knees / feet / and] 


10. The [was / a / winner / Korean] team [from / developed / KAIST / who] a [HUBO / called / robot] 




[영시한 8-3]

1. On [task, / the / for / fifth] which [use / to / it / had] a [to / through / drill / cut] a [wall, / HUBO / on / failed] its [first / attempt] 


2. Generally [was / it / difficult / speaking,] for [hold / robot / to / a] a [right / drill / in / the] position [and / press / an / simultaneously] on/off button 


3. It [less / a / human / takes] than [seconds / perform / 10 / to] the [but / took / task, / it] HUBO [and / 30 / minutes / 13] seconds 


4. From [beginning, / was / HUBO / the] better [robots / the / other / than] at [the / tasks / performing] 


5. As [the / of / series / eight] tasks [progressively / more / difficult, / became] HUBO's [the / performance / on / tasks] reflected [difficulty / growing / the] 


6. The [that / took / the / task] longest [was / for / HUBO / time] the [pulling / a / sixth / one,] plug [a / out / wall / of] socket [back / putting / it / and] into another 


7. Next, [it / to / able / was] get [of / car / out / the] in [than / minutes / four / less] and, [once / the / out / of] vehicle, [knees / its / got / on] and [sped / away] 


8. On [trial, / second / the / however,] HUBO [task / the / successfully / completed] 


9. It [drive / able / to / was] a [fast / vehicle / and / when] it [a / barrier, / it / encountered] was [turn / the / able / to] vehicle [to / it / avoid / smoothly] 




[영시한 8-4]

1. Other [robots / doing / had / difficulty] this [to / because / they / had] bend [forward / bodies / their / to] see [to / knees / their / over] scan [stairs / the] 


2. That [way, / knees / the / robot's] did [not / camera's / block / the] view [the / either / of / feet] or [floor / the] 


3. This [awkward / caused / move / them] to [balance / their / lose] 


4. For [the / climbing / final / task,] stairs, [was / that / important / it] the [to / robot / able / be] see [its / feet] 


5. But [it / did / see / how] the [was / if / steps / it] moving backwards 


6. HUBO [this / solved / in / problem] a [clever / way] 


7. After [the / scanning / the / stairs,] robot [to / off / climb / set] to [top, / the / completing / the] task effortlessly 




[영시한 8-5]

1. They [called / will / be / upon] to [tasks / complicated / perform / that] will [be / too / dangerous / for] humans 


2. The [already / team / had / KAIST] built [and / had / HUBOs / four] been [improving / them / for / years] 


3. They [motor / burned / up / after] motor, [up / but / never / gave] 


4. The [Challenge / Robotics / DARPA / eventually] ended, [only / but / is / it] the beginning 


5. In [there / will / future, / the] be [HUBO / robots / like / other] 


6. This [was / robot / amazing / not] made [a / day / in] 


7. They [as / failure / each / approached] a [to / a / challenge / make] faster, [stronger, / better / and / robot] 


8. Scientists [robots / that / these / expect] will [reduce / and / save / lives] the [by / future / damage / caused] disasters 


9. They [outdoors, / practiced / in / good] weather [and / on / bad, / and] rough terrain 




[영시한 SP1-1]

1. "I [back / go / just / could] to [part-time / job / and / my] have [a / summer" / quiet / nice] 


2. Not [I / afraid / because / was] of [but / I / flying, / because] was [of / awaited / afraid / what] me [at / my / destination] 


3. "I [now," / turn / around / could] I [myself / said / to] 


4. How [My / Changed / Volunteering / Abroad] Life [by / Susan / I / Shain] was [a / to / board / about] plane, [was / scared / and / I] 


5. Little [I / know / did / that] the [six / weeks / would / next] change [forever / my / life] 


6. But [I / been / never / had] one [turn / away / to / from] adventure, [rest / when / so / the] of [boarding, / group / my / started] I [too / did,] 


7. I'd [anywhere / traveled / so / never] different [before, / and / I / had] no [idea / what / to / expect] 




[영시한 SP1-2]

1. We [spent / weeks / volunteering / several] at [a / community / center / and] an orphanage 


2. Volunteering [allowed / truly / me / to] connect [in / with / the / people] Tanzania 


3. inspiring [their / close / to / witness] family [and / positivity / ties / endless] 


4. If [not / I / had / volunteered,] I [would / got / have / never] an [their / inside / look / at] way [life / of] 


5. – [eye-opening / see / how / to] few [had, / possessions / yet / they] how [and / personal / much / love] strength [– / they / had]


6. Though [we / did / other / many] exciting [going / things / like / on] safari [and / Mt / climbing / Kilimanjaro,] it [our / volunteering / was / time] that [stuck / me / with] 


7. By [volunteering, / I / became / part] of [of / lives / local / the] families [playing / meals, / sharing / —] with [and / kids, / their / visiting] their homes 


8. Volunteering [abroad / so / me / taught] much [the / about / and / world] about myself 


9. I [in / more / grew / those] few [weeks / did / I / than] my [of / first / year / entire] college 


10. What [Was / Tanzania / in / Volunteering] Like [to / Tanzania / I / traveled] as [a / of / university / part] program [my / after / the / summer] freshman year 


11. I [ugali, / cook / to / learned] milk [and / cow, / a / wear] a [– / kanga] 




[영시한 SP1-3]

1. Growing [up / New / in / rural] York [had / State, / I / never] before [experienced / different / so / people] from me 


2. Volunteering [abroad / me / taught / the] beauty [diversity / of] 


3. How [Me / Volunteering / Abroad / Changed] These [volunteering / what / are / gave] me: 


4. During [Tanzania, / in / time / my] I [appreciate / to / learned / those] differences 


5. To [day, / this / I / sometimes] say [silent / "Thank / a / you"] as [the / on / I / turn] tap [to / drink / a / get] of water 


6. Volunteering [deep / me / gave / gratitude] for [the / opportunities / comforts / and] I [take / for / used / to] granted 


7. Gratitude [I / for / have / what] When [I / returned / home, / I] literally [hugged / toilet, / and / my] I [during / first / cried / my] hot shower 


8. Appreciation [for / new / cultures / The] local [are / welcoming, / people / strong,] and [positive / overwhelmingly] 




[영시한 SP1-4]

1. After [experiencing / this / Tanzania, / in] I [help / people / decided / to] wherever [could / whenever / I / and] for [and / for / myself / them] 


2. Commitment [I / helping / people / to] will [be / feels / honest: / Volunteering] good 


3. Hunger [for / exploration / Though / I] was [happy / home, / to / return] I [it / was / confident / would] not [last / adventure / be / my] 


4. I [knew / to / wanted / I] continue [people / meeting / from / exploring,] different [foods, / new / trying / backgrounds,] and [discovering / unique / landscapes] 


5. Giving [to / back / and / others] seeing [on / the / smiles / their] faces [feeling / unmatched / a / is] by [else / anything] 


6. It [something / try / is / I] to [every / day / do] 




[영시한 SP1-5]

1. Sometimes [I / wonder / my / what] life [if / like / be / would] I [on / not / had / got] that [East / plane / to / Africa] 


2. I [graduated / in / college / from] 2008, [ever / I / and / since,] have [working / and / traveling / been] around [the / world] 


3. I [gratitude / practice / and / daily] am [always / to / trying / meet] new [people / about / learn / and] different [ways / life / of] 


4. I [know / will / the / never] answers [these / to / questions] 


5. Volunteering [led / to / me / abroad] the [have / I / today / life] — [I / wouldn't / which / change] for anything 


6. Would [have / ever / tasted / I] ugali, [the / danced / Masai, / with] or [an / elephant / bathed] 


7. Would [the / I / be / person] I [am / today] 


8. But [I / know / do / I] will [forever / be / grateful / I] got [plane / on / that] 


9. It [10 / has / now / been] years [to / since / traveled / I] Tanzania, [these / still / principles / and] guide me 


10. I [volunteered / everywhere / from / have] Korea [France / to / Nicaragua / to] to [North / Carolina] 




[영시한 SP1-6]

1. < [READING / ADDITIONAL / > / The] Secret [to / There / Happiness / is] a [Chinese / saying / that / goes:] "If [you / want / for / happiness] an [nap / hour, / a / take] If [want / happiness / you / for] a [go / fishing / day, / If] you [a / happiness / for / want] year, [a / fortune / inherit / If] you [want / the / happiness / for]


2. The [answer / yes / is / Scientific] research [provides / to / data / convincing] support [that / the / evidence / giving] is [powerful / a / path / to] lasting [Researchers / have / found / happiness] that [the / our / in / areas] brains [become / pleasure / that / feel] activated [we / give / when / —meaning] that [good, / donating / doing / besides] our [time / or / actually / money]




[영시한 SP1-7]

1. With [money, / meals / collected / the] for [in / are / people / need] served 


2. Volunteers [clean-up / gather / for / the] and [are / with / provided / cleaning] tools [as / gloves / plastic / such] and bags 


3. < [CULTURE / > / Volunteers / around] the [World / Mealshare / is / Mealshare] a [founded / non-profit / by / organization] two [from / young / men / Canada] in 2013 


4. Teens [Started / by / Jeans / for] a [non-profit / is / organization, / it] a [teenagers / campaign / which / in] in [US / collect / the / pairs] of [jeans / them / give / and] to [youth / homeless / local] 


5. COASTSWEEP [an / is / It / international] clean-up [the / in / organized / campaign] US 


6. When [a / orders / a / customer] Mealshare [item, / restaurant / donates / the] $1 [Mealshare / to] 


7. Many [teenagers / have / and / schools] donated [five / million / pairs / over] of [campaign / the / since / jeans] started [2008 / in] 


8. Volunteers [what / record / pick / they] up [the / and / is / data] used [to / out / find / the] sources [and / of / trash, / to] study [to / how / trash / reduce] 


9. With [One"motto, / Give / "uy / One,] Mealshare [with / restaurants, / and / partners] places [symbol / its / to / next] a [menu / few / items] 




[영시한 SP2-1]

1. "Shoot [bluejays / as / as / many] you [remember / that / but / want,] it's [kill / sin / to / a] a mockingbird 


2. They [sing / hearts / only / their] out [us / for] 


3. To [a / Mockingbird / Kill / In] the [early / of / the / part] novel [a / Mockingbird, / Kill / To] the [brother / heroine / her / and] are [by / father / told / their] never [mockingbird / kill / to / a] 


4. "I [you / only / hope / shoot] tin [the / in / cans / garden,] but [want / know / I / you'll] to [he / birds," / hunt / says] to [children, / who / his / are] learning [how / a / to / shoot] gun 


5. They [up / people's / eat / don't] gardens [steal / or / their / food] 


6. All [make / is / mockingbirds / do] music [to / enjoy / for / us] 


7. "Puzzled, [Miss / heroine / the / asks] Maudie, [her / clever / kind / and] neighbor, [not / why / should / she] kill [mockingbird / a] 


8. That's [why / sin / a / it's] to [mockingbird" / kill / a] 




[영시한 SP2-2]

1. Lee [a / To / wrote / Kill] Mockingbird [own / on / based / her] childhood experiences 


2. Her [and / against / racism / criticism] her [wish / a / for / more] fair [understanding / world / are / and] well [in / this / expressed / book] 


3. It [in / has / been / translated] 40 [and / languages, / different / more] than [copies / have / million / 40] been sold 


4. In [Mockingbird, / Kill / To / a] there [mockingbirds, / are / like / characters] who [and / innocent / harmless / are] 


5. However, [they / hurt / are / often] and [sometimes / by / even / killed] others 


6. Through [the / their / author / stories,] Harper [shows / an / how / Lee] unfair [innocent / people / society / harms] and [helping / prevents / from / others] them 


7. For [Kill / To / this / reason,] a [been / has / long / Mockingbird] a [not / book / only / loved] by [Americans / but / by / also] many [people / the / world / around] 


8. Just [like / the / heroine / of] the [up / novel, / she / grew] in [and / many / saw / Alabama] African-American [treated / cruelly / and / people] unfairly 


9. At [the / she / time, / same] also [how / important / shows / it] is [to / just, / fair, / remain] and [a / understanding / such / in] society 




[영시한 SP2-3]

1. He [seen / not / has / been] by [many / for / anyone / years,] and [adults / Maycomb / of / the] do [not / talk / to / want] about him 


2. While [acting / they / are / out] the [of / his / life / story] one [day, / them, / Atticus / stops] telling [them / see / to / things] from [of / people's / points / other] view 


3. Here, [the / same / families / have] been [doing / things / the / same] for [after / generation, / generation / and] Atticus [just / is / lawyer / a] like [his / was / father] 


4. The [heroine, / Scout / six-year-old / Finch,] lives [Jem / her / brother / with] and [father / Atticus / their / in] Maycomb, [a / town / little / in] Alabama [do / things / where / not] change quickly 


5. Curious [looks / what / about / he] like [he / why / remains / and] hidden, [children / share / rumors / the] about [him / and / try / to] get [out / to / him / come] of [his / house] 


6. Scout, [Jem, / friend / and / their] Dill [are / fascinated / the / by] haunted [neighborhood / their / house / in] and [the / man / who / lives] there, ["Boo"Radley / Arthur] 


7. To [a / Kill / Mockingbird / is] the [story / young / a / of] girl [a / growing / in / up] southern [1930s, / town / during / the] when [people / facing / African-American / were] severe discrimination 


8. Boo [as / is / known / a] "Monster" [his / stabbing / father / for] in [he / leg / his / when] was [but / boy, / a / no] one [actually / witnessed / accident / the] 




[영시한 SP2-4]

1. Despite [children's / the / playful / actions,] Boo [of / shows / signs / affection] for them 


2. He [leaves / in / gifts / small] a [outside / Radley / the / tree] home, [and / Jem's / fixes / returns] lost [and / puts / a / pants,] blanket [Scout's / while / shoulders, / on] she [out / the / is / in] cold [at / looking / a / weather] neighbor's [that / on / house / is] fire 


3. However, [he / never / shows / himself,] so [grows / Scout / more / and] more [curious / about / him] 


4. Meanwhile, [defend / to / agrees / Atticus] an [man / named / African-American / Tom] Robinson, [been / has / accused / who] of [attacking / white / a / young] woman, [Mayella / Ewell] 


5. Most [of / white / people / the] in [Maycomb / understand / not / do] why [Atticus / would / this / defend] African-American man 


6. Jem [are / and / also / Scout] bullied [children / by / other / because] of this 


7. They [by / angered / Atticus's / are] effort [Tom / give / to / the] best [defense / possible] 




[영시한 SP2-5]

1. Tom [escape / to / tries / later] from [is / and / shot / prison] to [finds / death, / and / Scout] that [her / of / neighbors / most] don't [care / about / this] 


2. However, [comes / strange / a / man] to [them / rescue] 


3. One [day / trial, / during / the] Atticus [that / evidence / clear / provides] Tom [attacked / and / never / Mayella] that [and / she / her / father,] Bob [lying / Ewell, / are] 


4. Despite [fact / that / the / Tom] has [and / convicted / is / been] now [dead, / Bob / Ewell / feels] that [been / has / he / insulted] and [his / take / to / tries] revenge 


5. Scout [this / realizes / man / that] is [Radley / Boo] 


6. Nevertheless, [decides / the / jury / all-white] that [Tom / guilty / is] 


7. Both [and / Atticus / his / children] are [shocked / injustice / the / by] of [has / to / happened / what] Tom 


8. She [Jem / the / and / wounded] are [to / back / their / brought] house [Boo / by] 


9. He [wife, / threatens / Tom's / tries] to [judge's / into / the / break] house, [and / finally / Jem / attacks] and [they / Scout / walk / as] home [party / from / Halloween / a] 




[영시한 SP2-6]

1. She [imagines / seeing / herself / and] her [from / perspective / Boo's / brother] and [understands / her / what / finally] father [told / when / meant / he] her [put / to / herself / in] other [places / people's] 


2. Standing [on / porch / of / the] the [Radley / sees / she / house,] the [village / as / Boo / has] always [seen / it] 


3. When [the / sheriff / he / arrives,] discovers [that / Ewell / was / stabbed] to [death / the / fight / during] 


4. After [sheriff / the / leaves / and] Jem [is / put / to / safely] bed, [Boo / and / walk / Scout] arm-in-arm [to / back / house / Boo's] 


5. However, [charge / he / does / not] anyone [with / murder] 


6. He [further / that / knows / any] investigation [will / and / harm / Boo,] he [do / doesn't / to / want] that [he / because / knows / that] Boo [has / risked / himself / to] save [the / children] 


7. When [Boo / into / disappears / the] house, [seen / to / be / never] again, [all / about / Scout / thinks] the [he / done / things / has] for [her / Jem / and / and] regrets [never / they / have / that] given [him / return / in / anything] 




[영시한 SP2-7]

1. "The [events / various / she / that] experienced [how / taught / unjust / Scout] and [world / adult / ugly / the] was 


2. However, [they / also / taught / her] the [understanding, / of / importance / sympathy,] and [of / sense / justice / a] 


3. "One [said / time / he / you] never [know / a / man / really] until [in / his / you / stand] shoes [in / walk / and / around] them 


4. Just [the / on / standing / there] Radley [porch / enough / was] 



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esh 0:99 \w | Since 2005 블루티쳐 영어학원, 임희재 | wayne.tistory.com | 01033383436 | 제작일 190815 16:04:00


✔︎ 영시한 1-1
① {Be a Doer, Not a Dreamer} Shonda Lynn Rhimes is a famous American television producer and writer. ② Rhimes delivered the following speech at the graduation ceremony for Dartmouth College in 2014. ③ President Hanlon, staff, honored guests, parents, students, families, and friends, good morning and congratulations to the graduating class! ④ When people give graduation speeches, they usually tell you: Follow your dreams. ⑤ Dream and dream big! ⑥ Don't stop dreaming until your dreams come true. ⑦ I think that's nonsense. 


① {몽상가가 아닌, 행동가가 되어라} Shonda Lynn Rhimes는 미국의 유명한 텔레비전 프로그램 제작자이자 작가이다. ② Rhimes는 2014년 Dartmouth College 졸업식에서 다음과 같은 연설을 하였다. ③ Hanlon 학장님, 교직원 여러분, 귀빈 여러분, 부모님들, 학생들, 가족들, 그리고 친구들, 좋은 아침입니다, 그리고 졸업반 여러분 축하합니다! ④ 졸업식 연설을 할 때, 사람들은 보통 여러분에게 말합니다: 당신의 꿈을 쫓아라. ⑤ 꿈을 꾸고 또 크게 꾸어라! ⑥ 당신의 꿈이 이루어질 때까지 꿈꾸기를 멈추지 마라. ⑦ 저는 그것이 터무니없는 말이라고 생각합니다. 



✔︎ 영시한 1-2
① A lot of people dream. ② And while they are busy dreaming, the really happy and successful people are busy doing. ③ Dreams are lovely, but they are just dreams. ④ Dreams do not come true just because you dream them. ⑤ It is hard work that makes things happen and creates change. ⑥ So, this is my first lesson for you: Be a doer, not a dreamer. ⑦ Maybe you know exactly what you want to do, or maybe you have no idea what you truly want to do. ⑧ It doesn't matter. ⑨ You don't have to know. ⑩ You just have to keep moving forward. ⑪ You just have to keep doing something, seizing the next opportunity, and staying open to trying something new. ⑫ It doesn't have to be the perfect job or the perfect life that you dream of. ⑬ Perfect is boring, and dreams are not real. ⑭ Just do! ⑮ If you're dreaming of traveling, leave right now. ⑯ Do you want to be a writer? ⑰ Start writing. ⑱ A writer is someone who writes every day. ⑲ If you don't have a job, get one. ⑳ Get any job. ㉑ Don't sit at home waiting for the magical opportunity. ㉒ Do something until you can do something else. 


① 많은 사람들이 꿈을 꿉니다. ② 그리고 그들이 꿈꾸느라 바쁜 동안에 정말로 행복하고 성공한 사람들은 행동하느라 바쁩니다. ③ 꿈은 아름답지만 단지 꿈일 뿐입니다. ④ 여러분이 그저 꿈을 꾼다고 해서 그 꿈이 실현되는 것은 아닙니다. ⑤ 어떤 일들을 일어나게 하고 변화를 만들어 내는 것은 바로 노력입니다. ⑥ 그러므로 이것이 제가 여러분에게 드리는 첫 번째 교훈입니다: 몽상가가 아니라, 행동가가 되십시오. ⑦ 아마도 여러분은 자신이 무엇을 하고 싶은지 정확히 알고 있을 수도 있고, 자신이 진정으로 하고 싶은 것이 무엇인지 모르고 있을지도 모릅니다. ⑧ 그것은 중요하지 않습니다. ⑨ 여러분이 (진정 하고 싶은 것을) 알 필요는 없습니다. ⑩ 여러분은 그저 꾸준히 앞으로 나아가기만 하면 됩니다. ⑪ 계속해서 무언가를 하고, 다음 기회를 포착하고, 새로운 것을 시도하려는 열린 태도를 계속 유지하기만 하면 됩니다. ⑫ 그것이 꼭 여러분이 꿈꾸던 완벽한 직업이거나 완벽한 삶일 필요는 없습니다. ⑬ 완벽한 것은 지루하고 꿈은 현실이 아닙니다. ⑭ 일단 해보세요! ⑮ 여행을 꿈꾸고 있다면, 당장 떠나세요. ⑯ 작가가 되고 싶으신가요? ⑰ 글쓰기를 시작하세요. ⑱ 작가는 날마다 글을 쓰는 사람입니다. ⑲ 직장이 없다면, 직장을 구하세요. ⑳ 어떤 직장이든 구하세요. ㉑ 마법과 같은 기회를 기다리면서 집에 앉아 있지 마세요. ㉒ 여러분이 다른 것을 할 수 있을 때까지 어떤 일이든 하세요. 



✔︎ 영시한 1-3
① My second lesson is this: Don't be self-centered. ② Right after graduation, you may have the worst days of your lives. ③ But don't act like you're the most miserable person in the world, because you are not. ④ We are already a lot luckier than most people on the earth. ⑤ We live in the country where we are free to speak our own mind and most people believe that everyone should be treated equally regardless of gender or race. ⑥ In some parts of the world, girls are harmed simply because they want to get an education. ⑦ Slavery still exists. ⑧ Children still starve to death. ⑨ Even in the United States, there are countless people who are living much more difficult lives than we can ever imagine. ⑩ Crime and violence are part of the everyday lives of these people. ⑪ So before you complain, remember that you have been given a gift. ⑫ Your whole life so far has been a gift. ⑬ It's time to pay for it by doing something for the world. 


① 저의 두 번째 교훈은 이것입니다: 자기중심적이 되지 마세요. ② 졸업 직후에 여러분들은 여러분의 인생에서 최악의 나날을 보내게 될지도 모릅니다. ③ 하지만 여러분이 세상에서 제일 비참한 사람인것처럼 행동하지는 마세요, 왜냐하면 여러분은 그렇게 비참하지 않기 때문입니다. ④ 우리는 이미 지구상 대부분의 사람들보다 훨씬 더 운이 좋습니다. ⑤ 우리는 우리의 생각을 자유롭게 말할 수 있고, 대부분의 사람들이 모든 사람은 성별이나 인종에 관계없이 동등하게 대우받아야 한다고 믿는 나라에서 살고 있습니다. ⑥ 세계의 어떤 지역에서는 여자아이들이 단지 교육을 받고 싶다는 이유로 해를 당하고 있습니다. ⑦ 노예제도가 여전히 존재합니다. ⑧ 아이들이 여전히 굶어 죽고 있습니다. ⑨ 미국에서조차도 우리가 상상할 수 있는 것 이상으로 훨씬 어려운 삶을 살아가고 있는 사람들이 무수히 많습니다. ⑩ 범죄와 폭력은 이런 사람들의 일상생활의 일부입니다. ⑪ 그러므로 불평하기 전에 여러분이 선물을 받았다는 것을 기억하십시오. ⑫ 지금까지 여러분의 삶 전체가 선물이었습니다. ⑬ 세상을 위해 무언가를 함으로써 그 선물에 대한 대가를 지불할 때입니다. 



