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[어법개념 2022]
키워드를 설명할 수 있어야 어법을 아는 것이다.

목차
(1) 기초 5형식구조 (2) 기초 8품사? (3) 기초 BE (4) 기초 There의 뒷구조 (5) 기초 Ving 4가지 용법 (6) 기초 X가 무엇인가요? (7) 기초 to부정사 3가지 용법 (8) 기초 대명사 (9) 기초 동사 7가지 패턴 (10) 기초 동사분석과 시태수법 (11) 기초 동사의 3단 변화 (12) 기초 동사의 시제 (13) 기초 동사의 종류 (14) 기초 동사의 태 (15) 기초 등위접속사 리스트 (16) 기초 명령법의 2가지 패턴 (17) 기초 명사의 5가지 형태 (18) 기초 부사의 6가지 형태 (19) 기초 상관접속사 리스트 (20) 기초 역할을 구분하는 용어 (21) 기초 완료의 4가지 용법 (22) 기초 원비최-비교급의 구조 (23) 기초 원비최-원급의 구조 (24) 기초 원비최-최상급의 구조 (25) 기초 의문문 4가지 패턴 (26) 기초 전명구가 무엇인가요? (27) 기초 전치사 리스트 (28) 기초 접속사의 3가지 갈래 (29) 기초 조동사 (30) 기초 종속접속사를 명접/형접/부접으로 정리 (31) 기초 준동사 (32) 기초 품사변화ly (33) 기초 형용사의 6가지 형태 (34) 기본 how의 2가지 구조 (35) 기본 that 6가지 용법 (36) 기본 the/a/an/전치사 뒤의 어순 4가지 (37) 기본 to부정사-명사적용법 (38) 기본 to부정사-부사적용법 (39) 기본 to부정사를 목적어로 취하는 동사 (40) 기본 used-3가지용법 (41) 기본 which의 2가지 구조 (42) 기본 가주어-진주어 (43) 기본 긴전치사 리스트 (44) 기본 동명사를 목적어로 취하는 동사 (45) 기본 부사절-미래금지 (46) 기본 부정대명사 (47) 기본 불완전구조? (48) 기본 생략이 가능한 that의 2가지 구조 (49) 기본 완전구조? (50) 동사 1형식 동사 리스트 (51) 동사 2형식 동사 리스트 (52) 동사 4형식 동사 리스트 (53) 동사 5형식-s v n to v x 동사 리스트 (54) 동사 5형식-사역동사 리스트와 구조 (55) 동사 5형식-지각동사 리스트와 구조 (56) 동사 look 동사의 5가지 패턴 (57) 동사 make의 다양한 구조 (58) 동사 동명전명 (59) 동사 수일치패턴 (60) 동사 제주명요 (61) 동사 조해피 (62) 준동사 ved 판별법 (63) 준동사 부접잉 (64) 준동사 부접피 (65) 준동사 분사구문의 다양한 패턴 (영작) (66) 준동사 잉명 (67) 준동사 잉전명 (68) 준동사 피전명 (69) 준동사 형전명 (70) 접속사 of which (71) IF I wish 가정법 (72) IF as if 가정법 (73) IF 가정법-과거 (74) IF 가정법-과거도치 (75) IF 가정법-과거완료 (76) IF 가정법-과거완료도치 (77) IF 가정법-조동사 (78) IF 가정법-혼합 (79) IT 가목적어-진목적어(비타) (80) IT 가주어-의미상주어-진주어 (81) IT 강조구문 (82) IT 걸린다 (83) 구조 enough to 영작과 so ~ that으로 전환 (84) 구조 given that의 의미와 구조 (85) 구조 refer to의 기본 구조와 수동태 구조 (86) 구조 s believe to have pp x 영작과 it be believed that 전환 (87) 구조 s believe to rv x 영작과 it be believed that 전환 (88) 구조 s seem to have pp x 영작과 it seem that 전환 (89) 구조 s seem to rv x 영작과 it seem that 전환 (90) 구조 too to 영작과 so ~ that으로 전환 (91) 구조 당연히 여기다 3가지 패턴 (92) 구조 더비더비 (93) 구조 원오복단? (94) 구조 의문사+생각동사 (95) 구조 이치오복단? (96) 구조 주접구조? (97) 구조 주주동동? (98) 도치 it v not until의 구조 (99) 도치 neither 도치 (100) 도치 not only 도치 구조 (101) 도치 not until 도치 구조 (102) 도치 only when 도치 구조 (103) 도치 so 도치 (104) 도치 도치에 쓰이는 부정어 리스트 (105) 도치 부정어 도치의 4가지 패턴 (106) 첫공식 첫에버의 2가지 용법 (107) 첫공식 첫잉의 2가지 용법 (108) 첫공식 첫피의 2가지 용법 (109) 첫공식 첫해드 (110) 첫공식 첫해빙 (111) 특이 likely than (112) 특이 관주생 (113) 특이 윗명잉/윗명피 (114) 특이 접접

(1) 5형식구조  
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 ✧ S V M

 ✧ S V C

 ✧ S V O

 ✧ S V I.O D.O

 ✧ S V O O.C

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(2) 8품사?  
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 ✧ 명사(N)

 ✧ 대명사(PRON)

 ✧ 동사(V)

 ✧ 형용사(A)

 ✧ 부사(AD)

 ✧ 전치사(PREP)

 ✧ 접속사(C)

 ✧ 감탄사

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(3) BE  
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 ✧ BE/AM/ARE/IS/WAS/WERE/BEEN/BEING

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(4) There의 뒷구조  
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 ✧ there v s 설

 ✧ There is nothing inherent in knowledge that dictates any specific social or moral application. 지식에는 구체적인 사회적 또는 도덕적 적용을 좌우하는 내재적인 것은 없다.

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(5) Ving 4가지 용법  
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 ✧ 동명사

 ✧ 분사

 ✧ 분사구

 ✧ 분사구문

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(6) X가 무엇인가요?  
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 ✧ X는 목적어, 보어의 동사 뒷성분을 통칭하는 말입니다. (made by Wayne)

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(7) to부정사 3가지 용법  
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 ✧ 명사적

 ✧ 형용사적

 ✧ 부사적

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(8) 대명사  
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 ✧ I-my-me-mine-myself

 ✧ you-your-you-yours-yourself

 ✧ he-his-him-his-himself

 ✧ she-her-her-hers-herself

 ✧ it-its-it-x-itself

 ✧ we-our-us-ours-ourselves

 ✧ they-their-them-theirs-themselves

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(9) 동사 7가지 패턴  
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 ✧ rv-단순, 능동

 ✧ be ing-진행, 능동

 ✧ be pp-단순, 수동

 ✧ be being pp-진행, 수동

 ✧ have pp-완료, 능동

 ✧ have been ing-완료, 진행, 능동

 ✧ have been pp-완료, 수동

 ✧ The app lets coaches see in real time which muscle groups are being used during practice. 이 앱을 통해 코치는 연습 중 어떤 근육군이 사용되고 있는지 실시간으로 파악할 수 있게 해 준다. [영시박 9-2]

 ✧ For the past three years, Ethan has been schooling us all in the game of life. 지난 3년간, Ethan은 삶이라는 경기에서 우리 모두를 가르쳐왔다. [영시박 9-5]

 ✧ Several ways to protect bees from pesticides are being proposed. 농약으로부터 벌을 보호하는 여러 가지 방법이 제시되고 있다. [영시박2 5-5]

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(10) 동사분석과 시태수법  
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 ✧ 시제-단순,진행,완료

 ✧ 태-능동,수동

 ✧ 수-단수,복수

 ✧ 법-명령,직설,가정

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(11) 동사의 3단 변화  
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 ✧ 규칙변화-study-studied-studied

 ✧ 불규칙변화1-make-made-made

 ✧ 불규칙변화2-write-wrote-written

 ✧ 불규칙변화3-put-put-put

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(12) 동사의 시제  
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 ✧ 단순

 ✧ 진행

 ✧ 완료

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(13) 동사의 종류  
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 ✧ 조동사

 ✧ BE동사

 ✧ 일반동사

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(14) 동사의 태  
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 ✧ 능동

 ✧ 수동

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(15) 등위접속사 리스트  
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 ✧ [for-때문에 / and-그리고 / nor-~도 아닌 / but-그러나 / yet-그러나 / so-그래서]

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(16) 명령법의 2가지 패턴  
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 ✧ RV ~, and s v x = ~해라 그러면 ~할 것이다

 ✧ RV ~, or s v x = ~해라 그렇지 않으면 ~할 것이다

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(17) 명사의 5가지 형태  
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 ✧ 단순명사

 ✧ 대명사

 ✧ 동명사

 ✧ to부정사

 ✧ 접속사절

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(18) 부사의 6가지 형태  
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 ✧ 단순부사

 ✧ 분사구문

 ✧ to부정사

 ✧ 부사절

 ✧ 전명구

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(19) 상관접속사 리스트  
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 ✧ BENNNA

 ✧ [both A and B / either A or B / neither A nor B / not A but B / not only(merely) A but also B / B as well as A]

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(20) 역할을 구분하는 용어  
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 ✧ 주어

 ✧ 서술어(동사)

 ✧ 목적어

 ✧ 간접목적어

 ✧ 직접목적어

 ✧ 보어

 ✧ 목적격보어

 ✧ 수식어

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(21) 완료의 4가지 용법  
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 ✧ 경험-ever, once, been, never

 ✧ 계속-since, for

 ✧ 완료-just,already,finished,yet

 ✧ 결과-lost,gone

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(22) 원비최-비교급의 구조  
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 ✧ s v 짧형er than 비교대상

 ✧ s v more 긴형 than 비교대상

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(23) 원비최-원급의 구조  
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 ✧ s v as x as 비교대상

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(24) 원비최-최상급의 구조  
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 ✧ s v 짧형est in 집단

 ✧ s v more 긴형 in 집단

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(25) 의문문 4가지 패턴  
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 ✧ do s rv x

 ✧ be s x

 ✧ be s pp 전 명

 ✧ have s pp x

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(26) 전명구가 무엇인가요?  
검색

 ✧ 전치사와 명사는 찰떡입니다. 덩어리가 되어서 부사나 형용사로 바뀝니다.

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(27) 전치사 리스트  
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 ✧ [on / in / under / beneath / over / beyond / onto / into / by / at / for / to / across / from / of / despite / including / regarding

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(28) 접속사의 3가지 갈래  
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 ✧ 종속접속사

 ✧ 등위접속사

 ✧ 상관접속사

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(29) 조동사  
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 ✧ can / could / be able to

 ✧ may / might

 ✧ must / have to / need to

 ✧ shall / should / ought to

 ✧ will / would / be going to

 ✧ had better

 ✧ would rather

 ✧ may well

 ✧ may as well

 ✧ cannot help but rv

 ✧ cannot help ving

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(30) 종속접속사를 명접/형접/부접으로 정리  
검색

 ✧ 명접

 ✧ 형접=관계사

 ✧ 부접

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(31) 준동사  
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 ✧ TO부정사

 ✧ 동명사

 ✧ 분사

 ✧ 분사구

 ✧ 분사구문

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(32) 품사변화ly  
검색

 ✧ 형+ly=부

 ✧ 명+ly=형

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(33) 형용사의 6가지 형태  
검색

 ✧ 단순형용사

 ✧ 분사

 ✧ 분사구

 ✧ to부정사

 ✧ 관계사절

 ✧ 전명구

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(34) how의 2가지 구조  
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 ✧ s v how s v x

 ✧ s v how x s v

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(35) that 6가지 용법  
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 ✧ 접속사-s v that s v x

 ✧ 관계대명사-s v n that sv/vx

 ✧ 동격-s v n that s v x

 ✧ 부사절-s v so x that s v x

 ✧ ~위해서-s v x so that s v x

 ✧ ~라는 점에서-s v x in that s v x

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(36) the/a/an/전치사 뒤의 어순 4가지  
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 ✧ 더 명

 ✧ 더 형 명

 ✧ 더 부 형 명

 ✧ 더 형, 형 명

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(37) to부정사-명사적용법  
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 ✧ to v x v x

 ✧ it v x to v x

 ✧ s v to v x

 ✧ s v 의문사 to v x

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(38) to부정사-부사적용법  
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 ✧ to v x, s v x

 ✧ in order to v x

 ✧ so as to v x

 ✧ s v x to v x

 ✧ s v too x to v x

 ✧ s v x enough to v x

 ✧ s v adj to v x

 ✧ s v x, only to v x

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(39) to부정사를 목적어로 취하는 동사  
검색

 ✧ [wish / hope / decide / want / promise / manage / plan / propose / refuse]

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(40) used-3가지용법  
검색

 ✧ used to rv 하곤했다

 ✧ be used to rv ~위해 사용되다

 ✧ be used to ving/n ~하는데 익숙하다

 ✧ It was used to describe computers, not people. 그것은 사람이 아니라 컴퓨터를 기술하기 위하여 사용되었다. [1413-31-2]

 ✧ Even though there may be a logically easy set of procedures to follow, it's still an emotional battle to change your habits and introduce new, uncomfortable behaviors that you are not used to. 비록 지켜야 할 논리적으로는 수월한 일련의 절차들이 존재할 수 있지만, 습관을 바꾸고 익숙하지 않은 새롭고 불편한 행동들을 시작하는 것은 여전히 감정적인 분투이다. [1812-39-5]

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(41) which의 2가지 구조  
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 ✧ s v n which sv/vx

 ✧ s v which svx/xsv

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(42) 가주어-진주어  
검색

 ✧ it v x to v x

 ✧ it v x that s v x

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(43) 긴전치사 리스트  
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 ✧ [such as / due to / in spite of / because of / owing to / thanks to / next to]

 ✧ Most shark attacks are simply due to mistaken identity. 대부분의 상어 공격은 단순히 잘못된 정체파악 때문이다.

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(44) 동명사를 목적어로 취하는 동사  
검색

 ✧ [enjoy / mind / deny / give up / avoid / finish / deny / recommend]

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(45) 부사절-미래금지  
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 ✧ If s 현재동사 x, s will rv x

 ✧ If I don't finish, people will say women can't do it. 만약 내가 완주하지 않으면 사람들은 여성은 마라톤 완주를 할 수 없다고 말할 것이다. [영시박2 4-4]

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(46) 부정대명사  
검색

 ✧ one / the other

 ✧ one / another / the other

 ✧ some / others

 ✧ one / the others

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(47) 불완전구조?  
검색

 ✧ s 3v

 ✧ 3v x

 ✧ s v x 전

 ✧ 1v 전 명

 ✧ s 1v 전

 ✧ be pp 전 명

 ✧ s be pp 전

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(48) 생략이 가능한 that의 2가지 구조  
검색

 ✧ s s v v x

 ✧ s v that s v x

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(49) 완전구조?  
검색

 ✧ s 3v x

 ✧ s 1v 전 명

 ✧ s 1v 부

 ✧ s 1v

 ✧ s be pp 전 명

 ✧ s be pp 부

 ✧ s be pp

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(50) 1형식 동사 리스트  
검색

 ✧ [rise / occur / arise / happen / work / pay / matter / emerge / exist / lie / stand / count / do / last / vary / consist of]

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(51) 2형식 동사 리스트  
검색

 ✧ [keep / look / seem / appear to be adj / become / be / get / feel pp / stay / remain / prove / turn out]

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(52) 4형식 동사 리스트  
검색

 ✧ [give n n / tell me that s v x / ask n n]

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(53) 5형식-s v n to v x 동사 리스트  
검색

 ✧ [allow / encourage / expect / enable / ask / force / motivate / want]

 ✧ The development of information and communications technology allows this data not only to be generated but also to be collected and stored. 정보와 의사소통 기술의 발전은 이러한 데이터를 생성되게 할 뿐만 아니라 모이고 저장될 수도 있도록 한다. [영비홍2 5-1 Big Data Every Move Counts]

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(54) 5형식-사역동사 리스트와 구조  
검색

 ✧ [let / make / help / have] n rv/pp

 ✧ help n to v x

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(55) 5형식-지각동사 리스트와 구조  
검색

 ✧ [see / watch / smell / hear / lisen to / notice] n [rv/ving/pp]

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(56) look 동사의 5가지 패턴  
검색

 ✧ look at n ~을 보다

 ✧ look adj ~하게 보이다

 ✧ look like n ~처럼 보이다

 ✧ look for n ~을 찾다

 ✧ look after n ~을 돌보다

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(57) make의 다양한 구조  
검색

 ✧ make n n

 ✧ make n rv

 ✧ make n pp

 ✧ make n adj

 ✧ make it adj to v x

 ✧ make it adj for n to v x

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(58) 동명전명  
검색

 ✧ [provide A with B / remind A of B / know A from B / distingish A from B / (stop|prevent|keep|ban|prohibit) A from B]

 ✧ The goal is not only to prevent collusion by hostile witnesses, it is also to prevent witnesses from influencing each other. 그 목적은 적대적인 목격자들에 의한 공모를 예방하는 것일 뿐만 아니라, 목격자들이 서로에게 영향을 미치는 것을 막기 위해서이기도 하다. [1862-29-5]

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(59) 수일치패턴  
검색

 ✧ 원오복단

 ✧ 이치오복단

 ✧ 더넘버

 ✧ 어넘버

 ✧ half of

 ✧ 먼동사

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(60) 제주명요  
검색

 ✧ s [suggest / insist / order / ask / demand / request] that s (shoud) rv x

 ✧ s suggested that s 과거동사 x

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(61) 조해피  
검색

 ✧ 조동사 have pp

 ✧ may have pp

 ✧ must have pp

 ✧ should have pp

 ✧ cannot have pp

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(62) ved 판별법  
검색

 ✧ ved + n = 과거동사

 ✧ ved + 전 명 = 피전명(분사구/분사구문 수동)

 ✧ 예외-ex) called + n = 피명

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(63) 부접잉  
검색

 ✧ 부접 (s be) ving

 ✧ When deliberating about innovation opportunities, the leaders weren't inclined to take risks. 혁신 기회에 대해 심사숙고할 때, 리더들은 위험을 무릅쓰지 않는 경향이 있었다. [1962-33]

 ✧ When kneeling, HUBO was able to use these wheels to move around quickly and decisively. 무릎을 꿇었을 때, HUBO는 이 바퀴를 이용해서 빠르고 결단성 있게 돌아다닐 수 있었다. [영시한 8-2]

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(64) 부접피  
검색

 ✧ 부접 (s be) pp

 ✧ When confronted with situations that don't allow us to deal with our emotions or that cause us to suppress them, we may transfer those feelings to other people or situations at a later point. 우리가 우리의 감정에 대처하도록 허용되지 않는 상황 혹은 그 감정을 억누르게 하는 상황에 직면했을 때, 우리는 그러한 감정을 나중에 다른 사람들이나 상황에 전이할 수도 있다. [2092-32]

 ✧ When faced with the statistics that show the majority of animals raised as food live in confinement, many teens give up meat to protest those conditions. 음식으로 길러지는 대다수의 동물들이 갇혀서 산다는 것을 보여주는 통계자료를 볼 때, 많은 십대들은 그러한 상황에 저항하기 위해 고기를 포기한다. [2191-23]

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(65) 분사구문의 다양한 패턴 (영작)  
검색

 ✧ 그들이 선생님을 보았을 때, 그들은 도망쳤다.

 ✧ 만일 네가 왼쪽으로 돌면, 너는 그 건물을 볼 것이다.

 ✧ 내일 비가온다면, 나는 집에 있을 것이다.

 ✧ 그 바위가 멀리서 보여지면, 그것이 사람 얼굴처럼 보인다.

 ✧ 비록 나는 너의 의견을 이해할지라도, 그 의견을 받아들이진 않는다.

 ✧ 그는 그 사실을 몰랐기 때문에, 아무것도 말할 수 없었다.

 ✧ 나는 그 영화를 이미 두번 봤기 때문에, 더이상 보고 싶지 않다.

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(66) 잉명  
검색

 ✧ 명 잉명(분사구)

 ✧ When you step inside the church, the large columns supporting the ceiling immediately catch your eye. 성당 안으로 들어가면 천장을 받쳐주는 커다란 기둥들이 바로 여러분의 시선을 사로잡을 것이다. [영시한 7-4]

 ✧ People opposing the slavery system thought slavery was morally wrong and wanted it to end. 노예 제도를 반대하는 사람들은 노예 제도가 도덕적으로 잘못되었다고 생각했고 그것을 종식시키기 원했다. [영시박2 4-sp]

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(67) 잉전명  
검색

 ✧ 명 잉전명(분사구)

 ✧ This process, called adaptation, is one of the organizing principles operating throughout the central nervous system. 순응이라고 불리는 이 과정은 중추신경계 전반에 걸쳐 작용하는 작동원리 중 하나이다. [2092-36]

 ✧ In February, 2017, the European Parliament approved a resolution calling for the creation of laws on robotics, based on Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics. 2017년 2월 유럽의회는 아시모프의 로봇 공학의 3원칙에 근거해 로봇 제작의 법규를 제정해야 한다는 의결을 승인했다. [영시박2 6-5]

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(68) 피전명  
검색

 ✧ 명 피전명(분사구 수동)

 ✧ In fact, they are all islands made from volcanic eruptions. 사실, 그것들은 모두 화산 분출에 의해 형성된 섬이다. [중3천이 7-1]

 ✧ After the law was passed, people injured by the flying waste had the right to collect money from whoever threw it. 법이 통과된 후에, 날아오는 오물에 다친 사람들은 그것을 던진 사람이 누구든 그 사람으로부터 돈을 거둘 권리를 가졌다. [포인트1 11-12]

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(69) 형전명  
검색

 ✧ 명 형전명(형용사구)

 ✧ We can't separate out the multiple overlapping technologies responsible for a Lord of the Rings movie. 우리는 반지의 제왕 영화를 가능하게 하는 다수의 중첩된 기술들을 분리해 낼 수 없다. [1903-22]

 ✧ In a world full of distractions, it can be easy to lose focus on people in front of us. 주의가 산만해지는 세상에서 우리 앞에 있는 사람들에 대한 초점을 잃기 쉽습니다. [포인트3 17-68]

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(70) of which  
검색

 ✧ s v x, some of which v x

 ✧ Here are some of Gaudi's greatest works, all of which are found in the city of Barcelona. 여기 가우디의 위대한 작품 일부가 있는데, 이 모든 것들이 바르셀로 나라는 도시에서 발견된다. [영시한 7-1 Gaudi Architect Inspired by Nature]

 ✧ Yang Liu's book isn't about ranking cultural differences in terms of which is better. Yang Liu의 책은 문화적 차이를 어떤 것이 더 좋은지를 기준으로 순위를 매기는 것에 관한 것이 아니다. [영비홍2 4-6]

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(71) I wish 가정법  
검색

 ✧ I wish s 과거동사 x

 ✧ I wish s 조동사과거 rv x

 ✧ "Why, no," I would reply with a certain pride, "only English," and they would look at me as if I were foolish or crazy. "왜, 그렇지 않아" 확고한 자부심을 갖고 "난 단지 영어만 쓸 수 있어"라고 대답하면, 그들은 마치 내가 어리석거나 미쳤다는 듯이 바라보곤 했다. [지금필수 13-67]

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(72) as if 가정법  
검색

 ✧ s v as if s 과거동사 x

 ✧ s v as if s 조동사과거 rv x

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(73) 가정법-과거  
검색

 ✧ If s 과거동사 x, s 조동사과거 rv x

 ✧ If you were a robot, you'd be stuck here all day trying to make a decision, with no obvious way to trade off which details matter more. 만약 당신이 로봇이라면, 어떤 세부사항이 더 중요한지에 대해 균형을 잡을 만한 분명한 방법이 없는 채로 당신은 결정하느라 애쓰면서 하루 종일 여기에 매여 있을 것이다. [1962-24]

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(74) 가정법-과거도치  
검색

 ✧ were it not for n, s 조동사과거 rv x

 ✧ Were it not for the special defenses they have against their enemies, many animals could not survive.