✔︎ 영시한 1-4
① My third lesson is this: Accept that you cannot do everything. ② Since I'm a very successful woman and a mother with three children, many people ask me, "How do you do it all? ③ How do you become successful at your job while having a family?" ④ Now I'm going to give you an entirely honest answer: I don't. ⑤ Whenever I'm succeeding in one area of my life, I'm failing in another area. ⑥ If I'm writing really exciting stories for television, I'm not spending enough time with my children. ⑦ If I'm enjoying a family holiday with my children, I'm not finishing the script that I should. ⑧ If I'm succeeding at one, I'm inevitably failing at the other. ⑨ This happens with all truly successful people. ⑩ It will happen to you when you become successful. ⑪ We all achieve one thing by failing to achieve something else. ⑫ Anyone who tells you they are doing it all perfectly is a liar. 


① 저의 세 번째 교훈은 이것입니다: 여러분이 모든 것을 다 할 수는 없다는 것을 받아들이세요. ② 저는 매우 성공한 여성이자 세 자녀의 엄마인 까닭에 많은 사람들이 제게 묻습니다, "어떻게 그 모든 것을 다 해내세요? ③ 가정을 꾸리면서 어떻게 당신의 직업에서 성공할 수 있었나요?" ④ 이제 저는 정말 솔직한 답을 하려고 합니다: 전 그렇지 않습니다. ⑤ 제가 제 삶의 한 분야에서 성공할 때마다, 저는 다른 분야에서는 실패하고 있습니다. ⑥ 만일 제가 흥미진진한 TV 프로그램 방송 원고를 쓰고 있다면, 저는 제 아이들과 충분한 시간을 보내지 못하고 있는 겁니다. ⑦ 만일 제가 제 아이들과 가족휴가를 즐기고 있다면, 저는 끝내야 할 대본을 끝내지 못하고 있는 겁니다. ⑧ 만일 제가 한 가지 일에서 성공하고 있다면, 저는 불가피하게 다른 한 가지 일에서는 실패하고 있는 것입니다. ⑨ 이런 일은 실제로 성공한 모든 사람들에게서 일어납니다. ⑩ 여러분이 성공할 때도 이런 일은 일어날 겁니다. ⑪ 우리는 모두 다른 무언가를 이루지 못함으로써 한 가지를 성취합니다. ⑫ 모든 것을 다 완벽하게 해내고 있다고 여러분에게 말하는 사람은 누구나 거짓말쟁이입니다. 



✔︎ 영시한 1-5
① I hope I didn't scare you. ② I just wanted to say that it is okay, even if it doesn't look okay. ③ Your dreams may not all come true. ④ You may sometimes feel like you're failing at work or at your home life. ⑤ The real world is hard. ⑥ And yet, you can still wake up in the morning and be amazed at everything you have and everything you have achieved. ⑦ And then 20 years from now, one of you can find yourself right here where I stand, giving a graduation speech. 


① 제가 여러분을 겁주지 않았기를 바랍니다. ② 저는 그저 괜찮아 보이지 않을지라도 괜찮다고 말하고 싶었을 뿐입니다. ③ 여러분의 꿈이 모두 실현되지 않을 수도 있습니다. ④ 때로는 직장에서 혹은 가정생활에서 실패하고 있다고 느낄지도 모릅니다. ⑤ 실제 세상은 혹독합니다. ⑥ 그럼에도 불구하고, 여러분은 여전히 아침에 일어나서 여러분이 가지고 있는 모든 것과 성취한 모든 것에 깜짝 놀랄 수도 있습니다. ⑦ 그리고 지금으로부터 20년 후 여러분 가운데 누군가는 지금 제가 서 있는 바로 이곳에서 졸업 연설을 하고 있는 자기 자신을 발견할 수도 있습니다. 



✔︎ 영시한 2-1
① Darwin's "survival of the fittest"is universally regarded as a simple reality in the game of life. ② Successful play sometimes requires a degree of selfishness. ③ However, across the animal kingdom, selfishness is only a very small part of an animal's life. ④ Often, animals help each other and work together for the greater good. ⑤ Cooperation prevails at every level of the animal kingdom. ⑥ In the following three examples, it is inspiring to see how animals cooperate to help each other. 


① 보편적으로 Darwin의'적자생존'은 삶이라는 경기에서 단순한 사실로 여겨진다. ② 성공적인 행위는 때때로 어느 정도의 이기 심을 요구한다. ③ 그러나 동물의 왕국 전체에서 이기심은 동물의 삶에서 단지 매우 작은 부분일 뿐이다. ④ 종종 동물들은 더 큰 이익을 위해서 서로 돕고 함께 일한다. ⑤ 협동은 동물 왕국의 모든 면에서 널리 퍼져 있다. ⑥ 다음 세 개의 예시에서 동물 들이 서로 돕기 위해 어떻게 협력하는지를 보는 것은 매우 고무적인 일이다. 



✔︎ 영시한 2-2
① Have you ever observed ants marching in and out of their nest? ② If so, it may have reminded you of a highway packed with cars. ③ But this comparison is not appropriate. ④ Ants never get into a traffic jam, no matter how fast they move or how many of them occupy the road. ⑤ This is because their movements are based on cooperation. ⑥ When there are a few ants moving in a single direction, some ants are likely to move slowly, some fast, and others even faster. ⑦ As their number increases, however, they communicate with each other so that they all move at the same speed. ⑧ The slow speed up while the fast and the superfast slow down. ⑨ There are times when ants leaving the nest for food encounter other ants coming back with food on their backs. ⑩ When this happens, the inbound ants, the ones carrying a burden, always have the right of way. ⑪ Outbound ants turn to get out of the way, while inbound ants continue in a straight line. ⑫ This arrangement makes sense because it is more difficult for inbound ants to change direction due to their heavy loads. ⑬ Following these rules and cooperating in this way, ants improve the traffic flow and make the delivery of food to the nest more efficient. 


① 당신은 개미들이 집 안팎으로 행진하는 모습을 본 적이 있는가? ② 만약 그렇다면, 그 광경은 당신에게 자동차들로 가득한 고속도로를 떠오르게 했을지 모른다. ③ 그러나 이러한 비유는 적절하지 못하다. ④ 개미들은 아무리 빨리 움직이거나, 아무리 많은 수가 길을 차지하고 있더라도 결코 교통 혼잡에 빠지지 않는다. ⑤ 이것은 그들의 움직임이 협동에 근거하고 있기 때문 이다. ⑥ 한 방향으로 움직이는 개미 몇 마리가 있을 때, 일부는 천천히 움직이고, 일부는 빨리, 그리고 또 다른 일부는 더 빨리 움직인다. ⑦ 그러나 그들의 수가 증가할 때 개미들은 모두들 동일한 속도로 움직이기 위해 서로 의사소통한다. ⑧ 느린 개미 들은 속도를 올리고, 반면 빠른 개미들과 더 빨리 움직이던 개미들은 속도를 늦춘다. ⑨ 먹이를 구하기 위해 집을 떠나는 개미들이 등에 먹이를 지고 돌아오는 개미들과 우연히 마주치는 때가 있다. ⑩ 이런 일이 발생할 때는 들어오는 개미들, 다시 말해 짐을 지고 있는 개미들이 항상 우선 통행권을 갖는다. ⑪ 밖으로 나가는 개미들이 방향을 바꿔 길을 비켜주고, 집으로 들어가는 개미들은 계속해서 직전을 한다. ⑫ 집으로 들어오는 개미들이 무거운 짐들 때문에 방향을 바꾸기가 더 어렵기 때문에 이러한 합의는 이치에 맞는 것이다. ⑬ 이러한 규칙을 따르고, 이 방식으로 협동하면서 개미들은 교통흐름을 개선하고, 둥지로 먹이를 옮기는 일을 더욱 효율적으로 만든다. 



✔︎ 영시한 2-3
① Fish also cooperate. ② As everyone knows, big fish often eat little fish. ③ Sometimes, however, little fish help the big fish, so the big fish do not eat the little fish. ④ Tiny fish, which scientists refer to as "cleaners," swim into the mouths of bigger fish, which are referred to as "clients." ⑤ The cleaners eat parasites in the clients' mouths. ⑥ After the cleaners do their job, the clients let them go, instead of swallowing them. ⑦ The cleaners get a meal, and the clients get a healthier mouth. ⑧ Sometimes the cleaner fish chew on the wall of the client fish's mouth. ⑨ Although this may cause pain, the big fish still do not eat the little ones for two reasons. ⑩ First, the cleaners are too small to satisfy their hunger. ⑪ Second, it is hard to find good cleaners. ⑫ Once the cleaners and the clients establish trust, the clients want to cooperate with the cleaners and keep them around. 


① 물고기들도 또한 협력을 한다. ② 모든 사람들이 알다시피 큰 물고기들은 작은 물고기를 먹는다. ③ 그러나 때로는 작은 물고기 들이 큰 물고기를 돕고, 그래서 큰 물고기들은 작은 물고기를 먹지 않는다. ④ 과학자들이'청소부들'이라고 부르는 작은 물고 기들은'고객들'이라고 불리는 큰 물고기들의 입으로 들어간다. ⑤ 청소부들은 고객들의 입속의 기생충을 먹는다. ⑥ 청소부들이 자신의 일을 마치고 난 후 고객들은 이들을 삼키는 대신 나가도록 내버려둔다. ⑦ 청소부들은 먹이를 먹고, 고객들은 더 건강 한 입을 갖게 되는 것이다. ⑧ 때로는 청소부 물고기들이 고객 물고기 입의 벽을 씹는다. ⑨ 비록 이것이 고통을 유발할지 모르지만, 큰 물고기들은 두 가지 이유로 작은 물고기들을 먹지 않는다. ⑩ 첫째, 청소부들이 너무 작아서 그들의 배고픔을 충족시켜줄 수 없다. ⑪ 둘째, 좋은 청소부 물고기를 찾기가 어렵다. ⑫ 일단 청소부와 고객 물고기가 신뢰를 형성하고 나면, 고객들은 청소부들과 협력하면서 그들을 주위에 두기를 원한다. 



✔︎ 영시한 2-4
① Pied flycatchers are small birds that cooperate in dangerous situations. ② When a predator enters a flycatcher's area, the flycatcher makes a loud sound for help. ③ Other flycatchers hear the call, and they come to help. ④ As more and more birds join the group, the predator becomes frightened and runs away. ⑤ It is important to note that flycatchers go to the aid of another bird in danger only if that bird has helped other birds in the past. ⑥ They do not answer the calls of birds that have refused to help others before. ⑦ More Info. ⑧ Do you know how bats cooperate to survive? ⑨ One kind of bat has a system of food sharing. ⑩ Bats die if they go two nights without food. ⑪ As hunting for blood—heir only food—s not easy, younger bats fail to find food one night out of three. ⑫ But hunger is rare because bats that find blood share it with bats that don't. 


① 알락딱새는 위험한 상황에서 협동하는 작은 새이다. ② 포식자가 알락딱새 영역에 들어올 때, 이 새는 도움을 요청하는 큰 소 리를 낸다. ③ 다른 새들은 그 울음소리를 듣고 도와주러 온다. ④ 점점 더 많은 새들이 무리에 합류함에 따라 포식자는 겁을 먹 고 달아난다. ⑤ 알락딱새들은 그 새가 과거에 다른 새들을 도와준 적이 있는 경우에만 위험에 처한 새를 돕는다는 점에 주 목하는 것이 중요하다. ⑥ 그들은 이전에 다른 새들을 돕기를 거절한 새의 부름에는 답하지 않는다. ⑦ More Info. ⑧ 박쥐들이 살아남기 위해 어떻게 협력하는지 알고 있나요? ⑨ 한 박쥐 종류는 먹이 공유 체계를 가지고 있다. ⑩ 박쥐들은 먹이 없이 이틀이 지나면 죽는다. ⑪ 그들의 유일한 식량인 피를 사 냥하는 것이 쉽지 않기 때문에 어린 박쥐들은 3일 중 1일은 먹이를 찾지 못한다. ⑫ 그러나 피를 발견한 박쥐들이 그러지 못 한 박쥐들과 피를 나누기 때문에 박쥐들이 굶는 일은 드물다. 



✔︎ 영시한 2-5
① Cooperation is a process that started with the first single-celled creatures. ② Living things, from their beginnings more than three billion years ago, took over the planet by learning to cooperate. ③ We human beings cooperate in plenty of ways, from lining up at a bus stop to sharing knowledge on a website. ④ Sometimes, however, human cooperation can break down. ⑤ To foster cooperative success among humans, we should perhaps look to nature for inspiration. 


① 협동은 최초의 단세포 생물과 함께 시작된 과정이다. ② 생명체들은 30억년 전 이상이나 되는 시작 시점부터 협동하는 법을 배움으로써 행성을 차지했다. ③ 우리 인간들도 버스 정류장에서 줄을 서는 것에서 부터 웹사이트상에서 지식을 공유하는 것 에 이르기까지 많은 방식으로 협동을 한다. ④ 그러나 때로는 인간 협력이 깨지기도 한다. ⑤ 인간 사이의 협력적 성공을 증진 시키기 위해서 우리는 영감을 얻기 위해 자연에 기대야 할지도 모른다. 



✔︎ 영시한 2-6
① There are many team sports which require cooperation among the team members in order to win. ② Let' see the origins of a few of these sports. ③ Field hockey has a long history. ④ Four-thousand-year-old drawings of men playing a simple version of a hockey game have been found in tombs in Egypt. ⑤ In the Middle Ages variations of hockey-like games were played in European countries. ⑥ Later England modernized it. ⑦ Soccer A Chinese game called cuju meaning "kick a ball" existed during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC and has been recognized as the first version of soccer with similar rules to the modern game. ⑧ Players could use any part of their body except their hands. ⑨ Later soccer-like games were played in Japan Australia and several countries in Europe. ⑩ Now 211 countries around the world are registered as members of FIFA. ⑪ Rowing Rowing has existed since humans first traveled on water by boat. ⑫ The first reference to rowing as a sport comes from 15thcentury BC Egypt. ⑬ It later spread throughout Europe. ⑭ Modern rowing as a competitive sport goes back to England in the 18th century. ⑮ Now one of the most famous competitions is the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race. 


① 승리를 위해서 팀원들 간의 협력이 필요한 팀 스포츠가 많이 있다. ② 이들 중 몇 개의 기원을 살펴보자. ③ 필드하키 필드하키는 오랜 역사를 가지고 있다. ④ 단순한 형태의 하키 경기를 하고 있는 남성을 그린 4,000년된 그림이 이집트의 무 덤에서 발견되어 왔다. ⑤ 중세 시대에는 변형된 형태의 하키와 비슷한 경기들이 유럽 국가들에서 펼쳐졌다. ⑥ 이후 영국에서 하키 경기를 근대화시켰다. ⑦ 축구'공을 찬다'는 의미의 cuju (쿠주)라는 중국 경기가 기원전 2, 3세기에 존재했고, 이것이 근대 축구 경기와 유사한 규칙을 가진 최초의 축구 경기라고 인식된다. ⑧ 선수들은 손을 제외한 몸의 어떤 부분도 사용할 수 있었다. ⑨ 이후 일본, 호주, 그리고 유럽의 여러 나라에서 축구와 비슷한 경기가 행해졌다. ⑩ 이제 전 세계 211개국이 FIFA (국제축구연맹) 회원으로 등록되어 있다. ⑪ 조정 조정 경기는 인류가 보트로 물위를 처음 이동했을 때부터 존재했다. ⑫ 조정이 스포츠로 처음 언급된 것은 기원전 15세기 이 집트에서였다. ⑬ 그 후 유럽으로 퍼져 나갔다. ⑭ 경기 스포츠로서의 근대 조정은 18세기 영국으로 거슬러 올라간다. ⑮ 현재 가장 유명한 조정 경기 중의 하나가 옥스퍼드와 캠브리지 경정대회이다. 



✔︎ 영시한 3-1
① {What Is Soda Doing to You} When you eat fast food, such as pizza, hamburger, or fried chicken, what do you drink with it? ② Most people have a soda. ③ When you go to the movies or when you just want something refreshing to satisfy your thirst, a soda is often the first choice. ④ Soda, also called a soft drink, is a sweet drink with carbonation. ⑤ People all over the world love sodas. ⑥ Every year, Americans consume 170 liters of soda per person, and the British 100 liters. ⑦ Of all age groups, teenagers drink the most soda. ⑧ Most people, however, understand that sodas are not good for their health due to the ingredients. ⑨ What is in a soda? ⑩ Which ingredients are really not good for you? 


① 당신이 피자, 햄버거, 또는 닭고기튀김과 같은 패스트푸드를 먹을 때, 그것과 함께 무얼 마시는가? ② 대부분의 사람들은 탄산음료를 마신다. ③ 당신이 영화를 보러 가거나 갈증을 해소하기 위해 뭔가 산뜻한 것을 원할 때 탄산음료가 흔히 첫 번째 로 선택되는 것이다. ④ 청량음료라고도 불리는 탄산음료는 탄산이 있는 달콤한 음료이다. ⑤ 전 세계 사람들이 탄산음료를 매우 좋아한다. ⑥ 매년 미국 인들은 인당 170리터의 탄산음료를 소비하고, 영국인들은 인당 100리터의 탄산음료를 소비한다. ⑦ 모든 연령 집단 중에서, 십 대들이 탄산음료를 가장 많이 마신다. ⑧ 그러나 대부분의 사람들은 탄산음료가 성분 때문에 건강에 좋지 않다는 것을 이 해하고 있다. ⑨ 탄산음료 안에는 무엇이 들어 있을까? ⑩ 어떤 성분이 당신에게 정말 좋지 않을까? 



✔︎ 영시한 3-2
① {Sugar} Everyone knows that soft drinks are loaded with large amounts of sugar. ② A typical 250ml can of soda contains 30 grams of sugar. ③ WHO, the World Health Organization, recommends that people consume less than 25 grams of sugar a day. ④ Therefore, if you drink one small can of soda, your daily sugar intake already exceeds the recommended amount. ⑤ What is worse, people usually don't stop with one can. ⑥ Having extra sugar means adding unnecessary calories. ⑦ Over time, this can lead to obesity and other health problems, such as heart disease and diabetes. ⑧ Even diet sodas are not safe. ⑨ Diet sodas replace the sugar with artificial sweeteners. ⑩ Artificial sweeteners provide a sweet, sugary taste with fewer calories. ⑪ This may seem like a good thing, but it really isn't. ⑫ According to a recent study, artificial sweeteners make you want more sweet foods. ⑬ This means that you may easily gain weight if you keep drinking diet soda. ⑭ In addition, artificial sweeteners are known to generate headaches, emotional disorders, and sleeping problems. 


① 모든 사람이 청량음료가 많은 양의 설탕으로 채워져 있다는 것을 알고 있다. ② 전형적인 250ml 탄산음료 한 캔은 설탕 30 그램을 함유한다. ③ 세계보건기구인 WHO는 사람들이 하루에 25그램 미만의 설탕을 소비할 것을 권장한다. ④ 따라서 작은 탄 산음료 캔 하나를 마시면 당신의 일일 설탕 섭취량은 이미 권장량을 초과하는 것이다. ⑤ 더 나쁜 것은, 사람들은 보통 한 캔 으로 끝내지 않는다는 것이다. ⑥ 설탕을 추가로 먹는 것은 불필요한 열량을 더하는 것을 의미한다. ⑦ 시간이 지나면서 이것이 비만, 그리고 심장병과 당뇨병과 같은 다른 건강 문제로 이어질 수 있다. ⑧ 다이어트 탄산음료조차도 안전하지 않다. ⑨ 다이어트 탄산음료는 설탕을 인공 감미료로 대체한다. ⑩ 인공 감미료는 더 적은 열량으로 달콤한 설탕 맛을 제공한다. ⑪ 이것은 좋은 일처럼 보일지도 모르지만, 실제로는 그렇지 않다. ⑫ 최근 연구에 따르면, 인공 감미료는 당신이 단 음식을 더 많이 원하게 만든다. ⑬ 이것은 당신이 계속 다이어트 탄산음료를 마시면 쉽게 체중이 늘 수도 있다는 것을 의미한다. ⑭ 게다가 인공 감미료는 두통, 정서 장애, 그리고 수면 문제를 일으키는 것으로 알려져 있다. 



✔︎ 영시한 3-3
① {Acid} Most soda contains several types of acids. ② Acid is a chemical substance with a sour taste. ③ When added to water, it produces a sharp flavor. ④ Acid also delays the growth of bacteria, which extends the expiration date of a product. ⑤ However, acid interferes with the body's ability to absorb calcium, and as a result, bone softening occurs. ⑥ Also, the acid in sodas interacts with stomach acid, slowing digestion and blocking nutrient absorption. ⑦ Furthermore, it can damage tooth enamel, the hard substance that protects your teeth. ⑧ If you drink sodas regularly, your teeth decay more easily. 


① 대부분의 탄산음료는 몇몇 종류의 산을 함유한다. ② 산은 신맛이 나는 화학 물질이다. ③ 물에 더해지면 그것은 톡 쏘는 맛을 만들어 낸다. ④ 산은 또한 박테리아의 성장을 지연시키는데, 그것이 상품의 유통 기한을 늘린다. ⑤ 그러나 산은 칼슘을 흡수하 는 신체의 능력을 방해하고, 그 결과 뼈의 연화가 일어난다. ⑥ 또한 탄산음료 안의 산은 위산과 상호 작용하여 소화를 늦추 고 영양소 흡수를 막는다. ⑦ 게다가 그것은 당신의 치아를 보호하는 단단한 물질인 치아 에나멜을 손상시킬 수 있다. ⑧ 탄산음료를 정기적으로 마시면 당신의 치아는 더 쉽게 썩는다. 



✔︎ 영시한 3-4
① {Caffeine} When you hear the word "caffeine," you most likely think of coffee. ② But some sodas, especially colas and carbonated energy drinks, also contain caffeine. ③ Caffeine makes you feel more awake, but it may bring about an irregular heartbeat. ④ A single can of cola may not affect you much, but if you consume colas regularly, they can make you feel more nervous and keep you from sleeping well at night. ⑤ Artificial Colors and Artificial Flavors Soft drink companies attract consumers by adding bright colors and sweet flavors to their products. ⑥ Most of these colors and flavors, however, are not natural. ⑦ They are artificial chemicals. ⑧ For example, the artificial color Yellow No_6, used in some pineapple juices, adds nothing to the taste. ⑨ It is just there to make the drink look pretty. ⑩ Also, the artificial flavor that gives the drink its pineapple taste is not real pineapple juice at all. ⑪ Studies have shown that excessive consumption of these kinds of chemicals can create problems such as kidney disease and ADHD. 


① 당신은'카페인'이라는 단어를 들었을 때 아마 커피를 생각할 것이다. ② 하지만 일부 탄산음료들, 특히 콜라와 탄산에너지 음 료 또한 카페인을 함유한다. ③ 카페인은 당신을 깨어 있는 느낌이 더 들게 만들지만, 불규칙한 심장 박동을 초래할 수도 있 다. ④ 콜라 단 한 캔은 여러분에게 많은 영향을 끼치지 않을지도 모르지만, 콜라를 정기적으로 소비하면, 그것이 당신을 더 욱 긴장된 기분으로 만들고 밤에 숙면을 취하는 것을 막을 수 있다. ⑤ 인공 색소와 인공 향료 청량음료 회사들은 그들의 제품에 선명한 색과 달콤한 맛을 더해서 소비자들의 마음을 끈다. ⑥ 그러나 이런 색과 맛의 대부 분은 자연적인 것이 아니다. ⑦ 그것들은 인공 화학 물질이다. ⑧ 예를 들어, 몇몇 파인애플 주스에 사용되는 인공색소인 황색 6호는 아무런 맛도 더하지 않는다. ⑨ 그것은 단지 음료를 예쁘게 보이게 하려고 있는 것이다. ⑩ 또한 그 음료가 파인애플 맛이 나게 하는 인공 향료는 실제의 파인애플 주스가 전혀 아니다. ⑪ 연구들은 이런 종류의 화학 물질을 과도하게 섭취하면 신장 병과 ADHD (주의력 결핍 과잉행동 장애)와 같은 문제를 일으킬 수 있다는 것을 밝혀 왔다. 