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(75) 가정법-과거완료  
검색

 ✧ If s had pp x, s 조동사과거 have pp x

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(76) 가정법-과거완료도치  
검색

 ✧ had it not been for n, s 조동사과거 have pp x

 ✧ That in itself would not have been so bad had it not been for the mice.

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(77) 가정법-조동사  
검색

 ✧ without n, s 조동사과거 rv x

 ✧ but for n, s 조동사과거 rv x

 ✧ Without money, people could only barter. 돈이 없다면, 사람들은 물물 교환만 할 수 있을 것이다. [1962-36]

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(78) 가정법-혼합  
검색

 ✧ If s had pp x, s 조동사과거 rv x

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(79) 가목적어-진목적어(비타)  
검색

 ✧ s find/consider/make it adj to v x

 ✧ s find/consider/make it adj for n to v x

 ✧ s find/consider/make it adj that s v x

 ✧ At the same time, improvements in biotechnology might make it possible to translate economic inequality into biological inequality. 동시에, 생명 공학의 발전이 경제적 불평등을 생물학적 불평등으로 전환하는 것을 가능하게 만들지도 모른다. [1903-4142]

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(80) 가주어-의미상주어-진주어  
검색

 ✧ it v x for n to v x

 ✧ it v x of n to v x

 ✧ Generally speaking, it was difficult for a robot to hold a drill in the right position and simultaneously press an on/off button. 일반적으로 말해서, 드릴을 제대로 잡고 동시에 켜짐/꺼짐 버튼을 누르는 것은 로봇에게는 어렵다. [영시한 8-3]

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(81) 강조구문  
검색

 ✧ it v 강조할말 that 나머지말

 ✧ it v people/복수명사 that s v / v x

 ✧ It was this social environment of the 1960s that made American women begin to challenge both the visible and the invisible restrictions put upon them by outdated cultural and societal stereotypes, struggling to gain their due rights as equals to men. 미국 여성들이 남성들과 동등한 인격체로서 자신의 마땅한 권리를 찾기 위해 투쟁하면서 구식의 문화적, 사회적 고정관념들로 가해지는 가시적, 비가시적 제약들에 도전하기 시작했던 것은 1960년대의 바로 이러한 사회 환경에 기인한 것이었다. [영시박2 4-2]

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(82) 걸린다  
검색

 ✧ it takes 시간 to v x

 ✧ it takes 시간 for n to v x

 ✧ it takes 사람 시간 to v x

 ✧ It takes a human less than 10 seconds to perform the task, but it took HUBO 13 minutes and 30 seconds. 인간이 그 과업을 수행하는 데는 10초도 채 걸리지 않지만 HUBO에게는 13분 30초가 걸렸다. [영시한 8-3]

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(83) enough to 영작과 so ~ that으로 전환  
검색

 ✧ 이 방은 잠을 잘 잘만큼 충분히 시원하다.

 ✧ 이 방은 너무 시원해서 그래서 나는 잠을 잘 잘 수 있다.

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(84) given that의 의미와 구조  
검색

 ✧ given that s v x, s v x - ~를 고려해보면

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(85) refer to의 기본 구조와 수동태 구조  
검색

 ✧ s refer to A as B

 ✧ A be refferd to as B

 ✧ These relatively new product offerings are usually referred to as soft or chewy cookies, to distinguish them from the more typical crunchy varieties. 이러한 상대적으로 새로운 상품 제공은 대개 부드러운 또는 씹는 맛이 있는 쿠키로 언급되는데, 이는 더욱 전형적인 바삭한 종류와 그것들을 구별하기 위한 것이다.

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(86) s believe to have pp x 영작과 it be believed that 전환  
검색

 ✧ He is believed to have composed more than 70 works, but only about 10 remain today. 그는 70곡 이상을 작곡했던 것으로 여겨지나 대략 10개만이 현재 남아있다.

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(87) s believe to rv x 영작과 it be believed that 전환  
검색

 ✧ The environmental chaos that ensued is widely believed to have put paid to the dinosaurs. 뒤따른 환경적 혼란은 공룡을 멸종시켰다고 널리 믿어진다.

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(88) s seem to have pp x 영작과 it seem that 전환  
검색

 ✧ 그는 선생님이었던 것처럼 보인다.(seem to)

 ✧ 그는 선생님이었던 것처럼 보인다.(seem that)

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(89) s seem to rv x 영작과 it seem that 전환  
검색

 ✧ 그녀는 우리가 원하는 것을 갖고 있는 것처럼 보였다.(seem to)

 ✧ 그녀는 우리가 원하는 것을 갖고 있는 것처럼 보였다.(seem that)

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(90) too to 영작과 so ~ that으로 전환  
검색

 ✧ 우리는 모든 것을 이해하기엔 너무 젊다.

 ✧ 우리는 너무 젊어서 그래서 모든 것을 이해할 수 없다.

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(91) 당연히 여기다 3가지 패턴  
검색

 ✧ s take it for granted that s v x

 ✧ it be taken for granted that s v x

 ✧ s v n that s take for granted that s v x

 ✧ Many of us take it for granted that only humans farm food. 우리 중 많은 이들은 오직 인간만이 식량을 경작하는 것을 당연하게 여긴다. [영비홍2 3-7]

 ✧ At that time, it was taken for granted that only men could enter the race. 그 당시에는 오직 남성만이 레이스에 참여할 수 있는 것이 당연시되었다. [영시박2 4-3]

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(92) 더비더비  
검색

 ✧ the more s v x, the more s v x

 ✧ the more x s v, the more x s v

 ✧ In addition, the more consensus you witnessed among audience members, the more likely you would be to follow their lead, even if you didn't initially agree with them. 게다가 여러분이 청중의 구성원들 사이에서 더 많은 합의를 목격할수록, 여러분은 비록 처음에는 그들에게 동의하지 않았더라도 그들의 선례를 따를 가능성이 더 클 것이다.

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(93) 원오복단?  
검색

 ✧ one of ~ 복수명사 ~ 단수동사 (수일치주의)

 ✧ For example, one of many recently popular food trucks, called Kogi, sells a mix of BBQ from Korea and food from Mexico. 예를 들어, Kogi라고 불리는, 최근에 인기 있는 많은 푸드 트럭들 중 하나는 한국의 바비큐와 멕시코 음식을 혼합한 것을 판매합니다. [영비홍 6-RM]

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(94) 의문사+생각동사  
검색

 ✧ 의문사 do you think s v

 ✧ Who do you think he is painting? 그가 누구를 그리고 있다고 생각하나요? [중2비김 7-3]

 ✧ What do you think the artist is trying to tell us? 화가가 우리에게 무엇을 말하려 한다고 생각하나요? [중2비김 7-2]

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(95) 이치오복단?  
검색

 ✧ each of ~ 복수명사 ~ 단수동사 (수일치주의)

 ✧ The top and the pants have several sets of sensors for each of the major muscle groups. 상의와 바지에는 각각의 주요 근육군을 담당하는 여러 개의 센서가 부착되어 있다. [영시박 9-2]

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(96) 주접구조?  
검색

 ✧ S 접 (sv/vx ~) v x

 ✧ 주어를 설명하는 관계사절

 ✧ People who enjoy the best relationships with others, who live life with the least frustration regarding their differences, have learned that differences are to be expected, a fact of life. 다른 사람들과 최고의 관계를 유지하며, 차이점에 대해서 좌절감이 거의 없이 사는 사람들은 차이는 삶의 사실로서 예상된다는 것을 배웠다. [1013-4647-8]

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(97) 주주동동?  
검색

 ✧ S (접생 s v1 ~ / 접생 v1 x) V2 x

 ✧ Most of the children, who ranged in age from 4 to 8, chose to wait, but the strategies they used differed significantly. 그 아이들 중 대부분은, 연령 범위가 4세에서 8세에 걸쳐 있었는데, 기다리는 것을 선택했지만, 그들이 사용한 전략은 상당히 달랐다. [수특라이트 20-G]

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(98) it v not until의 구조  
검색

 ✧ it v not until s v x that s v x

 ✧ It was not until the advent of the Industrial Revolution — the historical period beginning in the late 1700s when the economies of the United States and many nations in Europe shifted from manual labor and hand tools to machines and factory manufacturing ― that human-produced garbage became a critical issue. 미국과 유럽의 많은 나라의 경제가 수작업과 수공구에서 기계와 공장 제조로 바뀐 때인 1700년대 말에 시작된 역사적인 시기인 산업혁명이 도래하고 나서야 비로소 인간이 만들어 낸 쓰레기가 중요한 문제가 되었다.

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(99) neither 도치  
검색

 ✧ neither do I

 ✧ neither am I

 ✧ ~도 역시 그렇지 않다

 ✧ The present moment does not exist in them, and therefore neither does the flow of time. 현재 순간은 그것들 안에 존재하지 않으며, 그러므로 시간의 흐름도 그렇지 않다.

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(100) not only 도치 구조  
검색

 ✧ not only 의문문어순, but (also) s v x

 ✧ Not only did she sell, she also recruited and trained lots of women as sales agents for a share of the profits. 그녀는 판매를 했을 뿐만 아니라, 수익금의 할당을 위해 많은 여성을 판매 대리인으로 모집하여 교육하기도 했다.

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(101) not until 도치 구조  
검색

 ✧ not until s v x ~ 의문문어순

 ✧ Not until the rise of ecology at the beginning of the twentieth century did people begin to think seriously of land as a natural system with interconnecting parts. 20세기 초에 생태학이 부상한 이후에야 사람들은 땅을 서로 연결된 부분을 가진 하나의 자연 체계로 진지하게 생각하기 시작했다.

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(102) only when 도치 구조  
검색

 ✧ only when s v x ~ 의문문어순

 ✧ Only when we come to understand another culture's ways can we start to realise that it is, like ours, only human and neither totally wrong nor totally right. 다른 문화의 방식을 이해하게 될 때 비로소 우리는 그 문화가 우리 문화처럼 인간적일 뿐이며 완전히 틀린 것도 완전히 옳은 것도 아니라는 것을 깨닫기 시작할 수 있다.

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(103) so 도치  
검색

 ✧ so do I

 ✧ so am I

 ✧ ~도 역시

 ✧ Her clients love her and so do we.

 ✧ Indeed, nowadays our soil is less healthy and so are the plants grown on it. 실제로 오늘날 우리의 토양은 덜 건강하고 그 위에서 길러진 식물도 그러하다. [2111-29]

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(104) 도치에 쓰이는 부정어 리스트  
검색

 ✧ [rarely / seldom / hardly / never / little / nor / neither]

 ✧ Rarely does intellect alone inspire romantic acts or heroic deeds. 지적 능력만으로는 낭만적인 행동이나 영웅적인 행동을 좀처럼 고무하지 못한다.