✔︎ 영시한 3-5
① You can see how the sugar, the acid, the caffeine, and the artificial chemicals in sodas are really not good for you. ② Perhaps you might now understand that you should stop drinking them. ③ However, if quitting sodas altogether sounds too difficult, cut down gradually. ④ For example, replace one regular soft drink or one diet soda per day with another more healthy drink. ⑤ Of course, the best choice would be water. ⑥ Water has no calories, no acid, no caffeine, and no chemicals of any kind. ⑦ And if you want something to add a boost of flavor, put a slice of lemon in the water. ⑧ If you can't break your soda drinking habits in a short period of time, don't be too hard on yourself. ⑨ Once you start cutting back, you are heading in the right direction. 


① 당신은 탄산음료 안의 설탕, 산, 카페인, 그리고 인공 화학물질들이 어떻게 당신에게 실제로 좋지 않은지를 알 수 있다. ② 어쩌면 당신은 이제 그것을 그만 마셔야한다는 것을 이해할지도 모른다. ③ 그러나 탄산음료를 완전히 끊는 것이 너무 어려울 것 같다면 서서히 양을 줄여라. ④ 예를 들어, 하루에 정기적으로 마시던 청량음료 하나 또는 다이어트 탄산음료 하나를 다른 건강에 더 좋은 음료로 대체하라. ⑤ 물론 가장 좋은 선택은 물일 것이다. ⑥ 물에는 열량, 산, 카페인, 그리고 어떤 종류의 화학 물질도 없다. ⑦ 그리고 당신이 맛을 증진 시키기 위해 뭔가 더할 것을 원한다면 물에 레몬 한 조각을 넣어라. ⑧ 단기간에 탄산 음료를 마시는 습관을 고칠 수 없다고 해도 당신 자신에게 너무 심하게 굴지는 마라. ⑨ 일단 양을 줄이기 시작하면, 당신은 올바른 방향으로 향하고 있는 것이다. 



✔︎ 영시한 4-1
① {RFCx} the Rainforest Savior Imagine you are standing in a rainforest. ② You are surrounded by tall trees, many of which are more than 40 meters tall. ③ You are a hundred kilometers away from the nearest city. ④ What do you hear? ⑤ Do you think it is a quiet, peaceful place? ⑥ If so, you are wrong. ⑦ The rainforest is actually a very noisy place. ⑧ Insects, birds, and monkeys are responsible for much of this noise. ⑨ And sometimes there is another sound, one that does not belong in the forest at all. ⑩ It is the buzz of a chainsaw. ⑪ Every year some 13 million hectares of rainforest, an area about the size of England, disappears. 


① RFCx: 열대 우림의 구세주 여러분이 열대 우림 속에 서 있다고 상상해 보라. ② 키 큰 나무들로 둘러싸여 있는데, 그중 많은 나무들이 40미터 이상이다. ③ 여러분은 가장 가까운 도시에서 1백 킬로미터 떨어져 있다. ④ 무엇이 들리는가? ⑤ 그곳이 조용하고 평화로운 장소라고 생각하 는가? ⑥ 만약 그렇다면, 여러분은 틀렸다. ⑦ 열대 우림은 실제로는 매우 시끄러운 곳이다. ⑧ 곤충, 새, 그리고 원숭이들이 이러한 소음에 상당한 책임이 있다. ⑨ 그리고 때때로 다른 소리가 있는데, 이 소리는 숲에는 전혀 어울리지 않는 소리이다. ⑩ 그것은 바로 전기톱의 윙윙거리는 소리이다. ⑪ 매년 1,300만 헥타르의 열대 우림, 대략 영국 크기만큼의 면적이 사라진다. 



✔︎ 영시한 4-2
① This loss destroys the habitats for millions of species and has a major effect on the jungle's biodiversity. ② Also, it increases the amount of CO² in the air. ③ Destruction of the rainforest is caused by logging, farming, mining, and other human activities. ④ Among these, logging is the main reason for nature's loss. ⑤ Some 70 to 80 percent of the logging in the rainforests is thought to be illegal. ⑥ To address this problem, a young American engineer has invented a simple device that detects illegal logging the moment it occurs. ⑦ It all started in 2011, when Topher White visited Indonesia as a volunteer. ⑧ One day, he and some of the other volunteers set out from the ranger station on a walk into a protected rainforest. ⑨ After walking only five minutes, his group came upon people who were cutting down trees illegally. ⑩ The surprised loggers fled, but White was shocked. ⑪ Despite the fact that they were still fairly close to the ranger station, it had been impossible to hear anything from back there. ⑫ It is because the forest was so full of other sounds. 


① 이러한 손실은 수백만 종의 서식지를 파괴하고 정글의 생물 다양성에 큰 영향을 미친다. ② 또한 그것은 대기 중 이산화탄소 의 양을 증가시킨다. ③ 열대 우림의 파괴는 벌목, 농사, 채광, 그리고 다른 인간의 활동으로 유발된다. ④ 이 중 벌목은 자연의 손실에 대한 주된 이유이다. ⑤ 열대 우림에서의 벌목 중 70~80퍼센트는 불법이라고 한다. ⑥ 이러한 문제를 해결하기 위해서, 미국의 한 젊은 엔지니어는 불법 벌목이 발생한 순간 그것을 감지하는 간단한 장치를 발명했다. ⑦ 그 모든 것은 2011년 Topher White가 자원봉사자로 인도네시아를 방문했을 때 시작되었다. ⑧ 어느 날, 그와 몇몇의 다른 자 원봉사자들이 산림 관리소에서 출발하여 열대 우림 보호 구역으로 걸어 들어갔다. ⑨ 걷기 시작한 지 단 5분 후에 그의 일행 은 불법으로 나무를 베고 있던 사람들과 우연히 마주쳤다. ⑩ 놀란 벌목꾼들은 도망쳤지만, White는 충격을 받았다. ⑪ 그들이 산림 관리소에 꽤 가까이 있었다는 사실에도 불구하고, 그곳에서는 어떠한 소리도 들을 수 없었다. ⑫ 숲이 다른 소리들로 너 무나 가득차 있었기 때문이다. 



✔︎ 영시한 4-3
① White started thinking about ways to help. ② He knew that even in the jungle, far from the city, there was good cell phone service. ③ He thought that perhaps cell phone technology could solve the problem. ④ After he returned home to the U.S., in his father's garage he developed a small listening device using an old cell phone. ⑤ He attached a sensitive microphone to the cell phone so that it could detect chainsaw noise from up to three kilometers away. ⑥ This device would be placed high up in a tree. ⑦ When it picked up the buzz of a saw, it would send a message to a ranger's cell phone. ⑧ White knew that he had to protect the cell phone so that it could survive in the hot and wet rainforest environment. ⑨ His solution was to put the phone in a plastic box. ⑩ Since there was no electricity where the phone needed to be placed, the device had to be able to power itself. ⑪ White attached solar panels to the cell phone. ⑫ He was sure that the panels would work, even under the shade of the thick tree leaves. 


① White는 도울 수 있는 방법에 대해 생각하기 시작했다. ② 그는 도시에서 멀리 떨어져 있는 정글에서도 휴대 전화 서비스가 좋다는 것을 알았다. ③ 그는 휴대 전화 기술이 아마도 그 문제를 해결할 수 있을 것이라는 생각을 했다. ④ 미국의 집으로 돌아 간 후에 그는 아버지의 차고에서 오래된 휴대 전화를 이용하여 작은 도청기를 개발했다. ⑤ 그는 최대 3킬로미터 떨어진 곳 에서 나는 전기톱 소리를 감지할 수 있도록 휴대 전화에 고감도 마이크를 부착했다. ⑥ 이 장치는 나무 높은 곳에 설치될 것 이었다. ⑦ 톱 소리를 감지하면, 그 장치는 산림 감시원의 휴대 전화로 메시지를 보낼 것이다. ⑧ White는 덥고 습한 열대 우림의 환경에서 견딜 수 있도록 휴대 전화를 보호해야 한다는 것을 알았다. ⑨ 그의 해결책은 전화 기를 플라스틱 상자에 넣어 두는 것이었다. ⑩ 전화기가 설치될 곳에는 전기가 없었기 때문에, 그 장치는 스스로 전력을 공급 할 수 있어야 했다. ⑪ White는 휴대 전화에 태양 전지판을 부착했다. ⑫ 두꺼운 나뭇잎의 그늘 아래에서도 태양 전지판이 작동 할 것이라고 그는 확신했다. 



✔︎ 영시한 4-4
① White returned to Indonesia to test the device. ② Surprisingly, on only the second day after he installed the device, it picked up chainsaw noises. ③ An alert message was immediately sent to White and the forest rangers. ④ When they approached the logging spot, the illegal loggers ran away. ⑤ White published his story on the Internet and word quickly spread. ⑥ People living in other countries contacted White and asked if they could use the device. ⑦ Others, from around the world, started sending him their old cell phones so he could build more devices. ⑧ These devices, called Rainforest Connection (RFCx), are now being used in the rainforests in Africa and South America. 


① White는 그 장치를 시험하기 위해서 인도네시아로 돌아갔다. ② 놀랍게도 설치한 후 단지 이틀째에 그 장치는 전기톱 소리를 감지했다. ③ 경고 메시지가 White와 산림 감시원들에게 즉시 전송되었다. ④ 그들이 벌목 현장에 도착했을 때 불법벌목꾼들은 도망쳤다. ⑤ White는 자신의 이야기를 인터넷에 게재했고 소문은 빨리 퍼졌다. ⑥ 다른 나라에 사는 사람들이 White에게 연락해서 그 장 치를 사용할 수 있는지 물었다. ⑦ 세계 각지의 사람들은 그가 더 많은 장치를 만들 수 있도록 자신들의 중고 휴대 전화를 그에게 보내기 시작했다. ⑧ Rainforest Connection (RFCx)라고 불리는 이 장치는 현재 아프리카와 남아메리카의 열대 우림에 서 사용되고 있다. 



✔︎ 영시한 4-5
① One RFCx can protect 300 hectares of forest. ② If a forest of this size is cut, 15,000 tons of CO² are released into the air. ③ Preventing this amount of CO² from being released has the same effect as taking 3,000 cars off the road for a year. ④ These devices are saving rainforests and providing new life for thousands of discarded cell phones. ⑤ Thanks to Topher White and his RFCx devices, the earth is now a better place to live. 


① RFCx 한 대는 300헥타르의 숲을 보호할 수 있다. ② 만약 이러한 면적의 숲이 베어진다면 1만 5천 톤의 이산화탄소가 공기 중으로 배출될 것이다. ③ 이 정도 양의 이산화탄소 배출을 막는 것은 1년에 3천 대의 자동차를 도로에서 없애는 것과 같은 효과를 지닌다. ④ 이 장치는 열대 우림을 구하고 수천 대의 버려진 휴대 전화에 새 생명을 제공하고 있다. ⑤ Topher White와 RFCx 장치 덕분에 지구는 이제 살기 더 좋은 곳이 되었다. 



✔︎ 영시한 5-1
① How to Handle Haters. ② Have you ever known someone you just did not get along with? ③ Maybe it was someone you had difficulty working with or it could have been someone you were always arguing with. ④ This kind of situation can leave you wondering what you should do. ⑤ Should you ignore them, be extra nice to them, or stand up to them? ⑥ If you have ever been confused about what to do, you are not alone. ⑦ Luckily for us, Benjamin Franklin, the American politician and inventor, came up with an answer more than 200 years ago. 


① 당신을 미워하는 사람들을 다루는 방법. ② 당신이 잘 어울리지 못하는 사람과 알고 지낸 적이 있는가? ③ 그 사람은 당신이 함께 일하는 데 어려움을 겪었던 사람이거나 당신이 항상 언쟁하고 있던 사람일 수도 있다. ④ 이러한 상황은 당신이 무엇을 해야 할지 계속 생각하게 만들 수 있다. ⑤ 당신은 그들을 무시하거나, 특별히 친절하게 대하거나, 아니면 그들에게 맞서야 할까? ⑥ 만일 당신이 무엇을 해야 할지에 대해 혼란스러웠던 적이 있다면, 당신은 혼자가 아니다. ⑦ 우리에게 다행히도, 미국인 정치가이자 발명가인 Benjamin Franklin 은 200년보다도 더 전에 해답을 생각해 냈다. 



✔︎ 영시한 5-2
① Benjamin Franklin was a very smart man, not just in politics and science, but also in his ability to deal with people. ② Once, when Franklin was serving as a representative for the people of the state of Pennsylvania, a powerful opponent made a long speech criticizing him. ③ This speech was so powerful that it threatened Franklin's political career. ④ Franklin decided to try to change his enemy's opinion of him. ⑤ To do this, he sent a letter to the man asking for a favor. ⑥ He asked the man to lend him a very rare and valuable book, one that he knew the man had in his personal library. ⑦ The man, Franklin's enemy, immediately sent him the book. ⑧ Franklin read the book and returned it with a note of thanks. 


① Benjamin Franklin은 정치와 과학에서뿐만 아니라 사람을 다루는 능력에서도 매우 영리한 사람이었다. ② 한번은 프랭클린이 펜실베이니아 주 하원의원으로 일할 때 강력한 상대가 그를 비판하는 긴 연설을 했다. ③ 이 연설은 너무 강력하여 프랭클린의 정치 경력을 위협했다. ④ 프랭클린은 자신에 대한 적의 의견을 바꿔 보기로 결심했다. ⑤ 이를 위해서 그는 그 남자에게 호의를 부탁하는 편지를 보냈다. ⑥ 프랭클린은 그 남자에게 매우 희귀하고 가치있는 책을 빌려 달라고 요청했는데, 프랭클 은 그 남자가 그 책을 개인 서재에 가지고 있다는 것을 알고 있었다. ⑦ 프랭클린의 적이었던 그 남자는 즉시 그에게 책을 보내 주었다. ⑧ 프랭클린은 그 책을 읽은 후 감사의 편지와 함께 돌려주었다. 



✔︎ 영시한 5-3
① The next time Franklin met his enemy, the man was much nicer to him. ② They eventually became friends and remained so for the rest of their lives. ③ In his autobiography, Franklin explained what happened. ④ Franklin wrote, "He that has once done you a kindness will be more ready to do you another. ⑤ "By asking a small favor of his enemy, Franklin gave the man a chance to do him a kindness. ⑥ This turned his enemy into a friend. ⑦ Today this phenomenon is known as the Benjamin Franklin effect. ⑧ It is commonly thought that if you want people who do not like you to like you, you should do favors for them. ⑨ However, if you want to try to create a connection with someone who does not like you, asking that person to do you a favor is more effective. ⑩ To test this phenomenon, a psychologist performed an experiment and came to the same conclusion. 


① 프랭클린이 그의 적을 다음에 만났을 때, 그 남자는 그에게 훨씬 더 친절했다. ② 그들은 결국 친구가 되었고 여생 동안 친구로 남았다. ③ 자신의 자서전에서 프랭클린은 무슨 일이 있었는지 설명했다. ④ '당신에게 한 번 친절을 베푼 사람은 또 다른 친절을 베풀 준비가 더 되어 있다'라고 프랭클린은 썼다. ⑤ 자신의 적에게 작은 부탁을 함으로써 프랭클린은 그 남자에게 친절을 베풀 기회를 주었다. ⑥ 이것이 그의 적을 친구로 바꾸었다. ⑦ 오늘날 이런 현상은 벤자민 프랭클린 효과로 알려져 있다. ⑧ 당신을 좋아하지 않는 사람들이 당신을 좋아하게 되길 원한다면 당신이 그들의 부탁을 들어줘야 한다는 것이 일반적인 생 각이다. ⑨ 그러나 당신을 좋아하지 않는 사람과 관계를 만들고자 노력하고 싶다면 당신의 부탁을 들어주기를 요청하는 것이 보다 효과적이다. ⑩ 이 현상을 시험하기 위해 한 심리학자가 실험을 수행했고 동일한 결론에 이르렀다. 



✔︎ 영시한 5-4
① About 80 students were invited to participate in an experiment and were told they would be given some money after a series of tests. ② A researcher was hired and made the students dislike him by being rude to them. ③ The students took the tests and were all awarded the promised money. ④ They were then divided into three groups. ⑤ Group 1 was asked by the researcher to return some of the prize money. ⑥ He explained that he had used his own money for the tests and the study was in danger of running out of funds. ⑦ Group 2 was asked by a secretary to return some of the money to the institution because the budget was running low. ⑧ Group 3 was not asked to return any money. ⑨ Afterward, all three groups were asked to rate how much they liked the researcher. ⑩ The people in Group 1, who had done the researcher a personal favor by returning some of the money, rated the researcher the highest. ⑪ Despite the fact that they had had a bad impression of him during the experiment, they had more positive feelings for him after returning "his money." 


① 대략 80명의 학생들이 실험에 참가하도록 초대되어 일련의 검사 후에 약간의 돈을 받게 될 것이라고 들었다. ② 한 연구원이 고용되어 학생들에게 무례하게 대함으로써 학생들이 자신을 싫어하도록 만들었다. ③ 학생들은 검사를 받았고 모두 약속한 돈을 받았다. ④ 그들은 그 다음 세 집단으로 나뉘었다. ⑤ 집단1은 그 연구원에 의해 상금의 일부를 돌려줄 것을 요청받았다. ⑥ 그는 그 검사를 위해 자신의 돈을 썼고, 그 연구가 자금이 바닥날 위기에 처했다고 설명했다. ⑦ 집단 2는 한 비서로부터 해당 기관의 예산이 다 떨어지려고 하기 때문에 돈의 일부를 돌려줄 것을 요청받았다. ⑧ 집단3은 아무런 돈도 돌려주기를 요청받지 않았다. ⑨ 후에 세 집단 모두 그들이 그 연구원을 얼마나 좋아하는지 평가하도록 요청됐다. ⑩ 돈의 일부를 돌려줌으로 써 그 연구원의 개인적인 부탁을 들어줬던 집단1의 사람들이 그 연구원을 가장 높게 평가했다. ⑪ 실험하는 동안 그에 대해 나쁜 인상을 가졌던 사실에도 불구하고 그들은 '그의 돈'을 돌려준 후 그에게 보다 긍정적인 감정을 가진 것이다. 



✔︎ 영시한 5-5
① How can it be that we feel more positively toward people for whom we do favors? ② It is because of what psychologists refer to as "cognitive dissonance. ③ "We want our actions and our thoughts to be in harmony. ④ When we do something that we do not like, the balance is broken, and we feel unhappy. ⑤ If there is a conflict between our thoughts and our actions (cognitive dissonance), we will change one or the other to relieve the conflict. ⑥ After lending Franklin the book, Franklin's enemy experienced cognitive dissonance. ⑦ He felt troubled because he was doing something nice for someone he disliked. ⑧ Feeling anxious and unhappy, he had to find a way to resolve his feelings. ⑨ The easiest way for him to do that was to change how he thought about Franklin. ⑩ He justified doing the favor by telling himself that Franklin was not a bad person after all and convinced himself that he actually liked Franklin. ⑪ Is there someone with whom you would like to have a better relationship? ⑫ Try asking that person for a small favor, such as lending you a pencil or watching your bag while you go to the restroom. ⑬ Then see if their feelings toward you change. ⑭ The chances are they will. 


① 어떻게 우리는 우리가 부탁들 들어준 사람들을 보다 긍정적으로 느끼는 것일까? ② 그것은 심리학자들이 '인지부조화'라고 부르는 것 때문이다. ③ 우리는 우리의 행동과 생각이 조화를 이루기를 원한다. ④ 우리가 좋아하지 않는 무언가를 할 때 그 균형이 깨지고 우리는 불쾌감을 느낀다. ⑤ 만약 우리의 생각과 행동 사이에 갈등(인지부조화)이 있다면, 우리는 그 갈등을 완화하기 위해 둘 중 하나를 바꿀 것이다. ⑥ 프랭클린에게 책을 빌려준 후 프랭클린의 적수는 인지부조화를 경험했다. ⑦ 자신이 싫어하는 사람에게 친절한 행동을 했기 때문에 그는 마음이 불편했다. ⑧ 불안하고 불쾌함을 느꼈기 때문에, 그는 자신의 감정을 해소할 방법을 찾아야 했다. ⑨ 그가 행하기에 가장 쉬운 방법은 프랭클린에 대한 자신의 생각을 바꾸는 것이었다. ⑩ 그는 자기 자신에게 프랭클린이 결국 나쁜 사람은 아니었다고 말함으로써 호의를 베푼 것을 정당화했고, 자신이 사실 프랭클린을 좋아한다고 스스로를 납득시켰다. ⑪ 당신이 더 나은 관계를 가지고 싶은 누군가가 있는가? ⑫ 당신에게 연필을 빌려주는 것이나 당신이 화장실에 간 사이 가방을 지켜봐 달라는 것과 같은 작은 부탁을 시도해 보라. ⑬ 그러고 난 뒤 당신에 대한 그들의 감정이 바뀌는지 보라. ⑭ 아마 그들의 감정이 바뀔 것이다. 



✔︎ 영시한 5-6
① Every culture has proverbs about human relationships. ② Read the following proverbs different countries and cultures and think about the meaning of each one. ③ He who gets close to a good tree will have good shade - Spain. ④ Kind words take the snake out of its hole - Turkey. ⑤ Show me your friends and I'l tell you who you are - Russia. ⑥ As distance tests a horse' strength, so does time reveal a person' character - China. ⑦ Laughter is a language everyone understands - Chad. ⑧ A friend will cause you to weep, an enemy to laugh - Afghanistan. ⑨ If you want to go fast, go alone. ⑩ If you want to go far, go together - Africa. ⑪ Lose your temper and you lose a friend; lie and you lose yourself - Native American. 


① 모든 문화에는 인간관계에 대한 속담이 있다. ② 다음 여러 나라와 문화권의 속담들을 읽고 각각의 의미에 대해 생각해 보시오. ③ • 좋은 나무에 가까이 가는 사람은 좋은 그늘을 얻는다 - 스페인. ④ • 친절한 말은 뱀을 구멍에서 나오게 한다 - 터키. ⑤ • 네 친구들을 보면 네가 어떤 사람인지 알 수 있다 - 러시아. ⑥ • 긴 거리가 말의 체력을 증명하듯이, 시간이 그 사람의 성격을 드러나게 한다 - 중국. ⑦ • 웃음은 모두가 이해하는 언어이다 - 차드. ⑧ • 친구는 너를 울게 할 것이고, 적은 너를 웃게 할 것이다 - 아프가니스탄. ⑨ • 빨리 가고 싶으면 혼자 가라. ⑩ 멀리 가고 싶으면 함께 가라 - 아프리카. ⑪ • 이성을 잃고 화를 내면 친구를 잃고, 거짓말을 하면 자기 자신을 잃는다 - 아메리카 원주민. 



✔︎ 영시한 6-1
① Dabbawalas: Mumbai's Lunch Box Delivery Men In India, many traditions are today being challenged as a result of globalization. ② The practice of eating a home-cooked meal for lunch, however, continues. ③ In Mumbai, many people who work in offices far from home rely on an express food delivery service run by dabbawalas. ④ Dabbawalas are delivery men who carry hot lunch boxes for Mumbai office workers from their homes to their offices. ⑤ The word dabbawala comes from the Hindi dabba meaning "lunch box," and wala meaning "the person who carries it." 