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(105) 부정어 도치의 4가지 패턴  
검색

 ✧ 부정어 do s rv x

 ✧ 부정어 be s x

 ✧ 부정어 be s pp 전 명

 ✧ 부정어 have s pp x

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(106) 첫에버의 2가지 용법  
검색

 ✧ 명사절-whatever sv/vx ~ v x (anything that)

 ✧ 부사절-what ever sv/vx ~, s v x (no matter what)

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(107) 첫잉의 2가지 용법  
검색

 ✧ 분사구문-Ving x ~, s v x

 ✧ 동명사-Ving x ~ v x

 ✧ Being very powerful and dangerous, volcanoes do harm to people in many ways. 매우 강력하고 위험하기 때문에, 화산은 여러 면에서 사람들에게 해를 끼친다. [중3천이 7-3]

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(108) 첫피의 2가지 용법  
검색

 ✧ 분사구문(수동)-pp 전명~, s v x

 ✧ 형용사-pp s v x

 ✧ Based upon this information, they settled on several late-night routes and schedules to provide the bus service to the maximum number of people. 이 정보에 기반하여 그들은 최대한 많은 사람들에게 버스 서비스를 제공하기 위해 여러 개의 심야 노선과 스케줄을 정했다. [영비홍2 5-3 Big Data for the Public Good]

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(109) 첫해드  
검색

 ✧ 가정법도치-Had s pp ~, s v x

 ✧ Had Jacob treated them with respect and tried to earn his tip, he probably would have done much better. Jacob이 그분들을 정중하게 대접하고 팁을 받도록 노력했다면 그는 아마 훨씬 더 잘 해낼 수 있었을 것이다. [지금필수 15-3]

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(110) 첫해빙  
검색

 ✧ 분사구문(완료)-Having pp ~, s v x

 ✧ Having never felt such embarrassment and fear before, she wondered if she should step off the course. 이전에 그러한 당혹스러움과 공포를 느껴본 적이 없었기 때문에, 그녀는 코스에서 이탈해야 하는지 고민했다. [영시박2 4-4]*

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(111) likely than  
검색

 ✧ s be likely than ~ to v x

 ✧ When it comes to race, Hispanics are more likely than whites or blacks to agree that people who play violent video games are more likely to be violent themselves.

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(112) 관주생  
검색

 ✧ 관계대명사 s 생각동사[think / believe / know / be sure / be supposed to] v x

 ✧ If you continue doing what you think is best when all the evidence and trustworthy people are against you, you're being dangerously confident. 모든 증거와 신뢰할 수 있는 사람들이 당신에게 반대할 때 당신이 최선이라고 생각하는 것을 계속한다면, 당신은 위험할 정도로 자신감에 차 있는 것이다. [2191-22]

 ✧ When self‑handicapping, you're engaging in behaviour that you know will harm your chances of succeeding: you know that you won't do as well on the test if you go out the night before, but you do it anyway. 자기불구화를 할 때, 당신은 당신이 알기에 성공의 가능성을 해칠 행동에 관여하고 있다: 당신은 전날 밤에 밖에 나가면 그만큼 시험을 잘 치지 못할 것이라는 것을 알고 있지만, 어쨌든 당신은 그것을 한다. [2162-33]

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(113) 윗명잉/윗명피  
검색

 ✧ with n [ing / pp] (분사구문)

 ✧ This view sees the explanation of individual events as primary, with the explanation of generalizations flowing from them.

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(114) 접접  
검색

 ✧ s v that if s v x, s v x

 ✧ I was brought up to believe that if I get lost in a large forest, I will sooner or later end up where I started. 나는 만약 내가 넓은 숲에서 길을 잃었다면, 머지않아 내가 출발했던 곳으로 결국 올 것을 믿도록 길러졌다. [2012-23]

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esh1 | Since 2005 임희재 | 블루티쳐학원 | 01033383436 | 200710 22:34:52

 

GRAMMAR

정답에 O표시, 이유를 쓰세요.



영1시한 1-1


1. Edison is said to [have failed / be failed] 9,999 times before creating a perfect light bulb.



2. Edison is said to have failed 9,999 times before [creating / createn] a perfect light bulb.



3. He was able to achieve success after [failing / failed] repeatedly.



4. He was one of the world's greatest inventors, and he acquired over 1,000 [patent / patents].



5. In response [for / to] a question about his errors, he once said, "I have not failed 9,999 times.



6. Nonetheless, failing and learning from our bitter experiences is necessary [to / for] success.



7. One of the most famous [example / examples] of someone who learned from failure was Thomas Edison.



8. One of the most famous examples of someone who learned from failure [was / were] Thomas Edison.



9. Unlike the average person, Edison saw these mistakes not as failures [but / so] as an inevitable part of the invention process.


 

영1시한 1-2


10. At 39, she published her first novel, The Bluest Eye, [it / which] received mixed reviews and did not sell well.



11. At 39, she published her first novel, The Bluest Eye, which received [mixing / mixed] reviews and did not sell well.



12. Her [troubling / troubled] marriage, divorce, and life as a single mother made it even harder for her to write.



13. Her troubled marriage, divorce, and life as a single mother made [it / them] even harder for her to write.



14. However, all her hardships added depth to her novels and [encouraging / encouraged] her to improve her writing skills.



15. These failures can not only motivate us [finding / to find] a successful way to accomplish our goal but also help us to grow in wisdom and in spirit.



16. These failures can not only motivate us to find a [successful / successfully]way to accomplish our goal but also help us to grow in wisdom and in spirit.



17. Toni Morrison began writing when she was in college, but she did not produce anything [enough good / good enough] to publish for many years.


 

영1시한 1-3


18. After [returning / returned] to America, she started working as a salesperson in a clothing store.



19. At the age of seven, she began devoting [her / herself] to figure skating, hoping to compete in the Olympics.



20. At the age of seven, she began devoting herself to figure skating, [hoped / hoping] to compete in the Olympics.



21. Developing her career from editor of a fashion magazine [for / to] design director for a global brand for about 20 years, she eventually ended up designing clothes on her own.



22. Developing her career from editor of a fashion magazine to design director for a global brand [about for / for about] 20 years, she eventually ended up designing clothes on her own.



23. Developing her career from editor of a fashion magazine to design director for a global brand for about 20 years, she eventually ended up [designing / to design] clothes on her own.



24. Sometimes failure can lead us to success by showing us that we are not good [at / for] something.



25. The fashion designer Vera Wang, for example, [founding / found] a path to success, thanks to her failure.



26. The fashion designer Vera Wang, for example, found a path to success, [thanks to / thanks for] her failure.



27. Today, Vera Wang is a world-famous designer [who / whose] elegant dresses are sought after by celebrities the world over.



28. Today, Vera Wang is a world-famous designer whose elegant dresses are sought after by celebrities the world [over / over it].



29. While [staying / stayed] in Paris, she happened to discover her passion for and talent in fashion design, which led her to move to fashion as a career.



30. While staying in Paris, she happened to discover her passion for and talent in fashion design, [it / which] led her to move to fashion as a career.



31. [Develop / Developing] her career from editor of a fashion magazine to design director for a global brand for about 20 years, she eventually ended up designing clothes on her own.


 

영1시한 1-4


32. Between the 1960s and the 1980s, NASA, the U.S. agency in charge of researching and exploring space, [completing / completed] one successful mission after another with no significant failure.



33. Still, wouldn't it [be / is] even better if we could be successful without ever failing?



34. Still, wouldn't it be even better if we [have / could] be successful without ever failing?



35. Still, wouldn't it be even better if we could be successful without ever [failing / failed]?



36. We may think so, but in the end, [performed / performing] without failure doesn't necessarily produce lasting success.


 

영1시한 1-5


37. Challenger broke apart 73 seconds after it was launched, [resulted / resulting] in the deaths of its seven crew members.



38. Challenger broke apart 73 seconds after it was launched, [resulting from / resulting in] the deaths of its seven crew members.



39. During the [following / followed] years, NASA successfully sent five other rockets to the moon.



40. Even when the oxygen tank in Apollo 13 exploded on its way to the moon in 1970, [its / their] entire crew was rescued, and they were able to return home safely.



41. However, NASA managers did not take their warnings seriously and [launching / launched] Challenger as planned.



42. Right [to / before] the launch, engineers expressed concerns about mechanical malfunctions and advised that the launching be postponed.



43. Right before the launch, engineers expressed concerns about mechanical malfunctions and [advising / advised] that the launching be postponed.



44. Right before the launch, engineers expressed concerns about mechanical malfunctions and advised that the [launching / launched] be postponed.



45. Right before the launch, engineers expressed concerns about mechanical malfunctions and advised that the launching [be / is] postponed.


 

영1시한 1-6


46. Like many successful people, we should view failure not as the opposite of success, but as an indispensable step on the path to reach [to / X] success.



47. She remarked, "Failure taught me things about [me / myself] that I could have learned no other way."



48. They learned from their mistakes and went on [for / to] experience even greater triumphs.


 

영1시한 2-1


49. At the center of this change is the [ever-evolving / ever-evolved]technology of the camera.



50. If a similar incident happened today, [it / which] would be impossible for the embassy employees to destroy their photographs in time.



51. If a similar incident happened today, it [have / would] be impossible for the embassy employees to destroy their photographs in time.



52. There would be too many pictures floating [on around / around on] the Internet to find and erase.



53. To prevent the enemy from identifying them, they attempt [for / to]eliminate all the photographs inside the embassy along with all embassy documents.



54. While they are hiding and waiting for rescue, the enemy reassembles the [torning / torn] pieces of the photographs to find out what the escapees look like.



55. [preventing / to prevent] the enemy from identifying them, they attempt to eliminate all the photographs inside the embassy along with all embassy documents.


 

영1시한 2-2


56. A photographer needed to learn how to decide an adequate composition for the picture, to adjust the focal length, and [to / X] set the film and the shutter speed before shooting.



57. As a result, most people are taking far more photographs than ever they would have [before / before it].



58. It was important to prepare carefully if a person was going to take a good photograph, because it was nearly impossible to change anything once the photograph [have / had] been taken.



59. It was important to prepare carefully if a person was going to take a good photograph, because it was nearly impossible to change anything once the photograph had been [taking / taken].



60. Once [using / used], the film could not be erased or reused.



61. To take pictures, photographers needed not only a camera, but also film, [it / which] they had to buy every time they wanted to take another photograph.



62. [takeing / to take] pictures, photographers needed not only a camera, but also film, which they had to buy every time they wanted to take another photograph.



63. from the Film Camera [for / to] the Digital Camera.


 

영1시한 2-3


64. Moreover, the digital camera has made [it / them] astonishingly easy to take photographs by making all the shooting processes automatic.



65. Moreover, the digital camera has made it astonishingly [easy / easily] to take photographs by making all the shooting processes automatic.



66. Moreover, the digital camera has made it astonishingly easy to take photographs by making all the [shooting / shooted] processes automatic.



67. No one thinks that taking a picture of tonight's dinner, a lovely pet, or a book you like, [is / are] strange or a waste of money.



68. Now we can take pictures of anything we want, [when / whenever] we want.



69. People [who / which] know next to nothing about photography can still produce high-quality photographs.



70. The [discarding / discarded] pictures cost them nothing, except perhaps a little time.



71. The transition from the film camera [for / to] the digital camera has changed our idea about what to take pictures of.



72. The transition from the film camera to the digital camera has changed our idea about [how / what] to take pictures of.



73. The transition from the film camera to the digital camera has changed our idea about what to take pictures [of / of it].


 

영1시한 2-4


74. By integrating the mobile phone and the camera, the smartphone has further transformed the way we use and [think / thinks] about photography.



75. However, the smartphone made [it / them] so convenient and popular that taking a photograph of oneself, or a selfie, is now one of the most common types of photography on the Internet.



76. However, the smartphone made it [so / too] convenient and popular that taking a photograph of oneself, or a selfie, is now one of the most common types of photography on the Internet.



77. However, the smartphone made it so convenient and popular that taking a photograph of oneself, or a selfie, [is / are] now one of the most common types of photography on the Internet.



78. However, the smartphone made it so convenient and popular that taking a photograph of oneself, or a selfie, is now one of the most common [type / types] of photography on the Internet.



79. Nowadays, [when / whenever] we want to take a picture, our camera is already in our hand, in our smartphone.



80. Taking a photograph of oneself was difficult and [notes / note] often done in the past.



81. The smartphone has also made [it / them] easier to share our photographs with others since smartphones come with a wireless Internet connection and social networking apps.



82. The smartphone has also made it [easier / easierly] to share our photographs with others since smartphones come with a wireless Internet connection and social networking apps.



83. These features of the smartphone have [resulted from / resulted in] new picture-taking habits.



84. These features of the smartphone have resulted in new [picture-taking / picture-taked] habits.



85. [Tak / Taking] a photograph of oneself was difficult and not often done in the past.


 

영1시한 2-5


86. Thanks to citizen journalists, inappropriate or inconsiderate behaviors such as leaving one's pet's droppings on the street or abusing a bus driver are quickly photographed and [reporting / reported] online.



87. The smartphone also enables ordinary people [gathering / to gather], report, and spread news without relying on the mainstream media, such as newspapers or television.



88. The smartphone also enables ordinary people to gather, report, and [spread / spreads] news without relying on the mainstream media, such as newspapers or television.



89. This practice is [calling / called] citizen journalism.



90. [Thanks to / Thanks for] citizen journalists, inappropriate or inconsiderate behaviors such as leaving one's pet's droppings on the street or abusing a bus driver are quickly photographed and reported online.


 

영1시한 2-6


91. Some people worry that these changes have made us preoccupied with taking pictures and [flooding / flooded] the Internet with too many unimportant images.



92. There may be some truth in that, but it cannot be denied [that / what]technology today has made photography an essential part of our culture and that it has altered the way people see the world.



93. There may be some truth in that, but it cannot be denied that technology today has made photography an [essential / essentially] part of our culture and that it has altered the way people see the world.


 

영1시한 3-1


94. After Korea achieved its independence from Japan, he became both a [promising / promised] painter and respected professor at an art college in Seoul.



95. After Korea achieved its independence from Japan, he became both a promising painter and [respecting / respected] professor at an art college in Seoul.



96. All his life, he devoted [him / himself] to discovering the essence of Korean beauty.



97. All his life, he devoted himself to [discover / discovering] the essence of Korean beauty.



98. Bright colors and simple lines show hope for life among people who did not give [in to / to in] their difficult circumstances.



99. His paintings Shanty and Refugee Train [portrayed / portraying] the hard life of the common people during wartime.



100. However, these paintings are not [depressing / depressed] images.



101. It was during this time that he became familiar [to / with] new trends in Western art, including Abstract painting.



102. It was during this time that he became familiar with new trends in Western art, [included / including] Abstract painting.



103. Kim Whanki, one of the most beloved Korean [artist / artists], is considered the leading figure in the first generation of Korean Abstract painters.



104. Kim Whanki, one of the most beloved Korean artists, [are / is]considered the leading figure in the first generation of Korean Abstract painters.



105. Kim Whanki, one of the most beloved Korean artists, [is / are]considered the leading figure in the first generation of Korean Abstract painters.



106. Kim Whanki, one of the most beloved Korean artists, is considered the [leading / leaded] figure in the first generation of Korean Abstract painters.



107. Moreover, he was a man who never ceased to challenge [him / himself]and grow as an artist.


 

영1시한 3-2


108. Returning to Seoul after the war, Kim Whanki felt a strong desire to capture the essence of the beauty found in [traditional / traditionally] Korean art.



109. [Return / Returning] to Seoul after the war, Kim Whanki felt a strong desire to capture the essence of the beauty found in traditional Korean art.


 

영1시한 3-3


110. By the early 1950s, although Kim Whanki had become successful as an artist, he was not satisfied with being an [outstanding / outstanded] painter only within Korea.



111. By the early 1950s, although Kim Whanki had become successful as an artist, he was not satisfied with being an [outstanding / outstanded] painter only within Korea.



112. By the early 1950s, although Kim Whanki had become successful as an artist, he was not satisfied with being an [outstanding / outstanded] painter only within Korea.



113. In 1956, he resigned from the college and went [for / to] Paris, where he lived for three years.



114. In 1956, he resigned from the college and went to Paris, [there / where]he lived for three years.


 

영1시한 3-4


115. In 1963 at the age of 50, he became the first Korean artist [to be invited / being invited] to the São Paulo Art Biennale in Brazil.



116. Meeting artists from all over the world and seeing their works, he decided to go directly from São Paulo to New York [for / to] challenge himself and extend his artistic boundaries.



117. Meeting artists from all over the world and seeing their works, he decided to go directly from São Paulo to New York to challenge [him / himself] and extend his artistic boundaries.



118. Meeting artists from all over the world and seeing their works, he decided to go directly from São Paulo to New York to challenge himself and [extend / extends] his artistic boundaries.



119. Once an art dealer [lied / lied to] him and sold his paintings without paying him.



120. [Meet / Meeting] artists from all over the world and seeing their works, he decided to go directly from São Paulo to New York to challenge himself and extend his artistic boundaries.


 

영1시한 3-5


121. During his 11 years in New York, Kim Whanki's style eventually reached [to / X] complete abstraction.



122. He gradually took away figures and [filling / filled] his canvases with basic elements such as dots and lines.



123. He gradually took away figures and filled his canvases [with / for] basic elements such as dots and lines.



124. His masterpiece, completed in 1970, Where, in What Form, Shall We Meet Again?, [is / are] covered with thousands of blue dots.



125. His masterpiece, completed in 1970, Where, in What Form, [to / Shall]We Meet Again?, is covered with thousands of blue dots.



126. His masterpiece, completed in 1970, Where, in [how / What] Form, Shall We Meet Again?, is covered with thousands of blue dots.



127. In dot paintings, he filled big canvases [with / for] countless dots.



128. Most of these paintings were in his characteristic blue tones, [it / which]represented the color of the sea near his hometown.



129. Starting with that work, he began to use only dots and [creating / createn] his own unique style called "dot painting."



130. Starting with that work, he began to use only dots and createn his own unique style [calling / called] "dot painting."



131. The title was [taking / taken] from a famous poem by Kim Kwangsup, which is about looking at the stars and longing for loved ones.



132. The title was taken from a famous poem by Kim Kwangsup, [it / which]is about looking at the stars and longing for loved ones.



133. The title was taken from a famous poem by Kim Kwangsup, which is about looking at the stars and longing for [loving / loved] ones.



134. [Start / Starting] with that work, he began to use only dots and createn his own unique style called "dot painting."


 

영1시한 3-6


135. As the night grows [deeper / deeperly], it fades into brightness and I disappear into darkness.



136. As the night grows deeper, it fades into brightness and I [disappear / disappear into] darkness.



137. Where, in [how / what] form shall the two of us... you, one so warm, and me, one so tender, meet again?



138. Where, in what form shall the two of us... you, one so warm, and me, one so tender, [meet / meeting] again?



139. [Of / For] all these countless people, my eyes are set upon one particular star.


 

영1시한 3-7


140. Almost half a century has passed since his death, but his art is still [high / highly] respected.



141. Meanwhile, his life story helps us realize how [important / importantly]it is to be true to and passionate about our dreams and ideals.


 

영1시한 4-1


142. I had always been [interesting / interested] in Malaysia because it is a multicultural country, where Chinese, Indian, Islamic, and traditional Malay cultures coexist with European influences.



143. I had always been [interesting / interested] in Malaysia because it is a multicultural country, where Chinese, Indian, Islamic, and traditional Malay cultures coexist with European influences.



144. I had always been [interesting / interested] in Malaysia because it is a multicultural country, where Chinese, Indian, Islamic, and traditional Malay cultures coexist with European influences.



145. I had always been interested in Malaysia because it is a multicultural country, [there / where] Chinese, Indian, Islamic, and traditional Malay cultures coexist with European influences.



146. In addition, we chose Penang as our destination because it is famous for its street art, something [that / what] both my mother and I are interested in.



147. In addition, we chose Penang as our destination because it is famous for its street art, something that both my mother and I are [interesting / interested] in.



148. In addition, we chose Penang as our destination because it is famous for its street art, something that both my mother and I are interested [in / in it].



149. Its capital, George Town, [was / were] built by British settlers in the late 18th century and named after King George III.



150. Its capital, George Town, [was / were] built by British settlers in the late 18th century and named after King George III.



151. Its capital, George Town, was built by British settlers in the late 18th century and [naming / named] after King George III.


 

영1시한 4-2


152. After [finishing / finished] lunch, we visited some famous, old buildings.



153. European-and Asian-style buildings stood side by side, and many buildings looked neither completely Western [or / nor] completely Eastern but a mixture of the two.



154. First, we stopped at a nearby restaurant and [having / had] asam laksa for lunch.



155. Painted in vivid blue and built in a style that combined Chinese and European architecture, [it / which] was both beautiful and unique at the same time.



156. When I tasted it, however, I found it was [real / really] delicious.



157. When I tasted it, however, I found it was really [delicious / deliciously].



158. [Painting / Painted] in vivid blue and built in a style that combined Chinese and European architecture, it was both beautiful and unique at the same time.



159. [Painting / Painted] in vivid blue and built in a style that combined Chinese and European architecture, it was both beautiful and unique at the same time.


 

영1시한 4-3


160. As a result, [many / many of] the buildings on Armenian Street have unusual appearances.



161. First, we stopped by the Kapitan [Keling / Keled] Mosque, the largest Mosque in George Town.



162. It is [calling / called] that because many Armenian immigrants moved to this district in the 19th century.



163. It is called [that / what] because many Armenian immigrants moved to this district in the 19th century.



164. The colorfulness and slightly different decorations of the buildings made the [whole / wholely] street look really delightful.



165. The colorfulness and slightly different decorations of the buildings made the whole street look really [delightful / delightfully].



166. Then, we went to see Sri Maha Mariamman Temple, [it / which] is covered with colorful carvings of countless Hindu gods and goddesses.



167. They [appear / appear to] have been designed and begun by Europeans but decorated and finished by Chinese.



168. They appear to have been [designing / designed] and begun by Europeans but decorated and finished by Chinese.



169. They appear to have been [designing / designed] and begun by Europeans but decorated and finished by Chinese.



170. They appear to have been designed and [beguning / begun] by Europeans but decorated and finished by Chinese.



171. They appear to have been designed and [beguning / begun] by Europeans but decorated and finished by Chinese.



172. They appear to have been designed and begun by Europeans but [decorating / decorated] and finished by Chinese.



173. They appear to have been designed and begun by Europeans but decorated and [finishing / finished] by Chinese.



174. Visitors wearing shorts are not [allowing / allowed] to enter, so I had to borrow a long skirt to get in.



175. Visitors wearing shorts are not allowed to enter, so I had to borrow a long skirt to get [in / in it].


 

영1시한 4-4


176. A famous mural of two children riding a bicycle, for example, [was / were] createn by a famous artist named Ernest Zacharevic.



177. A famous mural of two children riding a bicycle, for example, [was / were] createn by a famous artist named Ernest Zacharevic.



178. I was [amazing / amazed] by the diverse styles of murals.



179. I was also [surprising / surprised] to learn that these works of art were createn not only by local people but also by artists from all parts of the world.



180. I was also [surprising / surprised] to learn that these works of art were createn not only by local people but also by artists from all parts of the world.



181. I was also surprised to learn that these works of art were createn not only by local people [but / so] also by artists from all parts of the world.


 

영1시한 4-5


182. It was one of the [reason / reasons] why we decided to take this trip near the end of January.



183. The Little Penang Street Market is known [to / as] the best place to see local crafts, and it really was full of beautiful ethnic goods, including clothes, shoes, wood carvings, woven baskets, and much more.



184. The Little Penang Street Market is known as the best place to see local crafts, and it really was full of beautiful ethnic goods, [included / including]clothes, shoes, wood carvings, woven baskets, and much more.



185. The Little Penang Street Market is known as the best place to see local crafts, and it really was full of beautiful ethnic goods, including clothes, shoes, wood carvings, [wovening / woven] baskets, and much more.



186. The atmosphere was [so / too] lively and exciting that the entire event felt more like a small festival than a market.



187. The atmosphere was so lively and [exciting / excited] that the entire event felt more like a small festival than a market.



188. it was one [for / of] the reasons why we decided to take this trip near the end of January.


 

영1시한 4-6


189. I was deeply [impressing / impressed] by how the Malaysians have embraced their diversity and how it has made its culture richer.



190. On our way home, I thought that Malaysia and Korea might have more in common than I [have originally imagined / had originally imagined].



191. The trip to Penang makes me [wonder / to wonder] what Seoul will be like in the future.



192. The trip to [Penanging / Penang] makes me wonder what Seoul will be like in the future.


 

영1시한 5-1


193. French fries, [it / which] are often served with fast foods, are one of the best known American side dishes.



194. French fries, which are often served with fast foods, [is / are] one of the best known American side dishes.



195. French fries, which are often served with fast foods, are one of the best known American side [dishe / dishes].



196. Instead of French fries, the French have traditionally enjoyed [roasting / roasted] potatoes with chicken for their Sunday lunch.