① 다바왈라: 뭄바이의 도시락 배달원 인도에는 세계화의 결과로 지금 많은 전통이 도전을 받고 있다. ② 그러나 집에서 요리한 음식을 점심으로 먹는 관습은 계속 되고 있다. ③ 뭄바이에서는 집에서 멀리 떨어진 사무실에서 일하는 많은 사람들이 다바왈라가 운영하는 고속 음식 배달 서비스에 의존한다. ④ 다바왈라는 뭄바이의 사무실 노동자들에게 집에서 사무실까지 따뜻한 도시락을 가져다주는 배달원이다. ⑤ dabbawala라는 말은 '도시락'을 뜻하는 힌디어 dabba와 '그것을 배달해 주는 사람'을 뜻하는 wala에서 온다. 



✔︎ 영시한 6-2
① Most dabbas, or lunches, reach their destination after passing through several pairs of hands. ② A typical scenario would have one person on a bicycle pick up a dabba by 9:00 a.m. from about thirty different addresses. ③ After collecting all of the dabbas assigned to him, he takes them to the nearest train station. ④ Another person loads each dabba onto the right train, sending them off in different directions. ⑤ A third person rides on each of the trains with the dabbas. ⑥ Finally, a fourth person picks up the boxes at the receiving station and distributes them, again by bicycle, to each customerʼ office, all by 12:30 p.m. ⑦ The empty dabbas are picked up by 5:00 p.m. and are returned to their original addresses by the same team, following the same procedure in reverse. 


① 대부분의 다바, 즉 도시락은 여러 사람의 손을 거친 후에 목적지에 도달한다. ② 전형적인 시나리오는 자전거를 탄한 사람이 오전 9시까지 서른 군데의 다른 주소에서 다바를 수거하는 것일 것이다. ③ 자신에게 할당된 모든 다바를 수거 한 후에 그는 그것들을 가장 가까운 기차역으로 가지고 간다. ④ 또 다른 사람이 각각의 다바를 알맞은 기차에 싣고 다른 방향으로 발송한다. ⑤ 세 번째 사람이 각각의 열차에 다바와 함께 탑승한다. ⑥ 마지막으로, 네 번째 사람은 받는 역에서 도시락을 수거해서 다시 자전거로 각 고객의 사무실에 오후 12시 30분까지 모두 배달한다. ⑦ 빈 다바는 오후 5시까지 수거되고 똑같은 팀에 의해 같은 절차를 역순으로 해서 원래 주소지로 되돌아간다. 



✔︎ 영시한 6-3
① The dabbawala service began around 1890, when a banker hired a young man to deliver a lunch box from his home to his Mumbai office. ② Other people liked the idea and copied it. ③ When demand for the service expanded, a businessman started the lunch-delivery service in its present format. ④ Now, more than 120 years later, the dabba is a unique part of the Mumbai culture. ⑤ Why do Mumbai workers not take their lunch boxes with them in the morning, when they leave for the office? ⑥ Those who use the dabbawala service are mostly middle-class office workers who live in one of Mumbai's suburbs. ⑦ They have to leave for the office early in the morning, riding on a packed train. ⑧ It would be difficult for them to carry their own dabba. ⑨ Also, they often have dietary restrictions, depending upon their religion. ⑩ Hindus do not eat beef, Muslims do not eat pork, and Jains do not eat onions and potatoes. ⑪ As a result, it is not easy for workers to find the right food in restaurants near their office. ⑫ To meet their dietary needs, Indian workers prefer their home-cooked meals, made especially for them. 


① 다바왈라 서비스는 1890년경에 시작되었는데, 그때 한 은행가가 자신의 집에서 뭄바이 사무실로 도시락을 배달해 줄 한 청년을 고용했다. ② 다른 사람들이 그 생각을 마음에 들어 했고 그것을 따라했다. ③ 서비스에 대한 수요가 확대되자, 한 사업가가 현재 형태의 점심 배달 서비스를 시작했다. ④ 그 후로 120년이 넘게 흐른 지금, 다바는 뭄바이 문화의 고유한 한 부분이다. ⑤ 왜 뭄바이 노동자들은 사무실로 출근하는 아침에 점심 도시락을 가지고 가지 않을까? ⑥ 다바왈라 서비스를 이용하는 사람들 은 대부분 뭄바이 교외 중 한 곳에 사는 중산층의 사무실 노동자들이다. ⑦ 그들은 아침 일찍 만원 열차를 타고 사무실로 출근한다. ⑧ 그들이 자신들의 다바를 가지고 가는 것은 어려울 것이다. ⑨ 또한, 그들은 흔히 종교에 따라서 식단에 제한이 있다. ⑩ 힌두교도들은 소고기를 먹지 않고, 이슬람교도들은 돼지고기를 먹지 않으며, 자인교도들은 양파와 감자를 먹지 않는다. ⑪ 그 결과, 노동자들이 사무실 근처의 식당에서 딱 맞는 음식을 찾기는 쉽지않다. ⑫ 식단상의 필요를 충족시키기 위해 인도 노동자들은 특별히 자신들을 위해 만들어진, 집에서 요리된 식사를 선호한다. 



✔︎ 영시한 6-4
① Today approximately 5,000 dabbawalas cover 70 square kilometers in and around Mumbai. ② They conduct about 400,000 transactions daily. ③ 200,000 lunch boxes are delivered to offices every morning, six days a week, and 200,000 are returned home every afternoon. ④ They even deliver in the pouring rain and during political strife. ⑤ Surprisingly, hardly any cases of late or mistaken delivery are ever reported. ⑥ Their motto is "error is horror. ⑦ "The dabbawalas are proud of their 99.99 percent accuracy rate, which means just one mistake in every six million deliveries. ⑧ It is an amazing record, considering that most of the dabbawalas are illiterate and that not a single piece of paper is used in the delivery process. ⑨ The secret to this error-free system is in a coding system. ⑩ Each dabba carries a code, painted with different colors, numbers, and symbols. ⑪ These codes tell the dabbawala where the food comes from and which railway stations it must pass through on its way to a specific office in a specific building, in Mumbai. 


① 오늘날 대략 5,000명의 다바왈라가 70평방킬로미터에 달하는 뭄바이와 그 주변 지역을 담당한다. ② 그들은 매일 약 400,000건의 거래를 한다. ③ 200,000개의 도시락이 주 6일, 매일 아침 사무실로 배달되고, 200,000개가 매일 오후에 집으 로 돌아온다. ④ 그들은 심지어 폭우에도, 정치 투쟁 중에도 배달한다. ⑤ 놀랍게도, 늦게 배달되거나 잘못 배달된 경우가 지금까지 거의 보고되지 않았다. ⑥ 그들의 모토는 '실수는 공포이다. ⑦ 다바왈라는 99.99퍼센트 정확도를 자랑스러워하는데, 그것은 6백만 건의 배달당 고작 한 번의 실수를 의미한다. ⑧ 다바왈라의 대부분이 문맹이고 배달 과정에 단 한 장의 종이도 사용되지 않는다는 점을 고려할 때, 그것은 놀라운 기록이다. ⑨ 이러한 무결점 시스템의 비결은 부호화 시스템에 있다. ⑩ 각각의 다바에는 다양한 색깔, 숫자, 그리고 기호로 그려져 있는 부호가 있다. ⑪ 이 부호는 다바왈라에게 음식이 어디에서 오고, 어느 철도역을 거쳐 뭄바이에 있는 특정 건물의 특정 사무실로 가는지를 말해 준다. 



✔︎ 영시한 6-5
① The dabbawala organization is an outstanding example of an efficient distribution system. ② It is simple, relies on teamwork, has a low operating cost, and delivers almost 100 percent customer satisfaction. ③ It is not surprising, then, that business schools and large corporations around the world learn from the dabbawala system. ④ Today, most people cannot imagine an efficient delivery system operating without the benefit of technology. ⑤ Dabbawalas, however, demonstrate that with no form of technology, some of the old ways may still be the best ways. 


① 다바왈라 조직은 효율적인 배달 시스템의 뛰어난 사례이다. ② 그것은 단순하고, 팀워크에 의존하며 낮은 운영비가 들고, 거의 100 퍼센트에 달하는 고객 만족도를 자랑한다. ③ 그러므로 전 세계의 경영 대학원과 대기업이 다바왈라 시스템에서 배우는 것은 놀랄 일이 아니다. ④ 오늘날, 대부분의 사람들은 기술의 혜택 없이 효율적인 배달 시스템이 운영되는 것을 상상할 수 없다. ⑤ 그러나 다바왈라는 어떤 형태의 기술이 없어도 옛날 방식이 여전히 최고의 방식이 될 수 있다는 것을 증명한다. 



✔︎ 영시한 6-6
① SWITZERLAND Watchmaking School Switzerland is world-renowned for its high-quality watches. ② Its first watchmaking school opened in the mid-1800s. ③ Now Switzerland has several watchmaking schools whose students take the traditional watchmaking course. ④ The class sizes are kept small to ensure that each student receives extensive individualized lessons from master watchmakers. ⑤ ITALY Central Institute of Restoration Italy is a country filled with valuable cultural assets. ⑥ Therefore, the restoration and protection of the nation' cultural heritage is guaranteed by the Italian Constitution. ⑦ The Central Institute of Restoration was founded in l939 to conserve and restore artworks and archaeological findings using scientific technology. ⑧ Each year the four-year course accepts about 20 students who are selected through exams that are held by the Ministry of Cultural Heritage. ⑨ BHUTAN Royal Textile Academy of Bhutan Bhutan is famous for its hand-woven textiles. ⑩ They are recognized for their abundance of color, different patterns, and weaving techniques. ⑪ With the aim to preserve and promote this living art, the Royal Textile Academy of Bhutan was created in 2005. ⑫ Its mission is to educate, promote and preserve Bhutanese textiles. 


① 전 세계의 직업 학교 스위스 시계 제작 학교 스위스는 고품질의 시계로 세계적으로 유명하다. ② 첫 시계 제작 학교는 1800년대 중반에 문을 열었다. ③ 현재 스위스에는 학생들이 전통적인 시계 제작 과정을 이수하는 여러 시계 제작 학교가 있다. ④ 각각의 학생들이 시계 제작 장인으로부터 집중적인 개별 수업을 받게끔 보장하기 위해 수업은 소규모로 유지된다. ⑤ 이탈리아 중앙 복원 협회 이탈리아는 귀중한 문화 재산이 가득한 나라이다. ⑥ 그러므로 국가의 문화 유산의 복원과 보호가 이탈리아 헌법에 의해 보장된다. ⑦ 중앙 복원 협회(Central Institute of Restoration)는 과학 기술을 사용하여 예술 작품과 고고학적 발견물을 보호하고 복원하기 위하여 1939년에 창설되었다. ⑧ 4년 과정인 학교에 매년 20명의 학생이 입학한고, 이들은 문화재청이 시행하는 시험을 통해 선발된다. ⑨ 부탄 부탄 왕립 직물 학교 부탄은 손으로 짠 직물로 유명하다. ⑩ 그것들은 색감의 풍부함, 다양한 패턴, 그리고 직조 기술로 인정받는다. ⑪ 이 살아 있는 기술을 보존하고 홍보하기 위한 목적으로, 부탄 왕립 직물 학교 (Royal Textile Academy of Bhutan)가 2005년에 만들어졌다. ⑫ 그것의 임무는 부탄의 직물을 교육시키고, 홍보하고, 보존하는 것이다. 



✔︎ 영시한 7-1
① Gaudi Architect Inspired by Nature Most industrialized countries have produced a number of good architects. ② Few countries, however, can claim to have produced a great architect. ③ One country that can make that claim without embarrassment is Spain. ④ There, at the summit of the nation's architectural genius, stands Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926). ⑤ Gaudi was born in Catalonia, Spain, in 1852. ⑥ As a child, he was fascinated by the natural wonders of the surrounding countryside. ⑦ Gaudi took an interest in architecture at a young age and studied architecture in Barcelona, the city that would become home to his greatest works. ⑧ Gaudi's designs were deeply influenced by forms in nature. ⑨ He understood that the natural world is full of curved lines, rather than straight lines. ⑩ As a result, most of his constructions use curved stones and animal- or plant-shaped designs. ⑪ Gaudi's work is also known for its use of bold colors. ⑫ He decorated many of his buildings with colorful tiles. ⑬ This combination of natural designs and bright colors creates a breathtaking visual experience. ⑭ Here are some of Gaudi's greatest works, all of which are found in the city of Barcelona. 


① 가우디, 자연에서 영감을 받은 건축가 대부분의 산업화된 국가들은 수많은 훌륭한 건축가들을 배출해왔다. ② 그러나 위대한 건축가를 배출했다고 주장할 수 있는 나라는 거의 없다. ③ 이런 주장을 당황하지 않고 할 수 있는 한 나라가 스페인이다. ④ 거기 그 나라의 건축 천재들의 정상에 안토니 가우디(1852-1926)가 있다. ⑤ 가우디는 스페인의 카탈로니아에서 1852년에 태어났다. ⑥ 어렸을 때 그는 주변 시골의 자연의 경이로움에 매료되었다. ⑦ 가우디는 젊은 나이에 건축에 관심을 갖게 되었고 그의 위대한 작품의 고향이 된 도시인 바르셀로나에서 건축을 공부했다. ⑧ 가우디의 디자인은 자연의 형태에서 깊은 영향을 받았다. ⑨ 그는 자연 세계는 직선보다는 곡선으로 가득 차 있다는 것을 깨 달았다. ⑩ 그 결과, 그의 건축물 대부분은 곡선의 돌과 동물 또는 식물 모양의 디자인을 사용한다. ⑪ 가우디의 작품은 또한 선명한 색채를 사용한 것으로 알려져 있다. ⑫ 그는 많은 건물들을 형형색색의 타일로 장식했다. ⑬ 자연의 디자인과 밝은 색의 조화는 깜짝 놀랄 만한 시각적 경험을 만들어 낸다. ⑭ 여기 가우디의 위대한 작품 일부가 있는데, 이 모든 것들이 바르셀로 나라는 도시에서 발견된다. 



✔︎ 영시한 7-2
① Parc Güell is a public park and is one of Gaudi's most decorative works. ② Gaudi completed this park in 1914. ③ It was built for Eusebi Güell, a rich businessman who admired Gaudi's style. ④ Parc Güell contains amazing stone structures, gorgeous tiles, and beautiful buildings. ⑤ At the entrance to the park are two buildings, both with curved roofs. ⑥ These buildings seem to be taken directly from "Hansel and Gretel. ⑦ "The park is also home to a famous dragon fountain, covered with beautiful colored tiles. ⑧ Known as "El Drac," which means "the dragon" in the language of Catalonia, this colorful fountain is a symbol of Parc Güell. ⑨ On a hill within the park are curved terraces and multicolored tile seats where visitors can enjoy wonderful views of Barcelona and the sea beyond. 


① Parc Güell Parc Guell은 대중공원이며 가우디의 가장 장식적인 작품 중 하나이다. ② 가우디는 이 공원을 1914년에 완성했다. ③ 그것은 가우디의 양식에 감탄했던 부유한 사업가인 Eusebi Guell을 위해 지어졌다. ④ Parc Guell에는 놀라운 석조 건축물, 아주 멋진 타일과 아름다운 건물들이 있다. ⑤ 공원의 입구에는 두 채의 건물이 있는데 둘 다 곡선의 지붕을 갖고 있다. ⑥ 이 건물들은 '헨젤과 그레텔'에서 바로 꺼내 온 것처럼 보인다. ⑦ 공원은 또한 아름다운 형형색색의 타일들로 덮여 있는 유명한 용 모양 분수대가 있는 곳이다. ⑧ 카탈로니아어로 '용'을 의미하는 'El Drac'이라고 알려진 이 알록달록한 분수대는 Parc Guell의 상징 물이다. ⑨ 공원 안의 언덕 위에는 방문객들이 바르셀로나와 그 너머에 있는 바다의 멋진 경치를 즐길 수 있는 곡선 모양의 테라스와 여러 가지 색깔의 타일 의자들이 있다. 



✔︎ 영시한 7-3
① Casa Batllo is a house renovated by Gaudi between 1904 and 1906. ② Built in 1877, the original building was very different from what it is today. ③ When it was purchased by Joseph Batllo, he asked Gaudi to add his impressive touch to the design. ④ From the outside, Casa Batllo looks as if it has been made from skulls and bones. ⑤ The "skulls" are in fact balconies and the "bones" are supporting stone columns between the windows. ⑥ These details have given the house the nickname, the House of Bones. ⑦ Gaudi decorated the building with colors and shapes found in the sea. ⑧ Indeed, the design of the green and blue tiles on the wall remind people of the sea, while the curved window frames were inspired by ocean waves. ⑨ The interior of the house is even more impressive. ⑩ Everything is curved, including the walls, the ceilings, and the wooden doors. ⑪ Because of the curves, the Batllo family could not fit their traditional, straight furniture against the curved surfaces. ⑫ Thus, Gaudi had to design special furniture for the family. 


① Casa Batllo Casa Batllo는 1904~1906년 사이에 가우디에 의해 개조된 집이다. ② 1877년에 지어진 원래 건물은 오늘날의 모습과 매우 달랐다. ③ Joseph Batllo가 그 건물을 매입했을 때 그는 가우디에게 디자인에 인상적인 손길을 더해 달라고 부탁했다. ④ 외관상 Casa Batllo는 마치 해골과 뼈로 만들어진 것처럼 보인다. ⑤ '해골'은 사실은 발코니이며 '뼈'는 창문 사이에서 지지해 주는 석조 기둥이다. ⑥ 이러한 세세한 모습이 그 집에 '뼈의 집'이라는 별명을 붙여 주었다. ⑦ 가우디는 바다에서 발견되는 색 과 모양으로 건물을 장식했다. ⑧ 정말로, 벽에 있는 녹색과 파란색 타일 디자인은 사람들에게 바다를 생각나게 하는 한편, 곡선의 창틀은 파도에서 영감을 받았다. ⑨ 건물의 내부는 훨씬 더 인상적이다. ⑩ 벽과 천장과 목조 문을 포함하여 모든 것이 곡선이다. ⑪ 곡선들 때문에 Batllo 가족은 전통적인 직선형 가구들을 곡선의 표면에 붙일 수 없었다. ⑫ 그래서 가우디는 그 가족을 위해 특별한 가구들을 디자인해야 했다. 



✔︎ 영시한 7-4
① Sagrada Familia is the most widely-known symbol of Barcelona and one of the world's largest churches. ② Begun in 1882, it has been under construction for more than one hundred years. ③ It is expected that the church will be completed in 2026, on the 100th anniversary of Gaudi's death. ④ Despite its incomplete state, Sagrada Familia's incredible design draws an estimated 2.5 million tourists every year. ⑤ On the outside, the church will have 18 high towers. ⑥ When completed, the highest tower will reach a height of 170 meters. ⑦ The walls are decorated with sculptures that describe events in the Bible. ⑧ When you step inside the church, the large columns supporting the ceiling immediately catch your eye. ⑨ The columns branch out at the top so that each column looks like a huge tree. ⑩ Between the columns are skylights to let natural light in. ⑪ The colorful stained glass windows filter the sunlight and project red, blue, and green light all over the interior space. ⑫ The tree-like columns and the different light at different times of the day transform the inside of the church into a stone forest. 


① Sagrada Familia Sagrada Familia는 바르셀로나의 가장 널리 알려진 상징물이며 세계에서 가장 큰 성당 중 하나이다. ② 1882년에 시작되어 그것은 100년이 넘도록 건설 중이다. ③ 가우디가 사망한지 100번째 기념일인 2026년에 성당이 완공될 거라고 예상된다. ④ 미완의 상태임에도 불구하고 Sagrada Familia의 놀라운 디자인은 매년 약 250만 명의 관광객들을 끌어들이고 있다. ⑤ 그 성당은 외부에 18개의 높은 탑이 생길 것이다. ⑥ 완공되었을 때 가장 높은 탑은 170 미터의 높이에 이를 것이다. ⑦ 외벽들은 성경의 사건들을 묘사하는 조각들로 장식되어 있다. ⑧ 성당 안으로 들어가면 천장을 받쳐주는 커다란 기둥들이 바로 여러분의 시선을 사로잡을 것이다. ⑨ 각각의 기둥이 마치 한 그루의 거대한 나무처럼 보이게 하기 위해 기둥들은 꼭대기 부분에서 가지를 뻗고 있다. ⑩ 기둥 사이에는 자연 채광이 들어올 수 있는 채광창이 있다. ⑪ 형형색색의 스테인드글라스 창문은 빛을 통과시켜 빨간색, 파란색과 녹색 빛을 내부 공간 곳곳에 비춘다. ⑫ 나무같은 기둥과 하루의 시간대별로 다른 빛은 성당 내부를 돌숲으로 바꾸어 놓는다. 



✔︎ 영시한 7-5
① These are only three of Gaudi's many works in or near Barcelona. ② All are recognized as important works of architecture, and seven have been named UNESCO World Heritage Sites. ③ These extraordinary works show how important Gaudi was to the development of modern architecture in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ④ Even today his imaginative, creative, unique architecture characterizes the city of Barcelona. ⑤ No visitor to Barcelona would want to leave without seeing these works of Antoni Gaudi. 


① 이것들은 바르셀로나 안의 또는 주변에 있는 가우디의 많은 작품 중 3개에 지나지 않는다. ② 모든 작품들이 중요한 건축 작품으로 인정받고 있고, 7개는 유네스코 세계문화유산으로 지정되어 있다. ③ 이러한 뛰어난 작품들은 19세기 후반과 20세기 초반의 근대 건축 발전에 가우디가 얼마나 중요했는지를 보여준다. ④ 심지어 오늘날에도 그의 상상력이 풍부하고 창의적이며 독특한 건축은 바르셀로나라는 도시에 특징을 부여하고 있다. ⑤ 바르셀로나의 어떤 방문객도 안토니 가우디의 이러한 작품들을 보지 않고 떠나고 싶지는 않을 것이다. 



✔︎ 영시한 8-1
① Robots May Rescue You from Future Disasters In 2011, an earthquake and its accompanying tsunami destroyed Japan's Fukushima nuclear power plant. ② The resulting nuclear disaster released large amounts of radioactive material into the surrounding area. ③ Since it was impossible for humans to work in this environment, the Japanese government considered sending in robots to handle the situation. ④ The robots the Japanese were using, however, were not up to the task. ⑤ Eventually, humans had to do most of the extremely dangerous work. 


① 로봇이 당신을 미래의 재난에서 구할지도 모른다 2011년, 지진과 그에 동반된 지진 해일은 일본의 후쿠시마 원자력 발전소를 파괴했다. ② 그 결과로 생긴 핵 재난은 많은 양의 방사능 물질을 주변 지역에 방출했다. ③ 인간이 이런 환경에서 작업하기는 불가능했기 때문에, 일본 정부는 그 상황을 해결하기 위해 로봇을 보내는 것을 고려했다. ④ 하지만, 일본에서 사용하고 있던 로봇은 그 작업에 부합하지 못했다. ⑤ 결국, 극도로 위험한 작업의 대부분을 인간이 해야만 했다. 