197. It is said that Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, [tasting / tasted] these fried potatoes in France and brought the recipe home to America.



198. Potato pancakes and potato soups are popular traditional dishes in Germany, while fish and chips is one of the most popular street [food / foods] in England.



199. The real inventors of the so-[calling / called] "French" fries were not the French but the Belgians.



200. The real inventors of the so-called "French" fries were not the French[but / so] the Belgians.



201. [Instead of / Instead for] French fries, the French have traditionally enjoyed roasted potatoes with chicken for their Sunday lunch.



202. it is said that Thomas Jefferson, the third President [for / of] the United States, tasted these fried potatoes in France and brought the recipe home to America.


 

영1시한 5-2


203. The potato gradually but steadily [spread / spreading] across Europe, as people learned how it could help them in times of war, bad weather, and desperate hunger.



204. The potato has been [growning / grown] by South American Indians in the Andes Mountains for nearly 10,000 years, but it was only 500 years ago when the Europeans learned about this vegetable and brought it to their homelands.


 

영1시한 5-3


205. At long last, Europe was able to feed [it / itself].



206. By the end of the 18th century, potatoes [have taken / had taken] over most European farms, and famine had become a rare and unusual incident.



207. Not only [potatoes grow / did potatoes grow] well in much of Europe, but they were also very nutritious.



208. Once Europeans began to grow potatoes, their food supplies doubled in quantity and [increasing / increased] dramatically in quality.



209. [Not only potatoes did grow / Not only did potatoes grow] well in much of Europe, but they were also very nutritious.


 

영1시한 5-4


210. It was easier to grow potatoes than many other crops, so [fewer / lesser] people were needed for farming.



211. People [who / which] no longer worked on farms came to the cities and became factory workers, enabling new manufacturing industries to grow more quickly.



212. People who no longer worked on farms came to the cities and became factory workers, [enabled / enabling] new manufacturing industries to grow more quickly.



213. Thanks to the fact [that / which] the potato was inexpensive and nutritious, many Europeans escaped famines, and the populations in European nations increased rapidly during the 19th century.



214. With the larger populations and more advanced technologies, European nations became [enough powerful / powerful enough] to venture into other parts of the world and colonize them.



215. [Thanks to / Thanks for] the fact that the potato was inexpensive and nutritious, many Europeans escaped famines, and the populations in European nations increased rapidly during the 19th century.


 

영1시한 5-5


216. Because the people of Ireland were excessively dependent upon the potato for food, when a potato disease hit Europe in 1845, [it / which] led to a disastrous situation.



217. By 1852, more than one million Irish people, about 20 percent of the population, [had / having] starved to death, while another two million people had fled Ireland, and almost three-quarters of them had migrated to the United States.



218. By 1852, more than one million Irish people, about 20 percent of the population, [have starved / had starved] to death, while another two million people had fled Ireland, and almost three-quarters of them had migrated to the United States.



219. It was one of the deadliest [famine / famines] in history.


 

영1시한 5-6


220. After a series of desperate attempts, one man eventually found that Paris [green / greenly], a toxic chemical used for making green paint, killed the beetles.



221. After a series of desperate attempts, one man eventually found that Paris green, a toxic chemical [using / used] for making green paint, killed the beetles.



222. After a series of desperate attempts, one man eventually found that Paris green, a toxic chemical used for making green paint, [killing / killed] the beetles.



223. Chemists saw what the farmers were doing and [deciding / decided] to try Paris green on other pests.



224. Chemists saw what the farmers were doing and [deciding / decided] to try Paris green on other pests.



225. Despite the terrible outcome of the potato disease in Europe, [it / which] was perhaps less important in the potato's history than the Colorado potato beetle was in North America.



226. Farmers were not the only people to find a [new / newly] use for Paris green.



227. In the 1860s, the potato beetle was carried by horses and cows from Mexico [for / to] the state of Colorado in the United States.



228. Scientists began to do research and [discover / discovers] chemicals and substances that were effective for many different agricultural problems.



229. There it attacked potatoes and [spread / spreads] quickly when potatoes were shipped to other parts of the country on trains and steamships.



230. Until that time, American farmers [have only planted / had only planted] a few varieties of potatoes, and the potatoes that they planted were extremely vulnerable to the pest.



231. [Though / Despite] the terrible outcome of the potato disease in Europe, it was perhaps less important in the potato's history than the Colorado potato beetle was in North America.


 

영1시한 5-7


232. As a result, this simple vegetable, [it / which] was once unwanted and thought to be ugly, has shaped the modern world as we know it.



233. As a result, this simple vegetable, which was once [unwanting / unwanted] and thought to be ugly, has shaped the modern world as we know it.



234. As a result, this simple vegetable, which was once unwanted and thought to be ugly, [has / having] shaped the modern world as we know it.


 

영1시한 6-1


235. Seeing that Jeff and all his furnishings [have vanished / had vanished]into the earth, Jeremy desperately tried to rescue him.



236. Sinkholes [vary / vary in] size from 1 to 600 meters deep.



237. Sinkholes have been [for around / around for] a long time.



238. Sinkholes vary in size from 1 [for / to] 600 meters deep.



239. Some sinkholes are [enough large / large enough] to swallow entire buildings.



240. When Jeff Bush, a 37-year-old Florida man, [screaming / screamed] out for help, his brother Jeremy ran into Jeff's bedroom.



241. [See / Seeing] that Jeff and all his furnishings had vanished into the earth, Jeremy desperately tried to rescue him.


 

영1시한 6-2


242. Some notable sinkholes include Sima Humboldt in Venezuela, [it / which] is 314 meters deep and Xiaozhai Tiankeng in China, 662 meters deep and 626 meters wide.



243. Some sinkholes attract tourists who are [interesting / interested] in the mystery and the beauty of nature.



244. The Great Blue Hole in Belize is one of the most spectacular; it is 300 [meter / meters] wide and 124 meters deep.



245. Underwater sinkholes [called / are called] blue holes.



246. Underwater sinkholes are [calling / called] blue holes.


 

영1시한 6-3


247. As the space becomes too large [supporting / to support] the soil above, it collapses, and a hole opens up on the surface.



248. As the space becomes too large to support the soil above, [it / which]collapses, and a hole opens up on the surface.



249. Sinkholes typically [occur / occur in] areas where the rock beneath the surface soil is limestone, carbonate rock, sandstone, or some other soft rock that is easily worn away by water.



250. Slowly and continually, sometimes taking hundreds or thousands of years, the water erodes small parts of the rock, [createn / creating] cracks underground.



251. When rainwater seeps down through surface soil, [it / which] eventually reaches bedrock below.



252. When rainwater seeps down through surface soil, it eventually reaches [to / X] bedrock below.


 

영1시한 6-4


253. As the space cannot support the soil above, [it / which] collapses, and a hole opens up.



254. Rainwater erodes the bedrock, [createn / creating] cracks underground.



255. The soil above the cracks is washed into the cracks, [createn / creating]a space in the soil.


 

영1시한 6-5


256. A sudden heavy rain can add dramatically to the weight of the surface soil, [made / making] it too heavy for the space beneath to bear.



257. Another trigger is a rapid [increase / increase in] surface water.



258. Collapses from these man-made causes can have especially dramatic effects because they often [occur / occur in] the middle of a street or in housing areas.



259. Most sinkholes we are seeing these days are indirectly related to human activities, such as drilling, [mined / mining], or construction.



260. They may also occur [because of / because for] broken water pipes, heavy weight on soft soil, and the removal of groundwater.



261. They may also occur because of [brokening / broken] water pipes, heavy weight on soft soil, and the removal of groundwater.



262. When this happens, the space [that / what] was once supported by the water may become weaker and collapse.



263. When this happens, the space that was once [supporting / supported]by the water may become weaker and collapse.


 

영1시한 6-6


264. However, if you live in an area where sinkholes have happened [before / to], look around for possible warnings, such as leaning trees, doors or windows that don't close properly, or rainwater collecting in unusual spots.



265. However, if you live in an area where sinkholes have happened before, [look / looking] around for possible warnings, such as leaning trees, doors or windows that don't close properly, or rainwater collecting in unusual spots.



266. However, if you live in an area where sinkholes have happened before, look [for around / around for] possible warnings, such as leaning trees, doors or windows that don't close properly, or rainwater collecting in unusual spots.



267. In 2010, in Guatemala City, an area approximately 20 meters wide and 30 meters deep collapsed, [swallowed / swallowing] a three story factory and killing 15 people.



268. Recently, many sinkholes have opened up in urban areas around the world, sometimes [resulting from / resulting in] tragic accidents.



269. Sinkholes caused by human carelessness can often [be / is] prevented.



270. The sinkhole was caused by the [increase / increasing] of surface water due to tropical storm Agatha and leakage from a local waste water pipe.



271. The sinkhole was caused by the increase of surface water [due to / due for] tropical storm Agatha and leakage from a local waste water pipe.



272. Thorough soil testing [prior to / prior for] construction and maintaining the underground water and plumbing systems are the best ways to prevent the formation of a sinkhole in the middle of a city.



273. [General speaking / Generally speaking], naturally occurring sinkholes cannot be prevented.



274. [through / Thorough] soil testing prior to construction and maintaining the underground water and plumbing systems are the best ways to prevent the formation of a sinkhole in the middle of a city.


 

영1시한 6-7


275. As our population grows and we develop in areas where sinkholes are common, we seem to be seeing more sinkholes and more stories about humans [affected / being affected] by them.



276. If we look for ways to detect and [prevent / prevents] sinkholes, it may be easier to rescue another Jeff from a sinkhole somewhere else in the world.



277. If we look for ways to detect and prevent sinkholes, [it / which] may be easier to rescue another Jeff from a sinkhole somewhere else in the world.


 

영1시한 SP1


278. Provide Access [on / to] Clean Water When Samuel Taylor Coleridge wrote "water, water, everywhere, nor any drop to drink," he did not have the 21st century's global water situation in mind.


 

영1시한 SP2


279. As a result, people [live / living] in these countries have many health problems.



280. As a result, people [lived / living] in these countries have many health problems.



281. But that amount is enough [to / for] now.



282. Earth is sometimes [calling / called] "the Blue Planet" because it is covered by so much water.



283. If sufficient water for sanitation [have / were] available, these children would be saved.



284. In some countries, half the population does not have access [on / to]safe drinking water.



285. One out of every six people [lived / living] today does not have adequate access to water, and more than double that number live in unhealthy environments because they lack the water they need for cleaning.



286. One out of every six people living today does not have adequate access [on / to] water, and more than double that number live in unhealthy environments because they lack the water they need for cleaning.



287. [Of / For] the fresh water that remains, over two thirds is locked away in ice caps and glaciers.


 

영1시한 SP3


288. Because groundwater, mostly deposited in earlier times, [is / are] being exhausted far faster than it is being replaced.



289. Because groundwater, mostly deposited in earlier times, [is exhausting / is being exhausted] far faster than it is being replaced.



290. Even within specific countries, such as Brazil, some regions have more than enough fresh, [unpolluting / unpolluted] water while other regions often suffer from droughts.



291. Even within specific countries, such as Brazil, some regions have more than enough fresh, unpolluted water while other regions often [suffer / suffer from] droughts.



292. Overcoming the crisis in water and sanitation is one of the toughest human [challenge / challenges] of the early 21st century.



293. [Overcom / Overcoming] the crisis in water and sanitation is one of the toughest human challenges of the early 21st century.


 

영1시한 SP4


294. Another approach that can be applied [is / to be] desalination.



295. But desalination plants are expensive to build and require lots of energy to operate, [it / which] makes desalination suitable mainly for seaside cities in rich countries.



296. But desalination plants are expensive to build and require lots of energy to operate, which makes desalination [suitable / suitably] mainly for seaside cities in rich countries.