✔︎ 영시한 8-2
① Since then, there has been renewed emphasis on developing robots that can serve in dangerous situations. ② In response to Japan's nuclear disaster, the 2015 DARPA Robotics Challenge was created to speed up the development of robots that could work in disaster-stricken areas. ③ The competition attracted 25 teams from around the world. ④ The winner was a Korean team from KAIST who developed a robot called HUBO. ⑤ During the competition, the robots had to solve a series of problems they might come upon in a disaster situation. ⑥ The tasks were: driving a vehicle, getting out of the vehicle, opening a door, locating and closing a leaking valve, using a drill to cut through a wall, pulling a plug out of a wall socket and then plugging it in, navigating rough terrain, and climbing stairs. ⑦ HUBO completed all eight tasks in the shortest time of all the competitors – 44 minutes and 28 seconds. ⑧ The key to HUBO's success was its ability to move from a standing position to a kneeling position. ⑨ HUBO had wheels attached to its knees and feet. ⑩ When kneeling, HUBO was able to use these wheels to move around quickly and decisively. 


① 그때부터 위험한 상황에서 도움을 줄 로봇을 개발하는 것이 다시 강조됐다. ② 일본의 핵 재난에 대응하여 재난이 닥친 지역에서 일할 수 있는 로봇의 개발을 가속화하기 위해서 2015년 DARPA Robotics Challenge가 만들어졌다. ③ 이 대회는 전 세계로부터 25개의 팀을 유치했다. ④ 우승자는 HUBO라고 불리는 로봇을 개발한 KAIST 소속의 한국 팀이었다. ⑤ 대회 중에 로봇들은 재난 상황에서 조우할지도 모르는 일련의 문제들을 해결해야만 했다. ⑥ 그 과제들은 다음과 같았다: 차량 운전하기, 차량에서 나오기, 문 열기, 새고 있는 밸브를 찾아서 잠그기, 드릴을 사용하여 벽 뚫기, 벽의 소켓에서 플러 그를 뽑고 나서 그 플러그를 꽂기, 험한 지형에서 길 찾기, 계단 오르기이다. ⑦ HUBO는 모든 경쟁자들 중 가장 짧은 시간 인 44분 28초 만에 8가지 과제 모두를 완료했다. ⑧ HUBO의 성공 비결은 선 자세에서 무릎을 꿇고 있는 자세로 움직이는 능력이었다. ⑨ HUBO에게는 무릎과 발에 바퀴가 부착되어 있었다. ⑩ 무릎을 꿇었을 때, HUBO는 이 바퀴를 이용해서 빠르고 결단성 있게 돌아다닐 수 있었다. 



✔︎ 영시한 8-3
① From the beginning, HUBO was better than the other robots at performing the tasks. ② It was able to drive a vehicle fast and when it encountered a barrier, it was able to turn the vehicle smoothly to avoid it. ③ Next, it was able to get out of the car in less than four minutes and, once out of the vehicle, got on its knees and sped away. ④ As the series of eight tasks became progressively more difficult, HUBO's performance on the tasks reflected the growing difficulty. ⑤ On the fifth task, for which it had to use a drill to cut through a wall, HUBO failed on its first attempt. ⑥ Generally speaking, it was difficult for a robot to hold a drill in the right position and simultaneously press an on/off button. ⑦ On the second trial, however, HUBO successfully completed the task. ⑧ The task that took the longest time for HUBO was the sixth one, pulling a plug out of a wall socket and putting it back into another. ⑨ It takes a human less than 10 seconds to perform the task, but it took HUBO 13 minutes and 30 seconds. 


① 시작부터 HUBO는 다른 로봇들보다 과업 수행을 더 잘했다. ② 그것은 차량 운전을 빠르게 할 수 있었고, 장벽을 만나면 차량을 부드럽게 돌려 피할 수 있었다. ③ 다음으로, 4분도 채 안되어 차량에서 내릴 수 있었으며, 일단 차량에서 내리고 나면 무릎으로 앉아서 빠르게 나아갔다. ④ 연속된 8개의 과업이 점차 더 어려워질수록, HUBO의 과업 수행도 증가하는 난이도를 반영했다. ⑤ 드릴을 사용해서 벽을 뚫어야 했던 다섯 번째 과업에서, HUBO는 첫 시도에서 실패했다. ⑥ 일반적으로 말해서, 드릴을 제대로 잡고 동시에 켜짐/꺼짐 버튼을 누르는 것은 로봇에게는 어렵다. ⑦ 하지만 두 번째 시도에서 HUBO는 성공적으로 그 과업을 완수했다. ⑧ HUBO에 게 가장 긴 시간이 걸렸던 과업은 여섯 번째였는데, 벽의 소켓에서 플러그를 뽑고 그것을 다시 다른 소켓에 꽂는 것이었 다. ⑨ 인간이 그 과업을 수행하는 데는 10초도 채 걸리지 않지만 HUBO에게는 13분 30초가 걸렸다. 



✔︎ 영시한 8-4
① For the final task, climbing stairs, it was important that the robot be able to see its feet. ② Other robots had difficulty doing this because they had to bend their bodies forward to see over their knees to scan the stairs. ③ This awkward move caused them to lose their balance. ④ HUBO solved this problem in a clever way. ⑤ It climbed the stairs backward. ⑥ But how did it see the steps if it was moving backwards? ⑦ By rotating its upper body 180 degrees. ⑧ That way, the robot's knees did not block the camera's view of either the feet or the floor. ⑨ After scanning the stairs, the robot set off to climb to the top, completing the task effortlessly. 


① 마지막 과업인 계단 오르기를 위해서는 로봇이 자신의 발을 볼 수 있는 것이 중요했다. ② 다른 로봇들은 무릎 너머로 계단을 훑어보기 위해 몸을 앞으로 구부려야 했기 때문에 이에 어려움을 겪었다. ③ 이와 같은 불편한 동작은 그들이 균형을 잃게 만들었다. ④ HUBO는 이 문제를 영리한 방식으로 해결했다. ⑤ 계단을 뒤를 돌아 올라간 것이다. ⑥ 하지만 뒤로 움직이고 있다면 그것이 어떻게 계단을 볼 수 있었을까? ⑦ 상체를 180도 회전함으로써다. ⑧ 그런 식으로 그 로봇의 무릎은 발이나 바닥을 보는 카메라의 시야를 가리지 않았다. ⑨ 계단을 살펴보고 나서, 그 로봇은 출발하여 정상까지 올라 갔고, 과업을 손쉽게 완수했다. 



✔︎ 영시한 8-5
① This amazing robot was not made in a day. ② The KAIST team had already built four HUBOs and had been improving them for years. ③ They practiced outdoors, in good weather and bad, and on rough terrain. ④ They burned up motor after motor, but never gave up. ⑤ They approached each failure as a challenge to make a faster, stronger, and better robot. ⑥ The DARPA Robotics Challenge eventually ended, but it is only the beginning. ⑦ In the future, there will be other robots like HUBO. ⑧ They will be called upon to perform complicated tasks that will be too dangerous for humans. ⑨ Scientists expect that these robots will save lives and reduce the damage caused by future disasters. 


① 이 놀라운 로봇은 하루아침에 만들어지지 않았다. ② KAIST 팀은 이미 4대의 휴보를 만들었고 수년간 그것들을 개선해 오고 있었다. ③ 그들은 야외에서, 날씨가 좋을 때와 나쁠 때, 그리고 험한 지형에서 연습했다. ④ 그들은 모터를 계속해서 다 태웠지만 결코 포기하지 않았다. ⑤ 그들은 각각의 실패를 더 빠르고, 더 강하고, 더 나은 로봇을 만들기 위한 도전으로 여겼다. ⑥ DARPA Robotics Challenge는 결국 끝났지만, 그것은 시작에 불과하다. ⑦ 미래에는 휴보와 같은 다른 로봇들이 존재할 것이다. ⑧ 그것들은 인간에게는 너무 위험한 복잡한 과업을 수행하도록 요청될 것이다. ⑨ 과학자들은 이러한 로봇들이 생명을 구하고 미래의 재난으로 발생하는 손실을 줄일 것으로 기대한다. 



✔︎ 영시한 SP1-1
① How Volunteering Abroad Changed My Life by Susan Shain I was about to board a plane, and I was scared. ② Not because I was afraid of flying, but because I was afraid of what awaited me at my destination. ③ "I could turn around now," I said to myself. ④ "I could just go back to my part-time job and have a nice quiet summer." ⑤ The year was 2005. ⑥ The plane's destination? ⑦ Tanzania. ⑧ I'd never traveled anywhere so different before, and I had no idea what to expect. ⑨ That scared me. ⑩ But I had never been one to turn away from adventure, so when the rest of my group started boarding, I did, too. ⑪ Little did I know that the next six weeks would change my life forever. 


① 해외 자원봉사가 내 인생을 어떻게 바꾸었는가 - Susan Shain 이제 막 비행기를 타려고 했고 무서웠다. ② 내가 비행기를 타는 걸 무서워했던 게 아니라 목적지에서 나를 기다리고 있을 것들이 걱정되었기 때문이었다. ③ 나는'지금 돌아설 수 있어'라고 스스로에게 말했다.' ④ 그냥 시간제 근무로 돌아가서 멋지고 조용한 여름을 보낼 수도 있어.' ⑤ 그 해는 2005년 이었다. ⑥ 비행기의 목적지는? ⑦ 탄자니아. ⑧ 나는 그렇게 다른 곳은 어디든 전 에 여행해본 적이 없고 무엇을 기대해야 할지 전혀 몰랐다. ⑨ 그것이 나를 두렵게 했다. ⑩ 하지만 나는 결코 모험을 외면하는 사람인 적이 없어서 나머지 일행들이 비행기를 타기 시작했을 때 나도 그렇게 했다. ⑪ 다음 6주가 내 인생을 영원히 바꿀 것이라는 건 전혀 알지 못했다. 



✔︎ 영시한 SP1-2
① What Volunteering in Tanzania Was Like I traveled to Tanzania as part of a university program the summer after my freshman year. ② We spent several weeks volunteering at a community center and an orphanage. ③ Though we did many other exciting things like going on safari and climbing Mt Kilimanjaro, it was our volunteering time that stuck with me. ④ Volunteering allowed me to truly connect with the people in Tanzania. ⑤ If I had not volunteered, I would never have got an inside look at their way of life. ⑥ By volunteering, I became part of the lives of local families — sharing meals, playing with their kids, and visiting their homes. ⑦ These experiences were eye-opening, educational, and inspiring:. ⑧ – eye-opening to see how few possessions they had, yet how much love and personal strength they had –. ⑨ educational to experience their culture:. ⑩ I learned to cook ugali, milk a cow, and wear a kanga –. ⑪ inspiring to witness their close family ties and endless positivity. ⑫ Volunteering abroad taught me so much about the world and about myself. ⑬ I grew more in those few weeks than I did my entire first year of college. 


① 탄자니아에서의 자원봉사는 어땠는가 나는 1학년을 마치고 여름에 대학 프로그램의 일환으로 탄자니아를 여행했다. ② 우리는 주민센터와 고아원에서 몇 주간 봉사 활동을 하는 데 시간을 보냈다. ③ 우리가 사파리에 가거나 킬리만자로 산을 오르는 것과 같은 많은 다른 흥미 진진한 활동 도 했지만 계속 생각나는 것은 바로 우리의 봉사 활동 시간이었다. ④ 봉사 활동은 내가 탄자니아 사람들과 진정으로 이어지 도록 해 주었다. ⑤ 내가 봉사 활동을 하지 않았더라면, 그들의 삶의 방식에 대한 내면을 결코 볼 수 없었을 것이다. ⑥ 자원봉 사를 함으로써 나는 식사를 함께하고, 아이들과 함께 놀며 그들의 집을 방문하면서 현지인 가족들의 삶의 일부가 되었다. ⑦ 이런 경험들은 놀랍고, 교육적이며 고무적이었다. ⑧ - 그들이 아주 적은 소유물을 가졌으면서도 얼마나 많은 사랑과 개인적인 강인함이 있는지 보게 되어 놀라웠다. ⑨ - 그들의 문화를 경험하게 되어 교육적이었다. ⑩ 나는 ugali를 요리하고 소젖을 짜고 kanga를 입는 법을 배웠다. ⑪ - 그들의 긴밀한 가족 간의 유대와 끝없는 긍정성을 보게 되어 고무적이었다. ⑫ 해외 자원봉사는 나에게 세상과 나 자신에 대해 매우 많은 것을 가르쳐 주었다. ⑬ 나는 대학교 1학년 전체 기간보다 그 몇 주간에 더 많이 성장했다. 



✔︎ 영시한 SP1-3
① How Volunteering Abroad Changed Me These are what volunteering gave me:. ② Gratitude for what I have When I returned home, I literally hugged my toilet, and I cried during my first hot shower. ③ I didn't have these things in Tanzania. ④ To this day, I sometimes say a silent "Thank you" as I turn on the tap to get a drink of water. ⑤ Volunteering gave me deep gratitude for the comforts and opportunities I used to take for granted. ⑥ Appreciation for new cultures The local people are welcoming, strong, and overwhelmingly positive. ⑦ Their language, clothing, and culture are beautiful. ⑧ Growing up in rural New York State, I had never before experienced people so different from me. ⑨ During my time in Tanzania, I learned to appreciate those differences. ⑩ Volunteering abroad taught me the beauty of diversity. 


① 해외 자원봉사가 나를 어떻게 변화시켰는가 자원봉사를 통해 나는 다음과 같은 것들을 얻었다. ② 내가 가지고 있는 것에 대한 감사 내가 집으로 돌아왔을 때 나는 말 그대로 변기를 끌어 안았고 더운물로 처음 샤워를 하면서 울음을 터뜨렸다. ③ 나는 탄자 니아에서 이런 것들을 갖지 못했다. ④ 요즘에도 나는 때때로 내가 물 한잔을 받으려고 수도를 틀 때 조용히 "고맙습니다"라고 말하곤 한다. ⑤ 자원봉사는 내가 당연시 여기던 편안함과 기회들에 대해 깊이 감사하게 해 주었다. ⑥ 새로운 문화에 대한 이해 현지인들은 우호적이고 강하고 굉장히 긍정적이다. ⑦ 그들의 언어, 옷과 문화는 아름답다. ⑧ 뉴욕 주의 시골에서 자라는 동안 나와 그렇게 다른 사람들을 경험해 본 적이 없었다. ⑨ 탄자니아에 있는 동안 나는 그런 차이점들을 이해하게 되었다. ⑩ 해외 자원봉사는 나에게 다양성의 아름다움을 가르쳐 주었다. 



✔︎ 영시한 SP1-4
① Hunger for exploration Though I was happy to return home, I was confident it would not be my last adventure. ② I knew I wanted to continue exploring, meeting people from different backgrounds, trying new foods, and discovering unique landscapes. ③ It made me a travel addict. ④ Commitment to helping people I will be honest: Volunteering feels good. ⑤ Giving back to others and seeing the smiles on their faces is a feeling unmatched by anything else. ⑥ After experiencing this in Tanzania, I decided to help people wherever and whenever I could for them and for myself. ⑦ It is something I try to do every day. 


① 탐험에 대한 갈망 집으로 돌아가서 기쁘긴 했지만 나는 그것이 내 마지막 모험이 되지 않을 거란 확신이 있었다. ② 나는 내가 계속해서 탐험 하고 배경이 다른 사람들을 만나고 새로운 음식을 맛보고 독특한 풍경을 발견해 나가고 싶어 한다는 것을 알았다. ③ 그것이 나를 여행 중독자가 되게 했다. ④ 사람들을 돕겠다는 약속 솔직히 말하자면, 자원봉사를 하면 기분이 좋다. ⑤ 다른 사람에게 (받은 것을) 돌려주고 얼굴에 띤 미소를 보는 것은 다른 어떤 것과 견줄 수 없는 느낌이다. ⑥ 탄자니아에서 이런 경험을 한 후에 나는 언제 어디서든 그들과 나 자신을 위해 사람들 을 돕기로 결심했다. ⑦ 그것은 내가 매일 하려고 노력하는 것이다. 



✔︎ 영시한 SP1-5
① It has now been 10 years since I traveled to Tanzania, and these principles still guide me. ② I graduated from college in 2008, and ever since, I have been working and traveling around the world. ③ I have volunteered everywhere from Korea to France to Nicaragua to North Carolina. ④ I practice gratitude daily and am always trying to meet new people and learn about different ways of life. ⑤ Sometimes I wonder what my life would be like if I had not got on that plane to East Africa. ⑥ Would I have ever tasted ugali, danced with the Masai, or bathed an elephant? ⑦ Would I be the person I am today? ⑧ I will never know the answers to these questions. ⑨ But I do know I will be forever grateful I got on that plane. ⑩ Volunteering abroad led me to the life I have today — which I wouldn't change for anything. 


① 내가 탄자니아를 여행한 지 이제 10년이 지났고 이런 원칙들이 여전히 나를 인도하고 있다. ② 나는 2008년에 대학을 졸업하고 그 이후로 일을 하며 세계를 여행하고 있다. ③ 나는 한국에서부터 프랑스, 니카라과(Nicaragua)와 노스캐롤라이나(North Carolina)에 이르기까지 모든 곳에서 자원봉사를 하고 있다. ④ 나는 매일 감사를 실천하고 있으며 늘 새로운 사람을 만나고 다른 삶의 방식을 배우려고 노력한다. ⑤ 때때로 나는 내가 동아프리카로 가는 그 비행기를 타지 않았더라면 내 인생이 어땠 을지 궁금하다. ⑥ 내가 ugali를 맛보고 마사이족과 춤을 추고 코끼리를 목욕시킬 수 있었을까? ⑦ 지금의 내가 될 수 있었을까? ⑧ 나는 이런 질문에 대한 답을 결코 알 수 없을 것이다. ⑨ 하지만 나는 내가 그 비행기를 탄 것에 대해 영원히 감사해할 것임 을 잘 알고 있다. ⑩ 해외에서의 자원봉사는 오늘날의 내 인생, 내가 무엇과도 바꾸지 않을 그 인생으로 이끌어 주었다. 



✔︎ 영시한 SP1-6
① < ADDITIONAL READING > The Secret to Happiness There is a Chinese saying that goes: "If you want happiness for an hour, take a nap If you want happiness for a day, go fishing If you want happiness for a year, inherit a fortune If you want happiness for the rest of your life, help somebody" For centuries, the greatest thinkers have suggested the same thing: Happiness is found in helping others And so we learn early: It is better to give than to receive But is there a deeper truth behind this statement? ② The answer is yes Scientific research provides convincing data to support the evidence that giving is a powerful path to lasting happiness Researchers have found that the areas in our brains that feel pleasure become activated when we give —meaning that besides doing good, donating our money or time actually makes us feel good This feeling is similar to a "runner's high," a term created for that feel-good sensation that rushes through your body after a run They use the term "helper's high" to describe what happens to your body and your brain when you are kind to another person or give to them in some way Helping others may just be the secret to living a life that is not only happier but also healthier, wealthier, more productive, and meaningful. 


① 행복의 비밀 "한 시간의 행복을 원하면 낮잠을 자라. ② 하루의 행복을 원하면 낚시를 하러 가라. ③ 일 년의 행복을 원하면 거금을 상속받아 라. ④ 남은 평생의 행복을 원하면 누군가를 도와라. ⑤ "라는 중국의 속담이 있다. ⑥ 수세기 동안 위대한 사상가들이 똑같은 것을 제안해왔다. ⑦ 즉 행복은 남을 돕는 데서 발견된다. ⑧ 그래서 우리는 일찍이 받는 것보다 주는 것이 더 낫다고 배운다. ⑨ 그러나 이 진술에 더 심오한 진리가 있을까? ⑩ 대답은'그렇다'이다. ⑪ 과학적 연구는 주 는 것이 지속적인 행복으로 이끄는 강력한 방법이라는 증거를 뒷받침하는 설득력 있는 자료를 제공한다. ⑫ 연구자들은 기쁨을 느끼는 우리 뇌의 특정 부분이 우리가 베풀 때 활성화된다는 것을 발견했는데, 이것은 선행을 하는 것 외에도 돈이나 시간을 기부하는 것이 실제로 우리를 기분 좋게 한다는 것을 의미 한다. ⑬ 이런 감정은 달리기를 한 후에 몸 에 갑자기 나타나는 기분 좋은 느낌을 표현하기 위해 만들어진 용어인'러너스 하이(격렬한 운동 후에 맛보는 도취)'와 비 슷하다. ⑭ 그들은 여러분이 다른 사람에게 친절을 베풀거나 어떤 식으로든 그들에게 나누어 주었을 때 여러분의 몸과 뇌에 일어나는 것을 묘사하기 위해'헬퍼스 하이'라는 용어를 사용한다. ⑮ 다른 사람들을 돕는 것은 더 행복할 뿐 아니라 더 건강 하고 더 풍요로우며 더 생산적이고 의미 있는 삶을 사는 비결일지도 모른다. 



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① < CULTURE > Volunteers around the World Mealshare Mealshare is a non-profit organization founded by two young men from Canada in 2013. ② With "uy One, Give One"motto, Mealshare partners with restaurants, and places its symbol next to a few menu items. ③ When a customer orders a Mealshare item, the restaurant donates $1 to Mealshare. ④ With the collected money, meals for people in need are served. ⑤ Teens for Jeans Started by a non-profit organization, it is a campaign in which teenagers in the U.S. collect pairs of jeans and give them to local homeless youth. ⑥ Many schools and teenagers have donated over five million pairs of jeans since the campaign started in 2008. ⑦ COASTSWEEP It is an international clean-up campaign organized in the U.S. ⑧ Volunteers gather for the clean-up and are provided with cleaning tools such as plastic gloves and bags. ⑨ Volunteers record what they pick up and the data is used to find out the sources of trash, and to study how to reduce trash. 


① 밀셰어 밀셰어는 2013년 캐나다의 두 청년에 의해 설립된 비영리 기관이다. ② "한 끼를 사먹으면, 한 끼를 기부한다" 라는 모토로, 밀셰어는 음식점들과 협력해서 그것의 상징을 몇 가지 메뉴 옆에 둔다. ③ 손님이 밀셰어 적용 메뉴를 주문하면, 음식점은 1 달러를 밀셰어에 기부한다. ④ 이렇게 모은 돈으로 도움이 필요한 사람들을 위한 식사가 제공된다. ⑤ 청바지를 십대에게 비영리 기관에 의해 시작되어, 미국에 있는 청소년들이 청바지를 모아서 지역의 노숙하는 청년들에게 나누어 주는 캠페인 이다. ⑥ 2008년에 이 캠페인이 시작된 이래로 많은 학교와 청소년들이 5백만 벌이 넘는 청바지를 기부해 오고 있다. ⑦ 코스트스위프 이것은 미국에서 조직된 국제적인 청소(정화) 캠페인이다. ⑧ 자원봉사자들은 청소를 위해 모이면 비닐장갑과 비닐봉투와 같 은 청소 물품이 제공된다. ⑨ 자원봉사자들은 자신들이 주운 것을 기록하고 그 자료는 쓰레기의 원인들을 알아내고 쓰레기를 줄이는 방법을 연구하는 데 사용된다. 



✔︎ 영시한 SP2-1
① To Kill a Mockingbird In the early part of the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, the heroine and her brother are told by their father never to kill a mockingbird. ② "I hope you shoot only tin cans in the garden, but I know you'll want to hunt birds," he says to his children, who are learning how to shoot a gun. ③ "Shoot as many bluejays as you want, but remember that it's a sin to kill a mockingbird. ④ "Puzzled, the heroine asks Miss Maudie, her kind and clever neighbor, why she should not kill a mockingbird. ⑤ Miss Maudie answers: "Your father's right. ⑥ All mockingbirds do is make music for us to enjoy. ⑦ They don't eat up people's gardens or steal their food. ⑧ They only sing their hearts out for us. ⑨ That's why it's a sin to kill a mockingbird." 


① 앵무새 죽이기 소설 <앵무새 죽이기> 초반부에 여주인공과 그녀의 오빠는 그들의 아버지로부터 앵무새를 절대 죽이지 말라는 말을 듣는다. ② "나는 너희가 뒤뜰에 있는 깡통만을 쏘길 바라지만 너희가 새들을 사냥하고 싶어 할 것이란 걸 안다. ③ "라고 그는 총쏘는 법을 배우고 있는 아이들에게 말한다. ④ "큰 어치는 너희가 원하는 만큼 쏴라, 하지만 앵무새를 죽이는 것은 죄라는 것을 기억해라. ⑤ "의아해진 여주인공은 친절하고 똑똑한 이웃인 Miss Maudie에게 왜 앵무새를 죽이면 안 되는지 묻는다. ⑥ Miss Maudie의 답은 이랬다. ⑦ "너의 아버지가 옳아. ⑧ 앵무새들이 하는 일이라고는 우리를 즐겁게 해주기 위해 음악을 연주하는 것이 전부야. ⑨ 사람들의 정원 식물을 먹어 치우거나 음식을 훔치지 않지. ⑩ 오로지 우리를 위해 그들의 온 마음을 다해 노래를 불러. ⑪ 그게 바로 앵무새를 죽이는 것이 죄인 이유야." 



✔︎ 영시한 SP2-2
① In To Kill a Mockingbird, there are characters like mockingbirds, who are innocent and harmless. ② However, they are often hurt and sometimes even killed by others. ③ Through their stories, the author Harper Lee shows how an unfair society harms innocent people and prevents others from helping them. ④ At the same time, she also shows how important it is to remain just, fair, and understanding in such a society. ⑤ Lee wrote To Kill a Mockingbird based on her own childhood experiences. ⑥ Just like the heroine of the novel, she grew up in Alabama and saw many African-American people treated cruelly and unfairly. ⑦ Her criticism against racism and her wish for a more fair and understanding world are well expressed in this book. ⑧ For this reason, To Kill a Mockingbird has long been a book loved not only by Americans but also by many people around the world. ⑨ It has been translated in 40 different languages, and more than 40 million copies have been sold. 


① 앵무새 죽이기에는 앵무새들과 같이 죄가 없고 해가 없는 등장인물들이 있다. ② 그러나 그들은 종종 다른 사람들에 의해 다치거나 때로는 심지어 죽임을 당한다. ③ 그들의 이야기를 통해 작가 Harper Lee는 어떻게 부정한 사회가 죄가 없는 사람들을 해치고 다른 사람들이 그들을 돕는 것을 막는지 보여 준다. ④ 동시에 그녀는 또한 그러한 사회에서 계속 공정하고 공평하고, 이해심을 유지하는 것이 얼마나 중요한 지 보여 준다. ⑤ 작가 Lee는 그녀 자신의 어린 시절 경험을 토대로 <앵무새 죽이기>를 썼다. ⑥ 소설의 여주인공처럼 그녀는 Alabama에서 자랐고 많은 아프리카계 미국인들이 잔인하고 부당하게 대우받는 것을 보았다. ⑦ 인종 차별에 대한 그녀의 비판과 더욱 공평하고 이해심이 있는 세상을 위한 그녀의 바람이 이 책에서 잘 표현된다. ⑧ 이러한 이유로 <앵무새 죽이기>는 미국인들뿐만 아니라 전 세계 많은 사람들에 의해 오랫동안 사랑 받아 왔다. ⑨ 이 소설은 40개의 다른 언어로 번역이 되어 왔고 4천만 부 이상이 팔렸다. 



✔︎ 영시한 SP2-3
① To Kill a Mockingbird is the story of a young girl growing up in a southern town during the 1930s, when African-American people were facing severe discrimination. ② The six-year-old heroine, Scout Finch, lives with her brother Jem and their father Atticus in Maycomb, a little town in Alabama where things do not change quickly. ③ Here, the same families have been doing the same things for generation after generation, and Atticus is a lawyer just like his father was. ④ Scout, Jem, and their friend Dill are fascinated by the haunted house in their neighborhood and the man who lives there, Arthur "Boo"Radley. ⑤ Boo is known as a "Monster" for stabbing his father in his leg when he was a boy, but no one actually witnessed the accident. ⑥ He has not been seen by anyone for many years, and the adults of Maycomb do not want to talk about him. ⑦ Curious about what he looks like and why he remains hidden, the children share rumors about him and try to get him to come out of his house. ⑧ While they are acting out the story of his life one day, Atticus stops them, telling them to see things from other people's points of view. 


① <앵무새 죽이기>는 1930년대 동안에 남부 마을에서 성장하는 한 어린 소녀에 대한 이야기로, 그 당시 아프리카계 미국인들은 극심한 차별에 직면해 있었다. ② 6살의 여주인공인 Scout Finch는 오빠 Jem과 아빠 Atticus와 함께 일들이 빠르게 변하지 않는 Alabama의 작은 마을인 Maycomb에 산다. ③ 이곳에서는 같은 가족이 자손 대대로 같은 일을 해오고 있었으며, Atticus는 그의 아버지가 그랬던 것처럼 변호사이다. ④ Scout와 Jem 그리고 그들의 친구인 Dill은 이웃에 있는 귀신이 나오는 집과 그곳에 사는 남자인 Arthur "Boo"Radley에 매료되어 있다. ⑤ Boo는 어렸을 때 아버지의 다리를 찌른 것 때문에 '괴물'로 알려져 있지만, 실제로 그 사건을 목격한 사람은 아무도 없었다. ⑥ 수년 동안 Boo의 모습을 본 사람이 아무도 없고, Maycomb 마을의 어른들은 그에 대해 얘기하고 싶어 하지 않는다. ⑦ Boo가 어떻게 생겼는지, 왜 숨어서 지내는지 호기심에 가득한 채, 이 아이들은 Boo에 대한 소문을 퍼뜨리고 그를 집 밖으로 나오게 하려고 노력한다. ⑧ 어느 날 그들이 Boo의 삶에 대한 이야기를 지어내서 연극 놀이를 하는데, Atticus가 그들을 멈추고는 다른 사람들의 관점에서 상황을 바라보라고 말한다. 



✔︎ 영시한 SP2-4
① Despite the children's playful actions, Boo shows signs of affection for them. ② He leaves small gifts in a tree outside the Radley home, fixes and returns Jem's lost pants, and puts a blanket on Scout's shoulders, while she is out in the cold weather looking at a neighbor's house that is on fire. ③ However, he never shows himself, so Scout grows more and more curious about him. ④ Meanwhile, Atticus agrees to defend an African-American man named Tom Robinson, who has been accused of attacking a young white woman, Mayella Ewell. ⑤ Most of the white people in Maycomb do not understand why Atticus would defend this African-American man. ⑥ They are angered by Atticus's effort to give Tom the best defense possible. ⑦ Jem and Scout are also bullied by other children because of this. 


① 아이들의 장난스런 행동에도 불구하고, Boo는 그들에 대한 애정의 표시를 보여 준다. ② 그는 Radley의 집 밖에 있는 나무 안에 작은 선물들을 남기고 Jem의 잃어버린 바지를 고쳐서 돌려주고, Scout이 추운 날씨에 밖에서 화재가 난 이웃집을 보고 있는 동안에 그녀의 어깨에 담요를 덮어 준다. ③ 그러나 그는 결코 자신을 드러내지 않아서 Scout은 점점 더 그에 대해 호기심이 생긴다. ④ 한편, Atticus는 한 젊은 백인 여성인 Mayella Ewell을 폭행한 혐의를 받고 있는 한 아프리카계 미국인 Tom Robinson을 변호하기로 한다. ⑤ Maycomb 마을의 대부분의 백인들은 왜 Atticus가 아프리카계 미국인을 변호하려는지 이해할 수가 없다. ⑥ 그들은 가능한 한 최선을 다해 Tom을 변호하려는 Atticus의 노력에 화를 낸다. ⑦ Jem과 Scout은 Atticus의 변호 때문에 다른 아이들에 의해 괴롭힘을 당한다. 



✔︎ 영시한 SP2-5
① One day during the trial, Atticus provides clear evidence that Tom never attacked Mayella and that she and her father, Bob Ewell, are lying. ② Nevertheless, the all-white jury decides that Tom is guilty. ③ Tom later tries to escape from prison and is shot to death, and Scout finds that most of her neighbors don't care about this. ④ Both Atticus and his children are shocked by the injustice of what has happened to Tom. ⑤ Despite the fact that Tom has been convicted and is now dead, Bob Ewell feels that he has been insulted and tries to take his revenge. ⑥ He threatens Tom's wife, tries to break into the judge's house, and finally attacks Jem and Scout as they walk home from a Halloween party. ⑦ However, a strange man comes to rescue them. ⑧ Scout realizes that this man is Boo Radley. ⑨ She and the wounded Jem are brought back to their house by Boo. 


① 재판을 하던 어느 날 Atticus는 Tom이 결코 Mayella를 공격하지 않았고 그녀와 그녀의 아버지인 Bob Ewell이 거짓말을 하고 있다는 명백한 증거를 제시한다. ② 그럼에도 불구하고, 모두 백인인 배심원단은 Tom이 유죄라고 판결을 내린다. ③ Tom은 이후에 교도소에서 도망치다가 총 맞아 죽고, Scout은 대부분의 이웃들이 이 사건에 대해 신경 쓰지 않는 것을 알게 된다. ④ Atticus와 그의 아이들은 Tom에게 일어났던 일의 부당함에 충격을 받는다. ⑤ Tom이 유죄를 선고 받았고 지금은 죽었다는 사실에도 불구하고, Bob Ewell은 자신이 모욕을 받았다고 느끼고 복수를 하려고 한다. ⑥ 그는 Tom의 아내를 위협하고 판사의 집으로 침입하려 하고, 마침내 Jem과 Scout이 핼러윈 파티 후에 집으로 걸어올 때 이들을 공격한다. ⑦ 그러나 한 낯선 남자가 와서 이들을 구해준다. ⑧ Scout은 이 낯선 사람이 Boo임을 깨닫는다. ⑨ Boo는 Scout와 부상을 입은 Jem을 이들의 집으로 안전하게 데려다 준다. 



✔︎ 영시한 SP2-6
① When the sheriff arrives, he discovers that Ewell was stabbed to death during the fight. ② However, he does not charge anyone with murder. ③ He knows that any further investigation will harm Boo, and he doesn't want to do that because he knows that Boo has risked himself to save the children. ④ After the sheriff leaves and Jem is safely put to bed, Scout and Boo walk arm-in-arm back to Boo's house. ⑤ When Boo disappears into the house, never to be seen again, Scout thinks about all the things he has done for her and Jem and regrets that they have never given him anything in return. ⑥ Standing on the porch of the Radley house, she sees the village as Boo has always seen it. ⑦ She imagines seeing herself and her brother from Boo's perspective and finally understands what her father meant when he told her to put herself in other people's places. 


① 보안관이 도착했을 때, 그는 싸움 중에 Bob Ewell이 칼에 찔려 죽었다는 것을 발견한다. ② 그러나 이 보안관은 어느 누구도 살인으로 기소하지 않는다. ③ 그는 어떤 추가 조사라도 Boo에게 해가 될 것임을 안다. ④ 그는 Boo가 아이들을 구하기 위해 위험을 무릅썼다는 것을 알기 때문에 Boo를 기소하고 싶지 않다. ⑤ 보안관이 떠나고 Jem을 안전하게 침대에 눕힌 후에, Scout과 Boo는 서로 팔짱을 끼고 Boo의 집으로 걸어서 돌아간다. ⑥ Boo가 집으로 사라져 다시는 보이지 않게 되었을때, Scout은 그가 그녀와 Jem을 위해 해 주었던 모든 일들에 대해 생각하고 자신들이 그에게 보답으로 아무것도 해 주지 않았던 것을 후회한다. ⑦ Scout은 Boo Radley 집의 현관에 서서, Boo가 항상 마을을 보았던 대로 마을을 바라본다. ⑧ 그녀는 Boo의 시각에서 그녀 자신과 오빠를 보는 것을 상상하고 마침내 아버지가 그녀에게 자신을 다른 사람들의 입장에 두어 보라고 했을 때 무엇을 의미했는지를 이해한다. 



✔︎ 영시한 SP2-7
① "Atticus was right," she thinks. ② "One time he said you never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them. ③ Just standing there on the Radley porch was enough. ④ "The various events that she experienced taught Scout how unjust and ugly the adult world was. ⑤ However, they also taught her the importance of sympathy, understanding, and a sense of justice. 


① "아버지가 옳았다. ② "라고 그녀는 생각한다. ③ "언젠가 그는 네가 상대의 입장이 되어서 한동안 지내보기까지는 그 사람을 결코 진정으로 알지 못할 거라고 말했다. ④ Boo의 현관에 서 있는 것만으로도 충분했다. ⑤ "Scout이 경험했던 다양한 사건들은 그녀에게 어른 세계가 얼마나 부당하고 추악한지를 가르쳐 주었다. ⑥ 하지만 그것들은 또한 그녀에게 연민, 이해심과 정의감의 중요성을 가르쳐 주었다. 


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✔︎ 영시한 1-1

1. {Be a Doer, Not a Dreamer} Shonda Lynn Rhimes is a famous American television producer and writer.


2. Rhimes delivered the following speech at the graduation ceremony for Dartmouth College in 2014.


3. President Hanlon, staff, honored guests, parents, students, families, and friends, good morning and congratulations to the graduating class!


4. When people give graduation speeches, they usually tell you: Follow your dreams.


5. Dream and dream big! 6. Don't stop dreaming until your dreams come true. 7. I think that's nonsense.



✔︎ 영시한 1-2

1. A lot of people dream.


2. And while they are busy dreaming, the really happy and successful people are busy doing.


3. Dreams are lovely, but they are just dreams.


4. Dreams do not come true just because you dream them.


5. It is hard work that makes things happen and creates change.


6. So, this is my first lesson for you: Be a doer, not a dreamer.


7. Maybe you know exactly what you want to do, or maybe you have no idea what you truly want to do.


8. It doesn't matter. 9. You don't have to know. 10. You just have to keep moving forward.


11. You just have to keep doing something, seizing the next opportunity, and staying open to trying something new.


12. It doesn't have to be the perfect job or the perfect life that you dream of.


13. Perfect is boring, and dreams are not real. 14. Just do! 15. If you're dreaming of traveling, leave right now. 16. Do you want to be a writer? 17. Start writing. 18. A writer is someone who writes every day. 19. If you don't have a job, get one. 20. Get any job. 21. Don't sit at home waiting for the magical opportunity. 22. Do something until you can do something else.



✔︎ 영시한 1-3

1. My second lesson is this: Don't be self-centered.


2. Right after graduation, you may have the worst days of your lives.


3. But don't act like you're the most miserable person in the world, because you are not.


4. We are already a lot luckier than most people on the earth.


5. We live in the country where we are free to speak our own mind and most people believe that everyone should be treated equally regardless of gender or race.


6. In some parts of the world, girls are harmed simply because they want to get an education.


7. Slavery still exists. 8. Children still starve to death.


9. Even in the United States, there are countless people who are living much more difficult lives than we can ever imagine.


10. Crime and violence are part of the everyday lives of these people.


11. So before you complain, remember that you have been given a gift.


12. Your whole life so far has been a gift.


13. It's time to pay for it by doing something for the world.




✔︎ 영시한 1-4

1. My third lesson is this: Accept that you cannot do everything.


2. Since I'm a very successful woman and a mother with three children, many people ask me, "How do you do it all?


3. How do you become successful at your job while having a family?"


4. Now I'm going to give you an entirely honest answer: I don't.


5. Whenever I'm succeeding in one area of my life, I'm failing in another area.


6. If I'm writing really exciting stories for television, I'm not spending enough time with my children.


7. If I'm enjoying a family holiday with my children, I'm not finishing the script that I should.


8. If I'm succeeding at one, I'm inevitably failing at the other.


9. This happens with all truly successful people. 10. It will happen to you when you become successful.


11. We all achieve one thing by failing to achieve something else.


12. Anyone who tells you they are doing it all perfectly is a liar.




✔︎ 영시한 1-5

1. I hope I didn't scare you.


2. I just wanted to say that it is okay, even if it doesn't look okay.


3. Your dreams may not all come true.


4. You may sometimes feel like you're failing at work or at your home life.


5. The real world is hard.


6. And yet, you can still wake up in the morning and be amazed at everything you have and everything you have achieved.


7. And then 20 years from now, one of you can find yourself right here where I stand, giving a graduation speech.




✔︎ 영시한 2-1

1. Darwin's "survival of the fittest"is universally regarded as a simple reality in the game of life.


2. Successful play sometimes requires a degree of selfishness.


3. However, across the animal kingdom, selfishness is only a very small part of an animal's life.


4. Often, animals help each other and work together for the greater good.


5. Cooperation prevails at every level of the animal kingdom.


6. In the following three examples, it is inspiring to see how animals cooperate to help each other.




✔︎ 영시한 2-2

1. Have you ever observed ants marching in and out of their nest?


2. If so, it may have reminded you of a highway packed with cars.


3. But this comparison is not appropriate.


4. Ants never get into a traffic jam, no matter how fast they move or how many of them occupy the road.


5. This is because their movements are based on cooperation.


6. When there are a few ants moving in a single direction, some ants are likely to move slowly, some fast, and others even faster.


7. As their number increases, however, they communicate with each other so that they all move at the same speed.


8. The slow speed up while the fast and the superfast slow down.


9. There are times when ants leaving the nest for food encounter other ants coming back with food on their backs.


10. When this happens, the inbound ants, the ones carrying a burden, always have the right of way.


11. Outbound ants turn to get out of the way, while inbound ants continue in a straight line.


12. This arrangement makes sense because it is more difficult for inbound ants to change direction due to their heavy loads.


13. Following these rules and cooperating in this way, ants improve the traffic flow and make the delivery of food to the nest more efficient.




✔︎ 영시한 2-3

1. Fish also cooperate. 2. As everyone knows, big fish often eat little fish.


3. Sometimes, however, little fish help the big fish, so the big fish do not eat the little fish.


4. Tiny fish, which scientists refer to as "cleaners," swim into the mouths of bigger fish, which are referred to as "clients."


5. The cleaners eat parasites in the clients' mouths.


6. After the cleaners do their job, the clients let them go, instead of swallowing them.


7. The cleaners get a meal, and the clients get a healthier mouth.


8. Sometimes the cleaner fish chew on the wall of the client fish's mouth.


9. Although this may cause pain, the big fish still do not eat the little ones for two reasons.


10. First, the cleaners are too small to satisfy their hunger.


11. Second, it is hard to find good cleaners.


12. Once the cleaners and the clients establish trust, the clients want to cooperate with the cleaners and keep them around.




✔︎ 영시한 2-4

1. Pied flycatchers are small birds that cooperate in dangerous situations.


2. When a predator enters a flycatcher's area, the flycatcher makes a loud sound for help.


3. Other flycatchers hear the call, and they come to help.


4. As more and more birds join the group, the predator becomes frightened and runs away.


5. It is important to note that flycatchers go to the aid of another bird in danger only if that bird has helped other birds in the past.


6. They do not answer the calls of birds that have refused to help others before.


7. More Info. 8. Do you know how bats cooperate to survive?


9. One kind of bat has a system of food sharing.


10. Bats die if they go two nights without food.


11. As hunting for blood—heir only food—s not easy, younger bats fail to find food one night out of three.


12. But hunger is rare because bats that find blood share it with bats that don't.




✔︎ 영시한 2-5

1. Cooperation is a process that started with the first single-celled creatures.


2. Living things, from their beginnings more than three billion years ago, took over the planet by learning to cooperate.


3. We human beings cooperate in plenty of ways, from lining up at a bus stop to sharing knowledge on a website.


4. Sometimes, however, human cooperation can break down.


5. To foster cooperative success among humans, we should perhaps look to nature for inspiration.




✔︎ 영시한 2-6

1. There are many team sports which require cooperation among the team members in order to win.


2. Let' see the origins of a few of these sports.


3. Field hockey has a long history.


4. Four-thousand-year-old drawings of men playing a simple version of a hockey game have been found in tombs in Egypt.


5. In the Middle Ages variations of hockey-like games were played in European countries.


6. Later England modernized it.


7. Soccer A Chinese game called cuju meaning "kick a ball" existed during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC and has been recognized as the first version of soccer with similar rules to the modern game.


8. Players could use any part of their body except their hands.


9. Later soccer-like games were played in Japan Australia and several countries in Europe.


10. Now 211 countries around the world are registered as members of FIFA.


11. Rowing Rowing has existed since humans first traveled on water by boat.


12. The first reference to rowing as a sport comes from 15thcentury BC Egypt.


13. It later spread throughout Europe.


14. Modern rowing as a competitive sport goes back to England in the 18th century.


15. Now one of the most famous competitions is the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race.




✔︎ 영시한 3-1

1. {What Is Soda Doing to You} When you eat fast food, such as pizza, hamburger, or fried chicken, what do you drink with it?


2. Most people have a soda.


3. When you go to the movies or when you just want something refreshing to satisfy your thirst, a soda is often the first choice.


4. Soda, also called a soft drink, is a sweet drink with carbonation.


5. People all over the world love sodas.


6. Every year, Americans consume 170 liters of soda per person, and the British 100 liters.


7. Of all age groups, teenagers drink the most soda.


8. Most people, however, understand that sodas are not good for their health due to the ingredients.


9. What is in a soda? 10. Which ingredients are really not good for you?



✔︎ 영시한 3-2

1. {Sugar} Everyone knows that soft drinks are loaded with large amounts of sugar.


2. A typical 250ml can of soda contains 30 grams of sugar.


3. WHO, the World Health Organization, recommends that people consume less than 25 grams of sugar a day.


4. Therefore, if you drink one small can of soda, your daily sugar intake already exceeds the recommended amount.


5. What is worse, people usually don't stop with one can.


6. Having extra sugar means adding unnecessary calories.


7. Over time, this can lead to obesity and other health problems, such as heart disease and diabetes.


8. Even diet sodas are not safe. 9. Diet sodas replace the sugar with artificial sweeteners.


10. Artificial sweeteners provide a sweet, sugary taste with fewer calories.


11. This may seem like a good thing, but it really isn't.


12. According to a recent study, artificial sweeteners make you want more sweet foods.


13. This means that you may easily gain weight if you keep drinking diet soda.


14. In addition, artificial sweeteners are known to generate headaches, emotional disorders, and sleeping problems.




✔︎ 영시한 3-3

1. {Acid} Most soda contains several types of acids. 2. Acid is a chemical substance with a sour taste. 3. When added to water, it produces a sharp flavor.


4. Acid also delays the growth of bacteria, which extends the expiration date of a product.


5. However, acid interferes with the body's ability to absorb calcium, and as a result, bone softening occurs.


6. Also, the acid in sodas interacts with stomach acid, slowing digestion and blocking nutrient absorption.


7. Furthermore, it can damage tooth enamel, the hard substance that protects your teeth.


8. If you drink sodas regularly, your teeth decay more easily.




✔︎ 영시한 3-4

1. {Caffeine} When you hear the word "caffeine," you most likely think of coffee.


2. But some sodas, especially colas and carbonated energy drinks, also contain caffeine.


3. Caffeine makes you feel more awake, but it may bring about an irregular heartbeat.


4. A single can of cola may not affect you much, but if you consume colas regularly, they can make you feel more nervous and keep you from sleeping well at night.


5. Artificial Colors and Artificial Flavors Soft drink companies attract consumers by adding bright colors and sweet flavors to their products.


6. Most of these colors and flavors, however, are not natural.


7. They are artificial chemicals.


8. For example, the artificial color Yellow No_6, used in some pineapple juices, adds nothing to the taste.


9. It is just there to make the drink look pretty.


10. Also, the artificial flavor that gives the drink its pineapple taste is not real pineapple juice at all.


11. Studies have shown that excessive consumption of these kinds of chemicals can create problems such as kidney disease and ADHD.