297. Desalination is not a new idea and [is / are] already used in many regions, particularly in the Middle East.



298. Desalination is not a new idea and is already [using / used] in many regions, particularly in the Middle East.



299. If desalination is going to be a realistic source of fresh water, countries need either abundant, cheap energy [or / nor] a way to make the process more efficient.



300. If desalination is going to be a realistic source of fresh water, countries need either abundant, cheap energy or a way to make the process more [efficient / efficiently].



301. It therefore has limited value for poor countries, [there / where] water supply problems are the most serious.



302. One large-scale approach [used / using] in the U.S., China, India, and other countries has been to divert the flow of water from regions where it is plentiful to where it is scarce.



303. One large-scale approach [using / used] in the U.S., China, India, and other countries has been to divert the flow of water from regions where it is plentiful to where it is scarce.



304. One large-scale approach used in the U.S., China, India, and other countries has been to divert the flow of water from regions where it is plentiful [for / to] where it is scarce.



305. Today, we need more sophisticated and controlling water supply methods that do not only meet our [increasing / increased] needs but also prevent damage to the environment and ecosystems.



306. Today, we need more sophisticated and controlling water supply methods that do not only meet our increased needs [but / so] also prevent damage to the environment and ecosystems.


 

영1시한 SP5


307. Already some countries, such as Jordan, [have / having] dramatically reduced water use with drip technology.



308. Hopefully, recycled water may someday even [be / is] returned to groundwater.



309. However, very effective purification methods and [through / thorough]safeguards are necessary to ensure the safety of recycled water.



310. However, very effective purification methods and thorough safeguards are necessary to ensure the safety of [recycling / recycled] water.



311. Improved technologies [as / such as] "drip irrigation" can drip water directly onto plants.



312. It involves pumping or diverting water to fields [too / so] that water flows along the ground among the crops.



313. One of the earliest and most widespread [form / forms] is flood irrigation.



314. One of the earliest and most widespread forms [is / are] flood irrigation.



315. Technologies [are developing / are being developed], for instance, to improve recycling of waste water so that it can be used for irrigation or industrial purposes.



316. Technologies are being developed, for instance, [for improve / to improve] recycling of waste water so that it can be used for irrigation or industrial purposes.



317. Technologies are being developed, for instance, to improve recycling of waste water [too / so] that it can be used for irrigation or industrial purposes.



318. [Improving / Improved] technologies such as "drip irrigation" can drip water directly onto plants.


 

영1시한 SP6


319. Albert Einstein once [describing / described] madness as "doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results."



320. As a result, there have been significant calls for a change in the way the world is [dealing / dealing with] growing water shortages.



321. By 2050, the global population is expected to [rise / rise to] nine billion.



322. However, a small-scale process has also been [using / used] to improve water availability and safety.



323. However, a small-scale process has also been [using / used] to improve water availability and safety.



324. It is a small distillation unit, [it / which] is a particularly attractive approach in rural and low-income areas, where the lack of infrastructure makes it hard to distribute water efficiently and economically.



325. It is a small distillation unit, which is a particularly attractive approach in rural and low-income areas, [there / where] the lack of infrastructure makes it hard to distribute water efficiently and economically.



326. It is a small distillation unit, which is a particularly attractive approach in rural and low-income areas, where the lack of infrastructure makes [it / them] hard to distribute water efficiently and economically.



327. We must, as Einstein points out, do [different something / something different].



328. it is a small distillation unit, which is a particularly attractive approach in rural and low-income areas, where the lack [for / of] infrastructure makes it hard to distribute water efficiently and economically.



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181. but 182. reasons 183. as 184. including 185. woven 186. so 187. exciting 188. of 189. impressed 190. had originally imagined


191. wonder 192. Penang 193. which 194. are 195. dishes 196. roasted 197. tasted 198. foods 199. called 200. but


201. Instead of 202. of 203. spread 204. grown 205. itself 206. had taken 207. did potatoes grow 208. increased 209. Not only did potatoes grow 210. fewer


211. who 212. enabling 213. that 214. powerful enough 215. Thanks to 216. it 217. had 218. had starved 219. famines 220. green


221. used 222. killed 223. decided 224. decided 225. it 226. new 227. to 228. discover 229. spread 230. had only planted


231. Despite 232. which 233. unwanted 234. has 235. had vanished 236. vary in 237. around for 238. to 239. large enough 240. screamed


241. Seeing 242. which 243. interested 244. meters 245. are called 246. called 247. to support 248. it 249. occur in 250. creating


251. it 252. X 253. it 254. creating 255. creating 256. making 257. increase in 258. occur in 259. mining 260. because of


261. broken 262. that 263. supported 264. before 265. look 266. around for 267. swallowing 268. resulting in 269. be 270. increase


271. due to 272. prior to 273. Generally speaking 274. Thorough 275. being affected 276. prevent 277. it 278. to 279. living 280. living


281. for 282. called 283. were 284. to 285. living 286. to 287. Of 288. is 289. is being exhausted 290. unpolluted


291. suffer from 292. challenges 293. Overcoming 294. is 295. which 296. suitable 297. is 298. used 299. or 300. efficient


301. where 302. used 303. used 304. to 305. increased 306. but 307. have 308. be 309. thorough 310. recycled


311. such as 312. so 313. forms 314. is 315. are being developed 316. to improve 317. so 318. Improved 319. described 320. dealing with


321. rise to 322. used 323. used 324. which 325. where 326. it 327. something different 328. of 

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evh1 | Since 2005 임희재 | 블루티쳐학원 | 01033383436 | 200710 22:34:52

 

GRAMMAR

정답에 O표시, 이유를 쓰세요.



EVH1 1-1


1. From time to time, you are told [what / that] by parents or teachers to "think outside the box."



2. Looking at a problem from a different perspective can lead you [for / to] a new approach to handle the problem.



3. Looking at a problem from a different perspective can lead you to a new approach [to / for] handle the problem.



4. The [following / followed] stories show how changing your perspective can change your life.



5. The following stories show how [changing / changed] your perspective can change your life.



6. [Look / Looking] at a problem from a different perspective can lead you to a new approach to handle the problem.



7. from time [for / to] time, you are told by parents or teachers to "think outside the box."


 

EVH1 1-2


8. A professor walked [on around / around on] a stage while teaching.



9. A professor walked around on a stage while [teaching / taught].



10. If I [hold / will hold] it for an entire day, my arm will likely cramp up, which will force me to eventually drop the glass.



11. If I hold it for a minute or two, [it / which]'s fairly light.



12. If I hold it for an entire day, my arm will likely [cramp / to cramp] up, which will force me to eventually drop the glass.



13. If I hold it for an entire day, my arm will likely cramp up, [it / which] will force me to eventually drop the glass.



14. If I hold it for an entire day, my arm will likely cramp up, which will force me to [eventual / eventually] drop the glass.



15. If I hold it for an hour, [it / which] may make my arm ache.



16. If I hold it for an hour, it may make my [arm / to arm] ache.



17. In each case, the weight of the glass doesn't change, but the longer I hold it, [heavier the / the heavier] it feels to me."



18. She raised a glass of water and [asking / asked], "How heavy is this glass of water?"


 

EVH1 1-3


19. "Yes, but [look / looks] closer," he said, "and tell me what happened to each."



20. Finally, she took a sip of the coffee and [smiling / smiled] at the aroma.



21. He filled three pots [with / for] water and placed potatoes, eggs, and ground coffee beans in each of the three pots.



22. He filled three pots with water and [placing / placed] potatoes, eggs, and ground coffee beans in each of the three pots.



23. He filled three pots with water and placed potatoes, eggs, and ground coffee beans in each of the three [pot / pots].



24. One day, a daughter complained to her father about the problems she was [struggling / struggling with].



25. One day, a daughter complained to her father about the problems she was struggling [with / with it].



26. She was [frustrating / frustrated] because it seemed that just as one problem was solved, another followed.



27. [Turn / Turning] to her, he asked, "What do you see?"


 

EVH1 1-4


28. "The potato was strong and hard, but became soft and weak after sitting in the [boiling / boiled] water.



29. He explained that each of these [object / objects] had faced the same adversity, but each one reacted differently.



30. He explained that each of these objects [have faced / had faced] the same adversity, but each one reacted differently.



31. Or, you can change the circumstance that was [brought / brought about] by adversity for the better.



32. Or, you can change the circumstance that was brought [by about / about by] adversity for the better.



33. The ground coffee beans stayed intact but [changing / changed] the water itself, making it fragrant and flavorful."



34. The ground coffee beans stayed intact but changed the water [it / itself], making it fragrant and flavorful."



35. The ground coffee beans stayed intact but changed the water itself, [made / making] it fragrant and flavorful."



36. The inside of the egg was fragile but became [hardening / hardened]after being boiled in the water.



37. The inside of the egg was fragile but became hardened after [boiled / being boiled] in the water.


 

EVH1 1-5


38. A wise old man, upon hearing of the boy, [had / having] traveled far to watch his races.



39. A wise old man, upon hearing of the boy, [have traveled / had traveled]far to watch his races.



40. After [hearing / heard] this, the wise man said to him, "Now I present two new challengers to you."



41. He ran to the wise man and [asking / asked], "Why don't people cheer for me now?"



42. In the middle of the crowd was sitting the wise old man, [looked / looking] calmly at the boy.



43. Once upon a time, there lived a young athletic boy who prepared [him / himself] for a running competition.



44. The little boy felt [proud / proudly] and important.



45. The little boy noted that the crowd did not cheer for him this time, [it / which] puzzled him.



46. The race began, and the boy was the only finisher because the elderly lady and the blind man were left standing at the [starting / started] line.



47. Though the crowd cheered loudly for the boy, the wise man stayed still and calm, [expressed / expressing] no sentiment.



48. [Behind him an / Behind him were an] elderly lady and a blind man.



49. [When / Whenever] the boy was running for a prize, a large crowd gathered together to watch the race.


 

EVH1 1-6


50. "Race again," replied the wise man, "but this time, [finish / finishing]together."



51. He said, "Well [done / doing], little boy.



52. Now the little boy was greatly delighted, and he felt [proud / proudly]and important again.



53. The little boy stood between the blind man and the elderly lady, [holded / holding] them arm in arm.



54. When they crossed the [finishing / finished] line, the crowd cheered loudly and waved at the boy.



55. When they crossed the finishing line, the crowd cheered loudly and [waving / waved] at the boy.



56. You've won a lot more in this race than [in / X] any other you've run before.



57. You've won a lot more in this race than in any other you've run [before / before it].


 

EVH1 2-1


58. It is rooted in our cultural identities and provides a foundation of wisdom and knowledge [upon them / upon which] to build sustainable development for all.



59. It is rooted in our cultural identities and provides a foundation of wisdom and knowledge upon which [build / to build] sustainable development for all.



60. It is the way we understand the world and the means [by them / by which] we shape it.



61. Only they can protect it and [pass / passs] it on to tomorrow's generations.



62. Our intangible cultural heritage is a bridge [linking / linked] our past and our future.



63. The [following / followed] pages offer an insight into the great diversity of humanity's living heritage across the world.



64. it is rooted in our cultural identities and provides a foundation [for / of]wisdom and knowledge upon which to build sustainable development for all.


 

EVH1 2-2


65. A castell is a tower of people standing on each other's shoulders, often raised as [high / highly] as ten levels.



66. Anybody [who / which] is willing to help, from children to senior citizens, can be part of the pinya by supporting the tower and protecting it from collapsing.



67. Anybody who is [will / willing] to help, from children to senior citizens, can be part of the pinya by supporting the tower and protecting it from collapsing.



68. Anybody who is willing to help, from children [for / to] senior citizens, can be part of the pinya by supporting the tower and protecting it from collapsing.



69. Anybody who is willing to help, from children to senior citizens, [to / can]be part of the pinya by supporting the tower and protecting it from collapsing.