✔︎ 영시한 3-5

1. You can see how the sugar, the acid, the caffeine, and the artificial chemicals in sodas are really not good for you.


2. Perhaps you might now understand that you should stop drinking them.


3. However, if quitting sodas altogether sounds too difficult, cut down gradually.


4. For example, replace one regular soft drink or one diet soda per day with another more healthy drink.


5. Of course, the best choice would be water.


6. Water has no calories, no acid, no caffeine, and no chemicals of any kind.


7. And if you want something to add a boost of flavor, put a slice of lemon in the water.


8. If you can't break your soda drinking habits in a short period of time, don't be too hard on yourself.


9. Once you start cutting back, you are heading in the right direction.




✔︎ 영시한 4-1

1. {RFCx} the Rainforest Savior Imagine you are standing in a rainforest.


2. You are surrounded by tall trees, many of which are more than 40 meters tall.


3. You are a hundred kilometers away from the nearest city.


4. What do you hear? 5. Do you think it is a quiet, peaceful place? 6. If so, you are wrong. 7. The rainforest is actually a very noisy place.


8. Insects, birds, and monkeys are responsible for much of this noise.


9. And sometimes there is another sound, one that does not belong in the forest at all.


10. It is the buzz of a chainsaw.


11. Every year some 13 million hectares of rainforest, an area about the size of England, disappears.




✔︎ 영시한 4-2

1. This loss destroys the habitats for millions of species and has a major effect on the jungle's biodiversity.


2. Also, it increases the amount of CO² in the air.


3. Destruction of the rainforest is caused by logging, farming, mining, and other human activities.


4. Among these, logging is the main reason for nature's loss.


5. Some 70 to 80 percent of the logging in the rainforests is thought to be illegal.


6. To address this problem, a young American engineer has invented a simple device that detects illegal logging the moment it occurs.


7. It all started in 2011, when Topher White visited Indonesia as a volunteer.


8. One day, he and some of the other volunteers set out from the ranger station on a walk into a protected rainforest.


9. After walking only five minutes, his group came upon people who were cutting down trees illegally.


10. The surprised loggers fled, but White was shocked.


11. Despite the fact that they were still fairly close to the ranger station, it had been impossible to hear anything from back there.


12. It is because the forest was so full of other sounds.




✔︎ 영시한 4-3

1. White started thinking about ways to help.


2. He knew that even in the jungle, far from the city, there was good cell phone service.


3. He thought that perhaps cell phone technology could solve the problem.


4. After he returned home to the U.S., in his father's garage he developed a small listening device using an old cell phone.


5. He attached a sensitive microphone to the cell phone so that it could detect chainsaw noise from up to three kilometers away.


6. This device would be placed high up in a tree.


7. When it picked up the buzz of a saw, it would send a message to a ranger's cell phone.


8. White knew that he had to protect the cell phone so that it could survive in the hot and wet rainforest environment.


9. His solution was to put the phone in a plastic box.


10. Since there was no electricity where the phone needed to be placed, the device had to be able to power itself.


11. White attached solar panels to the cell phone.


12. He was sure that the panels would work, even under the shade of the thick tree leaves.




✔︎ 영시한 4-4

1. White returned to Indonesia to test the device.


2. Surprisingly, on only the second day after he installed the device, it picked up chainsaw noises.


3. An alert message was immediately sent to White and the forest rangers.


4. When they approached the logging spot, the illegal loggers ran away.


5. White published his story on the Internet and word quickly spread.


6. People living in other countries contacted White and asked if they could use the device.


7. Others, from around the world, started sending him their old cell phones so he could build more devices.


8. These devices, called Rainforest Connection (RFCx), are now being used in the rainforests in Africa and South America.




✔︎ 영시한 4-5

1. One RFCx can protect 300 hectares of forest.


2. If a forest of this size is cut, 15,000 tons of CO² are released into the air.


3. Preventing this amount of CO² from being released has the same effect as taking 3,000 cars off the road for a year.


4. These devices are saving rainforests and providing new life for thousands of discarded cell phones.


5. Thanks to Topher White and his RFCx devices, the earth is now a better place to live.




✔︎ 영시한 5-1

1. How to Handle Haters.


2. Have you ever known someone you just did not get along with?


3. Maybe it was someone you had difficulty working with or it could have been someone you were always arguing with.


4. This kind of situation can leave you wondering what you should do.


5. Should you ignore them, be extra nice to them, or stand up to them?


6. If you have ever been confused about what to do, you are not alone.


7. Luckily for us, Benjamin Franklin, the American politician and inventor, came up with an answer more than 200 years ago.




✔︎ 영시한 5-2

1. Benjamin Franklin was a very smart man, not just in politics and science, but also in his ability to deal with people.


2. Once, when Franklin was serving as a representative for the people of the state of Pennsylvania, a powerful opponent made a long speech criticizing him.


3. This speech was so powerful that it threatened Franklin's political career.


4. Franklin decided to try to change his enemy's opinion of him.


5. To do this, he sent a letter to the man asking for a favor.


6. He asked the man to lend him a very rare and valuable book, one that he knew the man had in his personal library.


7. The man, Franklin's enemy, immediately sent him the book.


8. Franklin read the book and returned it with a note of thanks.




✔︎ 영시한 5-3

1. The next time Franklin met his enemy, the man was much nicer to him.


2. They eventually became friends and remained so for the rest of their lives.


3. In his autobiography, Franklin explained what happened.


4. Franklin wrote, "He that has once done you a kindness will be more ready to do you another.


5. "By asking a small favor of his enemy, Franklin gave the man a chance to do him a kindness.


6. This turned his enemy into a friend.


7. Today this phenomenon is known as the Benjamin Franklin effect.


8. It is commonly thought that if you want people who do not like you to like you, you should do favors for them.


9. However, if you want to try to create a connection with someone who does not like you, asking that person to do you a favor is more effective.


10. To test this phenomenon, a psychologist performed an experiment and came to the same conclusion.




✔︎ 영시한 5-4

1. About 80 students were invited to participate in an experiment and were told they would be given some money after a series of tests.


2. A researcher was hired and made the students dislike him by being rude to them.


3. The students took the tests and were all awarded the promised money.


4. They were then divided into three groups.


5. Group 1 was asked by the researcher to return some of the prize money.


6. He explained that he had used his own money for the tests and the study was in danger of running out of funds.


7. Group 2 was asked by a secretary to return some of the money to the institution because the budget was running low.


8. Group 3 was not asked to return any money.


9. Afterward, all three groups were asked to rate how much they liked the researcher.


10. The people in Group 1, who had done the researcher a personal favor by returning some of the money, rated the researcher the highest.


11. Despite the fact that they had had a bad impression of him during the experiment, they had more positive feelings for him after returning "his money."




✔︎ 영시한 5-5

1. How can it be that we feel more positively toward people for whom we do favors?


2. It is because of what psychologists refer to as "cognitive dissonance.


3. "We want our actions and our thoughts to be in harmony.


4. When we do something that we do not like, the balance is broken, and we feel unhappy.


5. If there is a conflict between our thoughts and our actions (cognitive dissonance), we will change one or the other to relieve the conflict.


6. After lending Franklin the book, Franklin's enemy experienced cognitive dissonance.


7. He felt troubled because he was doing something nice for someone he disliked.


8. Feeling anxious and unhappy, he had to find a way to resolve his feelings.


9. The easiest way for him to do that was to change how he thought about Franklin.


10. He justified doing the favor by telling himself that Franklin was not a bad person after all and convinced himself that he actually liked Franklin.


11. Is there someone with whom you would like to have a better relationship?


12. Try asking that person for a small favor, such as lending you a pencil or watching your bag while you go to the restroom.


13. Then see if their feelings toward you change. 14. The chances are they will.



✔︎ 영시한 5-6

1. Every culture has proverbs about human relationships.


2. Read the following proverbs different countries and cultures and think about the meaning of each one.


3. He who gets close to a good tree will have good shade - Spain.


4. Kind words take the snake out of its hole - Turkey.


5. Show me your friends and I'l tell you who you are - Russia.


6. As distance tests a horse' strength, so does time reveal a person' character - China.


7. Laughter is a language everyone understands - Chad.


8. A friend will cause you to weep, an enemy to laugh - Afghanistan.


9. If you want to go fast, go alone.


10. If you want to go far, go together - Africa.


11. Lose your temper and you lose a friend; lie and you lose yourself - Native American.




✔︎ 영시한 6-1

1. Dabbawalas: Mumbai's Lunch Box Delivery Men In India, many traditions are today being challenged as a result of globalization.


2. The practice of eating a home-cooked meal for lunch, however, continues.


3. In Mumbai, many people who work in offices far from home rely on an express food delivery service run by dabbawalas.


4. Dabbawalas are delivery men who carry hot lunch boxes for Mumbai office workers from their homes to their offices.


5. The word dabbawala comes from the Hindi dabba meaning "lunch box," and wala meaning "the person who carries it."




✔︎ 영시한 6-2

1. Most dabbas, or lunches, reach their destination after passing through several pairs of hands.


2. A typical scenario would have one person on a bicycle pick up a dabba by 9:00 a.m. from about thirty different addresses.


3. After collecting all of the dabbas assigned to him, he takes them to the nearest train station.


4. Another person loads each dabba onto the right train, sending them off in different directions.


5. A third person rides on each of the trains with the dabbas.


6. Finally, a fourth person picks up the boxes at the receiving station and distributes them, again by bicycle, to each customerʼ office, all by 12:30 p.m.


7. The empty dabbas are picked up by 5:00 p.m. and are returned to their original addresses by the same team, following the same procedure in reverse.




✔︎ 영시한 6-3

1. The dabbawala service began around 1890, when a banker hired a young man to deliver a lunch box from his home to his Mumbai office.


2. Other people liked the idea and copied it.


3. When demand for the service expanded, a businessman started the lunch-delivery service in its present format.


4. Now, more than 120 years later, the dabba is a unique part of the Mumbai culture.


5. Why do Mumbai workers not take their lunch boxes with them in the morning, when they leave for the office?


6. Those who use the dabbawala service are mostly middle-class office workers who live in one of Mumbai's suburbs.


7. They have to leave for the office early in the morning, riding on a packed train.


8. It would be difficult for them to carry their own dabba.


9. Also, they often have dietary restrictions, depending upon their religion.


10. Hindus do not eat beef, Muslims do not eat pork, and Jains do not eat onions and potatoes.


11. As a result, it is not easy for workers to find the right food in restaurants near their office.


12. To meet their dietary needs, Indian workers prefer their home-cooked meals, made especially for them.




✔︎ 영시한 6-4

1. Today approximately 5,000 dabbawalas cover 70 square kilometers in and around Mumbai.


2. They conduct about 400,000 transactions daily.


3. 200,000 lunch boxes are delivered to offices every morning, six days a week, and 200,000 are returned home every afternoon.


4. They even deliver in the pouring rain and during political strife.


5. Surprisingly, hardly any cases of late or mistaken delivery are ever reported.


6. Their motto is "error is horror.


7. "The dabbawalas are proud of their 99.99 percent accuracy rate, which means just one mistake in every six million deliveries.


8. It is an amazing record, considering that most of the dabbawalas are illiterate and that not a single piece of paper is used in the delivery process.


9. The secret to this error-free system is in a coding system.


10. Each dabba carries a code, painted with different colors, numbers, and symbols.


11. These codes tell the dabbawala where the food comes from and which railway stations it must pass through on its way to a specific office in a specific building, in Mumbai.




✔︎ 영시한 6-5

1. The dabbawala organization is an outstanding example of an efficient distribution system.


2. It is simple, relies on teamwork, has a low operating cost, and delivers almost 100 percent customer satisfaction.


3. It is not surprising, then, that business schools and large corporations around the world learn from the dabbawala system.


4. Today, most people cannot imagine an efficient delivery system operating without the benefit of technology.


5. Dabbawalas, however, demonstrate that with no form of technology, some of the old ways may still be the best ways.




✔︎ 영시한 6-6

1. SWITZERLAND Watchmaking School Switzerland is world-renowned for its high-quality watches.


2. Its first watchmaking school opened in the mid-1800s.


3. Now Switzerland has several watchmaking schools whose students take the traditional watchmaking course.


4. The class sizes are kept small to ensure that each student receives extensive individualized lessons from master watchmakers.


5. ITALY Central Institute of Restoration Italy is a country filled with valuable cultural assets.


6. Therefore, the restoration and protection of the nation' cultural heritage is guaranteed by the Italian Constitution.


7. The Central Institute of Restoration was founded in l939 to conserve and restore artworks and archaeological findings using scientific technology.


8. Each year the four-year course accepts about 20 students who are selected through exams that are held by the Ministry of Cultural Heritage.


9. BHUTAN Royal Textile Academy of Bhutan Bhutan is famous for its hand-woven textiles.


10. They are recognized for their abundance of color, different patterns, and weaving techniques.


11. With the aim to preserve and promote this living art, the Royal Textile Academy of Bhutan was created in 2005.


12. Its mission is to educate, promote and preserve Bhutanese textiles.




✔︎ 영시한 7-1

1. Gaudi Architect Inspired by Nature Most industrialized countries have produced a number of good architects.


2. Few countries, however, can claim to have produced a great architect.


3. One country that can make that claim without embarrassment is Spain.


4. There, at the summit of the nation's architectural genius, stands Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926).


5. Gaudi was born in Catalonia, Spain, in 1852.


6. As a child, he was fascinated by the natural wonders of the surrounding countryside.


7. Gaudi took an interest in architecture at a young age and studied architecture in Barcelona, the city that would become home to his greatest works.


8. Gaudi's designs were deeply influenced by forms in nature.


9. He understood that the natural world is full of curved lines, rather than straight lines.


10. As a result, most of his constructions use curved stones and animal- or plant-shaped designs.


11. Gaudi's work is also known for its use of bold colors.


12. He decorated many of his buildings with colorful tiles.


13. This combination of natural designs and bright colors creates a breathtaking visual experience.


14. Here are some of Gaudi's greatest works, all of which are found in the city of Barcelona.




✔︎ 영시한 7-2

1. Parc Güell is a public park and is one of Gaudi's most decorative works.


2. Gaudi completed this park in 1914.


3. It was built for Eusebi Güell, a rich businessman who admired Gaudi's style.


4. Parc Güell contains amazing stone structures, gorgeous tiles, and beautiful buildings.


5. At the entrance to the park are two buildings, both with curved roofs.


6. These buildings seem to be taken directly from "Hansel and Gretel.


7. "The park is also home to a famous dragon fountain, covered with beautiful colored tiles.


8. Known as "El Drac," which means "the dragon" in the language of Catalonia, this colorful fountain is a symbol of Parc Güell.


9. On a hill within the park are curved terraces and multicolored tile seats where visitors can enjoy wonderful views of Barcelona and the sea beyond.




✔︎ 영시한 7-3

1. Casa Batllo is a house renovated by Gaudi between 1904 and 1906.


2. Built in 1877, the original building was very different from what it is today.


3. When it was purchased by Joseph Batllo, he asked Gaudi to add his impressive touch to the design.


4. From the outside, Casa Batllo looks as if it has been made from skulls and bones.


5. The "skulls" are in fact balconies and the "bones" are supporting stone columns between the windows.


6. These details have given the house the nickname, the House of Bones.


7. Gaudi decorated the building with colors and shapes found in the sea.


8. Indeed, the design of the green and blue tiles on the wall remind people of the sea, while the curved window frames were inspired by ocean waves.


9. The interior of the house is even more impressive.


10. Everything is curved, including the walls, the ceilings, and the wooden doors.


11. Because of the curves, the Batllo family could not fit their traditional, straight furniture against the curved surfaces.


12. Thus, Gaudi had to design special furniture for the family.




✔︎ 영시한 7-4

1. Sagrada Familia is the most widely-known symbol of Barcelona and one of the world's largest churches.


2. Begun in 1882, it has been under construction for more than one hundred years.


3. It is expected that the church will be completed in 2026, on the 100th anniversary of Gaudi's death.


4. Despite its incomplete state, Sagrada Familia's incredible design draws an estimated 2.5 million tourists every year.


5. On the outside, the church will have 18 high towers.


6. When completed, the highest tower will reach a height of 170 meters.


7. The walls are decorated with sculptures that describe events in the Bible.


8. When you step inside the church, the large columns supporting the ceiling immediately catch your eye.


9. The columns branch out at the top so that each column looks like a huge tree.


10. Between the columns are skylights to let natural light in.


11. The colorful stained glass windows filter the sunlight and project red, blue, and green light all over the interior space.


12. The tree-like columns and the different light at different times of the day transform the inside of the church into a stone forest.




✔︎ 영시한 7-5

1. These are only three of Gaudi's many works in or near Barcelona.


2. All are recognized as important works of architecture, and seven have been named UNESCO World Heritage Sites.


3. These extraordinary works show how important Gaudi was to the development of modern architecture in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.


4. Even today his imaginative, creative, unique architecture characterizes the city of Barcelona.


5. No visitor to Barcelona would want to leave without seeing these works of Antoni Gaudi.




✔︎ 영시한 8-1

1. Robots May Rescue You from Future Disasters In 2011, an earthquake and its accompanying tsunami destroyed Japan's Fukushima nuclear power plant.


2. The resulting nuclear disaster released large amounts of radioactive material into the surrounding area.


3. Since it was impossible for humans to work in this environment, the Japanese government considered sending in robots to handle the situation.


4. The robots the Japanese were using, however, were not up to the task.


5. Eventually, humans had to do most of the extremely dangerous work.




✔︎ 영시한 8-2

1. Since then, there has been renewed emphasis on developing robots that can serve in dangerous situations.


2. In response to Japan's nuclear disaster, the 2015 DARPA Robotics Challenge was created to speed up the development of robots that could work in disaster-stricken areas.


3. The competition attracted 25 teams from around the world.


4. The winner was a Korean team from KAIST who developed a robot called HUBO.


5. During the competition, the robots had to solve a series of problems they might come upon in a disaster situation.


6. The tasks were: driving a vehicle, getting out of the vehicle, opening a door, locating and closing a leaking valve, using a drill to cut through a wall, pulling a plug out of a wall socket and then plugging it in, navigating rough terrain, and climbing stairs.


7. HUBO completed all eight tasks in the shortest time of all the competitors – 44 minutes and 28 seconds.


8. The key to HUBO's success was its ability to move from a standing position to a kneeling position.


9. HUBO had wheels attached to its knees and feet.


10. When kneeling, HUBO was able to use these wheels to move around quickly and decisively.




✔︎ 영시한 8-3

1. From the beginning, HUBO was better than the other robots at performing the tasks.


2. It was able to drive a vehicle fast and when it encountered a barrier, it was able to turn the vehicle smoothly to avoid it.


3. Next, it was able to get out of the car in less than four minutes and, once out of the vehicle, got on its knees and sped away.


4. As the series of eight tasks became progressively more difficult, HUBO's performance on the tasks reflected the growing difficulty.


5. On the fifth task, for which it had to use a drill to cut through a wall, HUBO failed on its first attempt.


6. Generally speaking, it was difficult for a robot to hold a drill in the right position and simultaneously press an on/off button.


7. On the second trial, however, HUBO successfully completed the task.


8. The task that took the longest time for HUBO was the sixth one, pulling a plug out of a wall socket and putting it back into another.


9. It takes a human less than 10 seconds to perform the task, but it took HUBO 13 minutes and 30 seconds.




✔︎ 영시한 8-4

1. For the final task, climbing stairs, it was important that the robot be able to see its feet.


2. Other robots had difficulty doing this because they had to bend their bodies forward to see over their knees to scan the stairs.


3. This awkward move caused them to lose their balance. 4. HUBO solved this problem in a clever way. 5. It climbed the stairs backward.


6. But how did it see the steps if it was moving backwards?


7. By rotating its upper body 180 degrees.


8. That way, the robot's knees did not block the camera's view of either the feet or the floor.


9. After scanning the stairs, the robot set off to climb to the top, completing the task effortlessly.




✔︎ 영시한 8-5

1. This amazing robot was not made in a day.


2. The KAIST team had already built four HUBOs and had been improving them for years.


3. They practiced outdoors, in good weather and bad, and on rough terrain.


4. They burned up motor after motor, but never gave up.


5. They approached each failure as a challenge to make a faster, stronger, and better robot.


6. The DARPA Robotics Challenge eventually ended, but it is only the beginning.


7. In the future, there will be other robots like HUBO.


8. They will be called upon to perform complicated tasks that will be too dangerous for humans.


9. Scientists expect that these robots will save lives and reduce the damage caused by future disasters.




✔︎ 영시한 SP1-1

1. How Volunteering Abroad Changed My Life by Susan Shain I was about to board a plane, and I was scared.


2. Not because I was afraid of flying, but because I was afraid of what awaited me at my destination.


3. "I could turn around now," I said to myself.


4. "I could just go back to my part-time job and have a nice quiet summer."


5. The year was 2005. 6. The plane's destination? 7. Tanzania.


8. I'd never traveled anywhere so different before, and I had no idea what to expect.


9. That scared me.


10. But I had never been one to turn away from adventure, so when the rest of my group started boarding, I did, too.


11. Little did I know that the next six weeks would change my life forever.




✔︎ 영시한 SP1-2

1. What Volunteering in Tanzania Was Like I traveled to Tanzania as part of a university program the summer after my freshman year.


2. We spent several weeks volunteering at a community center and an orphanage.


3. Though we did many other exciting things like going on safari and climbing Mt Kilimanjaro, it was our volunteering time that stuck with me.


4. Volunteering allowed me to truly connect with the people in Tanzania.


5. If I had not volunteered, I would never have got an inside look at their way of life.


6. By volunteering, I became part of the lives of local families — sharing meals, playing with their kids, and visiting their homes.


7. These experiences were eye-opening, educational, and inspiring:.


8. – eye-opening to see how few possessions they had, yet how much love and personal strength they had –.


9. educational to experience their culture:.


10. I learned to cook ugali, milk a cow, and wear a kanga –.


11. inspiring to witness their close family ties and endless positivity.


12. Volunteering abroad taught me so much about the world and about myself.


13. I grew more in those few weeks than I did my entire first year of college.




✔︎ 영시한 SP1-3

1. How Volunteering Abroad Changed Me These are what volunteering gave me:.


2. Gratitude for what I have When I returned home, I literally hugged my toilet, and I cried during my first hot shower.


3. I didn't have these things in Tanzania.


4. To this day, I sometimes say a silent "Thank you" as I turn on the tap to get a drink of water.


5. Volunteering gave me deep gratitude for the comforts and opportunities I used to take for granted.


6. Appreciation for new cultures The local people are welcoming, strong, and overwhelmingly positive.


7. Their language, clothing, and culture are beautiful.


8. Growing up in rural New York State, I had never before experienced people so different from me.


9. During my time in Tanzania, I learned to appreciate those differences.


10. Volunteering abroad taught me the beauty of diversity.



✔︎ 영시한 SP1-4

1. Hunger for exploration Though I was happy to return home, I was confident it would not be my last adventure.


2. I knew I wanted to continue exploring, meeting people from different backgrounds, trying new foods, and discovering unique landscapes.


3. It made me a travel addict.


4. Commitment to helping people I will be honest: Volunteering feels good.


5. Giving back to others and seeing the smiles on their faces is a feeling unmatched by anything else.


6. After experiencing this in Tanzania, I decided to help people wherever and whenever I could for them and for myself.


7. It is something I try to do every day.



✔︎ 영시한 SP1-5

1. It has now been 10 years since I traveled to Tanzania, and these principles still guide me.


2. I graduated from college in 2008, and ever since, I have been working and traveling around the world.


3. I have volunteered everywhere from Korea to France to Nicaragua to North Carolina.


4. I practice gratitude daily and am always trying to meet new people and learn about different ways of life.


5. Sometimes I wonder what my life would be like if I had not got on that plane to East Africa.


6. Would I have ever tasted ugali, danced with the Masai, or bathed an elephant?


7. Would I be the person I am today? 8. I will never know the answers to these questions.


9. But I do know I will be forever grateful I got on that plane.


10. Volunteering abroad led me to the life I have today — which I wouldn't change for anything.




✔︎ 영시한 SP1-6

1. < ADDITIONAL READING > The Secret to Happiness There is a Chinese saying that goes: "If you want happiness for an hour, take a nap If you want happiness for a day, go fishing If you want happiness for a year, inherit a fortune If you want happiness for the rest of your life, help somebody" For centuries, the greatest thinkers have suggested the same thing: Happiness is found in helping others And so we learn early: It is better to give than to receive But is there a deeper truth behind this statement?


2. The answer is yes Scientific research provides convincing data to support the evidence that giving is a powerful path to lasting happiness Researchers have found that the areas in our brains that feel pleasure become activated when we give —meaning that besides doing good, donating our money or time actually makes us feel good This feeling is similar to a "runner's high," a term created for that feel-good sensation that rushes through your body after a run They use the term "helper's high" to describe what happens to your body and your brain when you are kind to another person or give to them in some way Helping others may just be the secret to living a life that is not only happier but also healthier, wealthier, more productive, and meaningful.




✔︎ 영시한 SP1-7

1. < CULTURE > Volunteers around the World Mealshare Mealshare is a non-profit organization founded by two young men from Canada in 2013.


2. With "uy One, Give One"motto, Mealshare partners with restaurants, and places its symbol next to a few menu items.


3. When a customer orders a Mealshare item, the restaurant donates $1 to Mealshare.


4. With the collected money, meals for people in need are served.


5. Teens for Jeans Started by a non-profit organization, it is a campaign in which teenagers in the U.S. collect pairs of jeans and give them to local homeless youth.


6. Many schools and teenagers have donated over five million pairs of jeans since the campaign started in 2008.


7. COASTSWEEP It is an international clean-up campaign organized in the U.S.


8. Volunteers gather for the clean-up and are provided with cleaning tools such as plastic gloves and bags.


9. Volunteers record what they pick up and the data is used to find out the sources of trash, and to study how to reduce trash.




✔︎ 영시한 SP2-1

1. To Kill a Mockingbird In the early part of the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, the heroine and her brother are told by their father never to kill a mockingbird.


2. "I hope you shoot only tin cans in the garden, but I know you'll want to hunt birds," he says to his children, who are learning how to shoot a gun.


3. "Shoot as many bluejays as you want, but remember that it's a sin to kill a mockingbird.


4. "Puzzled, the heroine asks Miss Maudie, her kind and clever neighbor, why she should not kill a mockingbird.


5. Miss Maudie answers: "Your father's right.


6. All mockingbirds do is make music for us to enjoy.


7. They don't eat up people's gardens or steal their food.


8. They only sing their hearts out for us. 9. That's why it's a sin to kill a mockingbird."



✔︎ 영시한 SP2-2

1. In To Kill a Mockingbird, there are characters like mockingbirds, who are innocent and harmless.


2. However, they are often hurt and sometimes even killed by others.


3. Through their stories, the author Harper Lee shows how an unfair society harms innocent people and prevents others from helping them.


4. At the same time, she also shows how important it is to remain just, fair, and understanding in such a society.


5. Lee wrote To Kill a Mockingbird based on her own childhood experiences.


6. Just like the heroine of the novel, she grew up in Alabama and saw many African-American people treated cruelly and unfairly.


7. Her criticism against racism and her wish for a more fair and understanding world are well expressed in this book.


8. For this reason, To Kill a Mockingbird has long been a book loved not only by Americans but also by many people around the world.


9. It has been translated in 40 different languages, and more than 40 million copies have been sold.




✔︎ 영시한 SP2-3

1. To Kill a Mockingbird is the story of a young girl growing up in a southern town during the 1930s, when African-American people were facing severe discrimination.


2. The six-year-old heroine, Scout Finch, lives with her brother Jem and their father Atticus in Maycomb, a little town in Alabama where things do not change quickly.


3. Here, the same families have been doing the same things for generation after generation, and Atticus is a lawyer just like his father was.


4. Scout, Jem, and their friend Dill are fascinated by the haunted house in their neighborhood and the man who lives there, Arthur "Boo"Radley.


5. Boo is known as a "Monster" for stabbing his father in his leg when he was a boy, but no one actually witnessed the accident.


6. He has not been seen by anyone for many years, and the adults of Maycomb do not want to talk about him.


7. Curious about what he looks like and why he remains hidden, the children share rumors about him and try to get him to come out of his house.


8. While they are acting out the story of his life one day, Atticus stops them, telling them to see things from other people's points of view.




✔︎ 영시한 SP2-4

1. Despite the children's playful actions, Boo shows signs of affection for them.


2. He leaves small gifts in a tree outside the Radley home, fixes and returns Jem's lost pants, and puts a blanket on Scout's shoulders, while she is out in the cold weather looking at a neighbor's house that is on fire.


3. However, he never shows himself, so Scout grows more and more curious about him.


4. Meanwhile, Atticus agrees to defend an African-American man named Tom Robinson, who has been accused of attacking a young white woman, Mayella Ewell.


5. Most of the white people in Maycomb do not understand why Atticus would defend this African-American man.


6. They are angered by Atticus's effort to give Tom the best defense possible.


7. Jem and Scout are also bullied by other children because of this.




✔︎ 영시한 SP2-5

1. One day during the trial, Atticus provides clear evidence that Tom never attacked Mayella and that she and her father, Bob Ewell, are lying.


2. Nevertheless, the all-white jury decides that Tom is guilty.


3. Tom later tries to escape from prison and is shot to death, and Scout finds that most of her neighbors don't care about this.


4. Both Atticus and his children are shocked by the injustice of what has happened to Tom.


5. Despite the fact that Tom has been convicted and is now dead, Bob Ewell feels that he has been insulted and tries to take his revenge.


6. He threatens Tom's wife, tries to break into the judge's house, and finally attacks Jem and Scout as they walk home from a Halloween party.


7. However, a strange man comes to rescue them. 8. Scout realizes that this man is Boo Radley.


9. She and the wounded Jem are brought back to their house by Boo.




✔︎ 영시한 SP2-6

1. When the sheriff arrives, he discovers that Ewell was stabbed to death during the fight.


2. However, he does not charge anyone with murder.


3. He knows that any further investigation will harm Boo, and he doesn't want to do that because he knows that Boo has risked himself to save the children.


4. After the sheriff leaves and Jem is safely put to bed, Scout and Boo walk arm-in-arm back to Boo's house.


5. When Boo disappears into the house, never to be seen again, Scout thinks about all the things he has done for her and Jem and regrets that they have never given him anything in return.


6. Standing on the porch of the Radley house, she sees the village as Boo has always seen it.


7. She imagines seeing herself and her brother from Boo's perspective and finally understands what her father meant when he told her to put herself in other people's places.




✔︎ 영시한 SP2-7

1. "Atticus was right," she thinks.


2. "One time he said you never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them.


3. Just standing there on the Radley porch was enough.


4. "The various events that she experienced taught Scout how unjust and ugly the adult world was.


5. However, they also taught her the importance of sympathy, understanding, and a sense of justice.



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♕ 다음 단어의 뜻을 쓰시오.

✔︎ 영시한 1-1

✔︎ 영시한 1-2
1. seizing

✔︎ 영시한 1-3
2. centered
3. countless
4. gender
5. harmed
6. miserable
7. slavery
8. starve
9. violence

✔︎ 영시한 1-4
10. inevitably
11. liar

✔︎ 영시한 1-5

✔︎ 영시한 2-1
12. cooperate
13. cooperation
14. fittest
15. inspiring
16. prevails
17. regarded
18. selfishness
19. survival
20. universally

✔︎ 영시한 2-2
21. arrangement
22. cooperating
23. cooperation
24. efficient
25. encounter
26. inbound
27. loads
28. movements
29. occupy
30. outbound
31. packed
32. reminded
33. superfast

✔︎ 영시한 2-3
34. chew
35. client
36. cooperate
37. establish
38. parasites

✔︎ 영시한 2-4
39. cooperate
40. heir
41. info

✔︎ 영시한 2-5
42. celled
43. cooperate
44. cooperation
45. cooperative
46. inspiration

✔︎ 영시한 2-6
47. competitive
48. cooperation
49. modernized
50. reference
51. registered
52. variations

✔︎ 영시한 3-1
53. carbonation
54. refreshing

✔︎ 영시한 3-2
55. diabetes
56. diet
57. disorders
58. exceeds
59. intake
60. loaded
61. obesity
62. sugary
63. sweeteners

✔︎ 영시한 3-3
64. absorption
65. acid
66. calcium
67. decay
68. digestion
69. expiration
70. extends
71. interferes
72. nutrient
73. substance

✔︎ 영시한 3-4
74. carbonated
75. consumption
76. excessive
77. heartbeat
78. irregular

✔︎ 영시한 3-5
79. acid
80. altogether
81. diet
82. quitting

✔︎ 영시한 4-1
83. chainsaw
84. hectares
85. noisy
86. savior

✔︎ 영시한 4-2
87. biodiversity
88. fled
89. loggers
90. logging
91. ranger

✔︎ 영시한 4-3
92. chainsaw
93. panels
94. ranger

✔︎ 영시한 4-4
95. alert
96. approached
97. chainsaw
98. contacted
99. installed
100. loggers
101. logging
102. rangers

✔︎ 영시한 4-5
103. discarded
104. hectares

✔︎ 영시한 5-1
105. arguing
106. haters
107. politician

✔︎ 영시한 5-2
108. criticizing
109. opponent
110. threatened

✔︎ 영시한 5-3
111. autobiography
112. phenomenon
113. psychologist

✔︎ 영시한 5-4
114. awarded

✔︎ 영시한 5-5
115. anxious
116. cognitive
117. conflict
118. convinced
119. dissonance
120. justified
121. psychologists
122. relieve
123. resolve

✔︎ 영시한 5-6
124. reveal
125. strength
126. temper
127. weep

✔︎ 영시한 6-1
128. globalization

✔︎ 영시한 6-2
129. assigned
130. customerʼ
131. destination
132. distributes
133. loads
134. lunches
135. procedure
136. reverse
137. scenario

✔︎ 영시한 6-3
138. demand
139. dietary
140. expanded
141. format
142. packed
143. religion
144. restrictions
145. suburbs

✔︎ 영시한 6-4
146. accuracy
147. approximately
148. conduct
149. deliveries
150. illiterate
151. reported
152. specific
153. strife
154. transactions

✔︎ 영시한 6-5
155. corporations
156. demonstrate
157. distribution
158. efficient
159. operating
160. relies
161. satisfaction

✔︎ 영시한 6-6
162. abundance
163. academy
164. archaeological
165. conserve
166. constitution
167. educate
168. ensure
169. extensive
170. guaranteed
171. individualized
172. institute
173. ministry
174. renowned
175. restoration
176. restore
177. selected
178. textile
179. weaving
180. woven

✔︎ 영시한 7-1
181. architectural
182. breathtaking
183. claim
184. countryside
185. embarrassment
186. fascinated
187. industrialized
188. summit
189. surrounding
190. tiles

✔︎ 영시한 7-2
191. decorative
192. multicolored
193. terraces

✔︎ 영시한 7-3
194. balconies
195. interior
196. tiles

✔︎ 영시한 7-4
197. branch
198. column
199. estimated
200. incomplete
201. interior
202. sculptures
203. skylights
204. stained
205. transform

✔︎ 영시한 7-5
206. characterizes
207. extraordinary

✔︎ 영시한 8-1
208. accompanying
209. radioactive
210. surrounding

✔︎ 영시한 8-2
211. attracted
212. competitors
213. decisively
214. drill
215. emphasis
216. leaking
217. locating
218. navigating
219. plug
220. renewed
221. socket
222. stricken
223. terrain
224. valve
225. vehicle

✔︎ 영시한 8-3
226. drill
227. encountered
228. plug
229. progressively
230. reflected
231. simultaneously
232. socket
233. sped
234. trial
235. vehicle

✔︎ 영시한 8-4
236. awkward
237. effortlessly

✔︎ 영시한 8-5
238. approached
239. motor
240. terrain

✔︎ 영시한 SP1-1
241. awaited
242. destination

✔︎ 영시한 SP1-2
243. educational
244. inspiring
245. kanga
246. kilimanjaro
247. positivity
248. possessions
249. strength
250. ugali
251. witness

✔︎ 영시한 SP1-3
252. appreciation
253. diversity
254. granted
255. gratitude
256. literally
257. overwhelmingly
258. rural

✔︎ 영시한 SP1-4
259. addict
260. commitment
261. exploration
262. unmatched

✔︎ 영시한 SP1-5
263. bathed
264. grateful
265. gratitude
266. ugali

✔︎ 영시한 SP1-6
267. activated
268. convincing
269. inherit
270. rushes
271. sensation
272. wealthier

✔︎ 영시한 SP1-7
273. coastsweep
274. mealshare
275. profit

✔︎ 영시한 SP2-1
276. bluejays
277. heroine
278. maudie
279. mockingbird
280. novel
281. sin

✔︎ 영시한 SP2-2
282. criticism
283. cruelly
284. harmless
285. heroine
286. mockingbird
287. novel
288. racism

✔︎ 영시한 SP2-3
289. dill
290. discrimination
291. fascinated
292. generation
293. haunted
294. heroine
295. maycomb
296. mockingbird
297. rumors
298. stabbing
299. witnessed

✔︎ 영시한 SP2-4
300. accused
301. affection
302. angered
303. attacking
304. blanket
305. bullied
306. defense
307. fixes
308. maycomb
309. mayella

✔︎ 영시한 SP2-5
310. attacks
311. convicted
312. guilty
313. injustice
314. insulted
315. jury
316. mayella
317. nevertheless
318. threatens
319. trial

✔︎ 영시한 SP2-6
320. investigation
321. murder
322. porch
323. risked
324. sheriff
325. stabbed

✔︎ 영시한 SP2-7
326. porch
327. sympathy
328. unjust

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♕ 다음 단어의 뜻을 쓰시오.

✔︎ 영시한 1-1
1. ceremony
2. graduating
3. graduation
4. honored

✔︎ 영시한 1-2
5. seizing

✔︎ 영시한 1-3
6. centered
7. complain
8. countless
9. crime
10. exists
11. gender
12. graduation
13. harmed
14. miserable
15. regardless
16. slavery
17. starve
18. violence

✔︎ 영시한 1-4
19. entirely
20. inevitably
21. liar

✔︎ 영시한 1-5
22. graduation

✔︎ 영시한 2-1
23. cooperate
24. cooperation
25. fittest
26. inspiring
27. prevails
28. reality
29. regarded
30. selfishness
31. survival
32. universally

✔︎ 영시한 2-2
33. arrangement
34. communicate
35. comparison
36. continue
37. cooperating
38. cooperation
39. efficient
40. encounter
41. inbound
42. increases
43. loads
44. movements
45. observed
46. occupy
47. outbound
48. packed
49. reminded
50. superfast

✔︎ 영시한 2-3
51. chew
52. client
53. cooperate
54. establish
55. parasites
56. referred
57. satisfy

✔︎ 영시한 2-4
58. blood
59. cooperate
60. frightened
61. heir
62. info
63. predator
64. rare

✔︎ 영시한 2-5
65. celled
66. cooperate
67. cooperation
68. cooperative
69. inspiration

✔︎ 영시한 2-6
70. competitive
71. cooperation
72. existed
73. modernized
74. origins
75. recognized
76. reference
77. registered
78. require
79. thcentury
80. variations
81. version

✔︎ 영시한 3-1
82. carbonation
83. choice
84. consume
85. ingredients
86. refreshing
87. satisfy
88. thirst

✔︎ 영시한 3-2
89. calories
90. consume
91. contains
92. diabetes
93. diet
94. disorders
95. emotional
96. exceeds
97. generate
98. headaches
99. intake
100. loaded
101. obesity
102. recent
103. replace
104. sugary
105. sweeteners
106. therefore
107. typical
108. unnecessary

✔︎ 영시한 3-3
109. absorb
110. absorption
111. acid
112. calcium
113. chemical
114. contains
115. decay
116. delays
117. digestion
118. expiration
119. extends
120. interacts
121. interferes
122. nutrient
123. occurs
124. product
125. stomach
126. substance

✔︎ 영시한 3-4
127. affect
128. caffeine
129. carbonated
130. consume
131. consumption
132. contain
133. excessive
134. heartbeat
135. irregular

✔︎ 영시한 3-5
136. acid
137. altogether
138. caffeine
139. calories
140. choice
141. diet
142. quitting
143. replace

✔︎ 영시한 4-1
144. belong
145. chainsaw
146. hectares
147. noisy
148. rainforest
149. savior

✔︎ 영시한 4-2
150. biodiversity
151. caused
152. despite
153. destruction
154. detects
155. fled
156. habitats
157. illegal
158. increases
159. loggers
160. logging
161. occurs
162. protected
163. rainforest
164. ranger

✔︎ 영시한 4-3
165. chainsaw
166. detect
167. microphone
168. panels
169. rainforest
170. ranger
171. shade

✔︎ 영시한 4-4
172. alert
173. approached
174. chainsaw
175. connection
176. contacted
177. illegal
178. immediately
179. installed
180. loggers
181. logging
182. rainforest
183. rangers
184. spot

✔︎ 영시한 4-5
185. discarded
186. hectares
187. providing
188. rainforests
189. released

✔︎ 영시한 5-1
190. arguing
191. confused
192. haters
193. ignore
194. politician

✔︎ 영시한 5-2
195. criticizing
196. deal
197. immediately
198. opponent
199. political
200. politics
201. rare
202. representative
203. threatened

✔︎ 영시한 5-3
204. autobiography
205. connection
206. effective
207. eventually
208. performed
209. phenomenon
210. psychologist
211. remained

✔︎ 영시한 5-4
212. afterward
213. awarded
214. despite
215. dislike
216. funds
217. hired
218. secretary

✔︎ 영시한 5-5
219. anxious
220. cognitive
221. conflict
222. convinced
223. disliked
224. dissonance
225. justified
226. psychologists
227. relieve
228. resolve

✔︎ 영시한 5-6
229. laughter
230. native
231. reveal
232. shade
233. strength
234. temper
235. weep

✔︎ 영시한 6-1
236. globalization

✔︎ 영시한 6-2
237. assigned
238. customerʼ
239. destination
240. distributes
241. loads
242. lunches
243. procedure
244. reverse
245. scenario
246. typical

✔︎ 영시한 6-3
247. businessman
248. copied
249. deliver
250. demand
251. depending
252. dietary
253. expanded
254. format
255. hired
256. packed
257. religion
258. restrictions
259. suburbs

✔︎ 영시한 6-4
260. accuracy
261. approximately
262. conduct
263. deliver
264. error
265. horror
266. illiterate
267. mistaken
268. motto
269. political
270. railway
271. reported
272. specific
273. strife
274. transactions

✔︎ 영시한 6-5
275. benefit
276. corporations
277. delivers
278. demonstrate
279. distribution
280. efficient
281. operating
282. outstanding
283. relies
284. satisfaction

✔︎ 영시한 6-6
285. abundance
286. academy
287. archaeological
288. assets
289. conserve
290. constitution
291. educate
292. ensure
293. exams
294. extensive
295. guaranteed
296. individualized
297. institute
298. ministry
299. preserve
300. promote
301. protection
302. quality
303. recognized
304. renowned
305. restoration
306. restore
307. selected
308. techniques
309. textile
310. therefore
311. weaving
312. woven

✔︎ 영시한 7-1
313. architect
314. breathtaking
315. claim
316. combination
317. countryside
318. curved
319. embarrassment
320. fascinated
321. industrialized
322. summit
323. surrounding
324. tiles
325. visual

✔︎ 영시한 7-2
326. admired
327. businessman
328. contains
329. curved
330. decorative
331. entrance
332. fountain
333. multicolored
334. terraces

✔︎ 영시한 7-3
335. balconies
336. columns
337. curved
338. curves
339. furniture
340. including
341. indeed
342. interior
343. purchased
344. renovated
345. skulls
346. tiles

✔︎ 영시한 7-4
347. anniversary
348. begun
349. branch
350. column
351. despite
352. estimated
353. expected
354. immediately
355. incomplete
356. interior
357. sculptures
358. skylights
359. stained
360. transform

✔︎ 영시한 7-5
361. architecture
362. characterizes
363. extraordinary
364. imaginative
365. recognized

✔︎ 영시한 8-1
366. accompanying
367. considered
368. disaster
369. earthquake
370. eventually
371. nuclear
372. radioactive
373. released
374. surrounding
375. task
376. tsunami

✔︎ 영시한 8-2
377. attracted
378. competitors
379. decisively
380. disaster
381. drill
382. emphasis
383. leaking
384. locating
385. navigating
386. nuclear
387. plug
388. position
389. renewed
390. response
391. socket
392. stricken
393. tasks
394. terrain
395. valve
396. vehicle
397. wheels

✔︎ 영시한 8-3
398. attempt
399. avoid
400. drill
401. encountered
402. plug
403. position
404. progressively
405. reflected
406. simultaneously
407. smoothly
408. socket
409. sped
410. task
411. trial
412. vehicle

✔︎ 영시한 8-4
413. awkward
414. caused
415. clever
416. completing
417. effortlessly
418. rotating
419. scan
420. task

✔︎ 영시한 8-5
421. approached
422. burned
423. caused
424. complicated
425. disasters
426. eventually
427. motor
428. tasks
429. terrain

✔︎ 영시한 SP1-1
430. awaited
431. destination

✔︎ 영시한 SP1-2
432. educational
433. endless
434. entire
435. freshman
436. inspiring
437. kanga
438. kilimanjaro
439. positivity
440. possessions
441. strength
442. ugali
443. witness

✔︎ 영시한 SP1-3
444. appreciation
445. diversity
446. granted
447. gratitude
448. literally
449. opportunities
450. overwhelmingly
451. rural

✔︎ 영시한 SP1-4
452. addict
453. commitment
454. continue
455. exploration
456. unmatched

✔︎ 영시한 SP1-5
457. bathed
458. graduated
459. grateful
460. gratitude
461. principles
462. ugali

✔︎ 영시한 SP1-6
463. activated
464. additional
465. convincing
466. greatest
467. inherit
468. meaningful
469. nap
470. path
471. rushes
472. sensation
473. term
474. wealthier

✔︎ 영시한 SP1-7
475. coastsweep
476. mealshare
477. motto
478. orders
479. profit

✔︎ 영시한 SP2-1
480. bluejays
481. clever
482. gun
483. heroine
484. maudie
485. mockingbird
486. novel
487. sin
488. steal

✔︎ 영시한 SP2-2
489. criticism
490. cruelly
491. harmless
492. heroine
493. innocent
494. mockingbird
495. novel
496. racism
497. remain
498. society
499. translated

✔︎ 영시한 SP2-3
500. dill
501. discrimination
502. fascinated
503. generation
504. haunted
505. heroine
506. maycomb
507. mockingbird
508. remains
509. rumors
510. scout
511. severe
512. stabbing
513. witnessed

✔︎ 영시한 SP2-4
514. accused
515. affection
516. angered
517. attacking
518. blanket
519. bullied
520. defense
521. despite
522. fixes
523. maycomb
524. mayella
525. playful
526. scout

✔︎ 영시한 SP2-5
527. attacks
528. convicted
529. despite
530. guilty
531. injustice
532. insulted
533. jury
534. mayella
535. nevertheless
536. revenge
537. scout
538. threatens
539. trial
540. wounded

✔︎ 영시한 SP2-6
541. charge
542. further
543. investigation
544. murder
545. perspective
546. porch
547. regrets
548. risked
549. scout
550. sheriff
551. stabbed

✔︎ 영시한 SP2-7
552. porch
553. scout
554. sympathy
555. unjust

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