70. When the last person reaches [to / X] the top and waves his or her hands, the crowd below shouts and cheers.


 

EVH1 2-3


71. A castell requires between 75 and 500 people to build, all [of them / of whom] wear a group color.



72. Building one provides people with a strong sense of belonging and a [heightening / heightened] spirit of teamwork and cooperation.



73. The color is a proud element of a community, and young children long for the day when they can wear a shirt and [play / plays] their role in building their group's castell.



74. The knowledge about how to build castells is accumulated over generations and [handing / handed] down from generation to generation within a community, and can only be learned by practice.



75. The knowledge about how to build castells is accumulated over generations and handed down from generation [for / to] generation within a community, and can only be learned by practice.


 

EVH1 2-4


76. Bake the [shaping / shaped] dough until it turns light yellow in color.



77. Coloring is the next step, after which a second [drying / dried] takes place.



78. Dip the [stringing / strung] licitars into the glaze and hang them until they dry.



79. Dip the strung licitars into the glaze and [hang / hangs] them until they dry.



80. Gingerbread broadly [refers / refers to] any type of baked treat that is typically flavored with ginger and honey.



81. Gingerbread broadly refers to any type of [baking / baked] treat that is typically flavored with ginger and honey.



82. Once [drying / dried], the licitars are decorated.



83. Prepare dough and [let / lets] it mature for a few days.



84. The dough matures for a few days, then is shaped in molds and [baking / baked], and then left for two weeks to dry.



85. The process of making a licitar, a type of Croatian gingerbread, [is / are]special because it requires skill and endurance.


 

EVH1 2-5


86. A licitar is uniquely Croatian [because of / because for] the long history and the social role it has played.



87. Gingerbread craftspeople [appear / appear at] most festivals and fairs in Croatia.



88. People watch cookies [to be / being] made and socialize.



89. Since then, making licitars has become a family tradition where secrets are passed down from generation [for / to] generation.


 

EVH1 2-6


90. In Korean juldarigi, making a rice straw rope as well as [moving / moved]it to a ritual site is part of the tradition.



91. In the Philippines, punnuk is held in the Hapao River, [there / where]people tug young trees that are tightly bundled with vines and hooked to a straw figure in the middle.



92. In the Philippines, punnuk is held in the Hapao River, where people tug young trees that are tightly bundled with vines and [hooking / hooked] to a straw figure in the middle.



93. The rope stands for a dragon which is [believing / believed] to bring rain to the region.



94. The rope stands for a dragon which is believed to bring rain [to / for] the region.



95. The way the ritual is performed [varies / varies from] place to place.



96. The way the ritual is performed varies from place [for / to] place.



97. Tugging has long been [practicing / practiced] as a kind of ritual in many agricultural regions across Asia.



98. Tugging has long been [practicing / practiced] as a kind of ritual in many agricultural regions across Asia.


 

EVH1 2-7


99. The tugging rituals in Asia are mostly held by rice farmers, [whose / who]wish for enough rainfall and abundant harvests, so the rituals can be regarded as a form of prayer in the region.



100. There is no intentional [competitive / competitiveness] element inherent in the rituals, and winning or losing is not emphasized.



101. There is no intentional competitive element inherent in the rituals, and [win / winning] or losing is not emphasized.



102. While [preparing / prepared] for the rituals and performing them, participants realize the importance of solidarity, cooperation, and harmony among community members.


 

EVH1 3-1


103. Human beings are capable [for / of] doing amazing things through sports.



104. Human beings are capable of doing [amazing / amazed] things through sports.



105. Whatever we do on earth, however, [is / are] governed by the rules of nature.



106. [However / Whatever] we do on earth, however, is governed by the rules of nature.


 

EVH1 3-2


107. Animals like the adult cheetah can run 100 meters [about in / in about]six seconds.



108. This is [why / because] they can run fast.



109. Usain Bolt, the Jamaican sprinter, broke the world record for the 100-meter sprint in 2009, [clocked / clocking] a time of 9.58 seconds.


 

EVH1 3-3


110. Many experts predict, however, [what / that] a human being could probably run the 100-meter sprint in just over nine seconds.



111. The problem for humans is that the harder they hit the ground, [more the / the more] time they spend in the air, which makes their steps longer but reduces the number of steps they can take.



112. The problem for humans is that the harder they hit the ground, the more time they spend in the air, [it / which] makes their steps longer but reduces the number of steps they can take.


 

EVH1 3-4


113. However, the stone will begin to curl when it loses its speed even though it is three or four times as [heavy / heavyly] as a bowling ball.



114. It's [calling / called] curling.



115. This is [why / because] players have to direct the stone's path carefully, and they do this by sweeping.


 

EVH1 3-5


116. Although the house—the area where the curlers aim the stone—[is / are] often blocked by an opponent's stone, curling teams can actually guide one stone behind another, which is one of the major strategic elements to the game.



117. Although the house—the area where the curlers aim the stone—is often blocked by an opponent's stone, curling teams can actually guide one stone behind another, [it / which] is one of the major strategic elements to the game.



118. Although the house—the area where the curlers aim the stone—is often blocked by an opponent's stone, curling teams can actually guide one stone behind another, which is one of the major strategic [element / elements] to the game.



119. The precision [with them / with which] the team can control the direction and speed of the stone is a major factor in the strategy of the game.



120. The precision with [which / what] the team can control the direction and speed of the stone is a major factor in the strategy of the game.



121. This [results from / results in] the stone going straighter and farther.



122. This results in the stone [going / gone] straighter and farther.


 

EVH1 3-6


123. Do the stitches serve a purpose other than [keep / to keep] the leather covering over the ball?



124. Do the stitches serve a purpose other than to keep the leather [covering / covered] over the ball?



125. The batter swings and [hit / hits] a foul ball into the stands.



126. You look at the baseball with its smooth leather [covering / covered]and bright red stitches.



127. You reach [to / X] up with your glove and catch it as other spectators clap and cheer.



128. You reach up with your glove and [catch / catches] it as other spectators clap and cheer.


 

EVH1 3-7


129. The stitches more or less scoop the air and [direct / directs] it inwards towards the back of the ball.



130. The stitches more or less scoop the air and direct it inwards [forward / towards] the back of the ball.



131. This difference in air pressure creates an [unwanting / unwanted] effect called "drag" that literally drags the ball backward and slows it down.



132. This difference in air pressure creates an unwanted effect [calling / called] "drag" that literally drags the ball backward and slows it down.



133. This effectively increases the net air pressure in the back of the ball, [it / which] reduces the drag.



134. When a round object like a ball is [thrown / throwing], the front part of the ball hits the air, increasing the air pressure there while the air becomes thinner at the back of the ball, making the air pressure low.



135. When a round object like a ball is thrown, the front part of the ball hits the air, increasing the air pressure there while the air becomes thinner at the back of the ball, [made / making] the air pressure low.


 

EVH1 4-1


136. After [passing / passed] through various auctions, the person in the portrait was finally identified as Mary Seacole.



137. An antique dealer accidentally found it behind a [framing / framed]print at a garage sale in Burford, U.K.



138. The National Portrait Gallery in London confirmed that the painting was genuine and [purchasing / purchased] it, quoting that "as a woman and as a West Indian of mixed race, she broke many barriers to make a huge contribution to Victorian society."



139. The National Portrait Gallery in London confirmed that the painting was genuine and purchased it, [quot / quoting] that "as a woman and as a West Indian of mixed race, she broke many barriers to make a huge contribution to Victorian society."



140. The National Portrait Gallery in London confirmed that the painting was genuine and purchased it, [quoted / quoting] that "as a woman and as a West Indian of mixed race, she broke many barriers to make a huge contribution to Victorian society."



141. The National Portrait Gallery in London confirmed that the painting was genuine and purchased it, quoting that "as a woman and as a West Indian of [mixing / mixed] race, she broke many barriers to make a huge contribution to Victorian society."



142. The National Portrait Gallery in London confirmed that the painting was genuine and purchased it, quoting that "as a woman and as a West Indian of mixed race, she broke many barriers to make a [huge / hugely] contribution to Victorian society."



143. The National Portrait Gallery in London confirmed that the painting was genuine and purchased it, quoting that "as a woman and as a West Indian of mixed race, she broke many barriers to make a huge contribution [to / for]Victorian society."



144. The portrait has been [displaying / displayed] there since 2004.



145. The portrait has been [displaying / displayed] there since 2004.


 

EVH1 4-2


146. Her mother ran a [boarding / boarded] house while caring for wounded soldiers as if they were her own family members.



147. Her mother ran a boarding house while caring for [wounding / wounded] soldiers as if they were her own family members.



148. Her mother ran a boarding house while caring for wounded soldiers as if they [have / were] her own family members.



149. Her mother ran a boarding house while caring for wounded soldiers as if they [was / were] her own family members.



150. In fact, she [her / herself] contracted and recovered from it while in Panama.



151. In fact, she herself contracted and [recovering / recovered] from it while in Panama.



152. When she visited Panama in 1851, Mary managed [saving / to save] her first cholera patient, and in so doing she gained extensive knowledge of this disease.


 

EVH1 4-3


153. It was while she was in London in 1853 that she heard about the Crimean War and the collapse of the [nursing / nursed] system down there.



154. Mary, [whose / who] was then 50, was supposed to work officially as a sutler, someone who was allowed to sell goods to soldiers near the front.



155. Mary, who was then 50, [was / were] supposed to work officially as a sutler, someone who was allowed to sell goods to soldiers near the front.



156. Mary, who was then 50, [was / were] supposed to work officially as a sutler, someone who was allowed to sell goods to soldiers near the front.



157. Mary, who was then 50, was [supposing / supposed] to work officially as a sutler, someone who was allowed to sell goods to soldiers near the front.



158. She asked [her / herself], "Did these ladies shrink from accepting my aid because my blood flowed beneath a somewhat duskier skin than theirs?"



159. She immediately applied to the War Office to go to the Crimea and [help / helps] the sick and wounded soldiers.



160. She immediately applied to the War Office to go to the Crimea and help the sick and [wounding / wounded] soldiers.



161. Thousands of men were dying of cholera, dysentery, cold, and battle wounds [because of / because for] a lack of proper medical care.


 

EVH1 4-4


162. As soon as she arrived in the summer of 1855, however, Mary started to take care of the sick and [wounding / wounded] as if she were their mother.



163. As soon as she arrived in the summer of 1855, however, Mary started to take care of the sick and wounded as if she [have / were] their mother.



164. As soon as she arrived in the summer of 1855, however, Mary started to take care of the sick and wounded as if she [was / were] their mother.



165. One news reporter described her as "a warm and successful physician, [whose / who] doctors and cures all manner of men with extraordinary success.



166. One of the army [doctor / doctors] testified with admiration that despite the numbing coldness on the front line, Mary Seacole would care for the soldiers and provide them with tea, food, and words of comfort.



167. One of the army doctors testified with admiration [that / which] despite the numbing coldness on the front line, Mary Seacole would care for the soldiers and provide them with tea, food, and words of comfort.



168. One of the army doctors testified with admiration that [though / despite] the numbing coldness on the front line, Mary Seacole would care for the soldiers and provide them with tea, food, and words of comfort.



169. One of the army doctors testified with admiration that despite the [numbing / numbed] coldness on the front line, Mary Seacole would care for the soldiers and provide them with tea, food, and words of comfort.



170. She is always in attendance near the battle field to aid the [wounding / wounded] and has earned many a poor fellow's blessings."



171. This is [why / because] the soldiers of the British army came to call her "Mother Seacole."


 

EVH1 4-5


172. Fortunately, there were veterans who never forgot the [amazing / amazed] things that Mary had done on the battle field.



173. Fortunately, there were veterans who never forgot the [amazing / amazed] things that Mary had done on the battle field.



174. Fortunately, there were veterans who never forgot the amazing things that Mary [have done / had done] on the battle field.



175. It was reported [that / what] to their surprise, thousands of contributors gathered and her name was shouted by a thousand voices.



176. She [have spent / had spent] all her personal wealth in the Crimea.



177. She was also awarded three medals for her bravery and her work from England, Turkey, and France, [it / which] is vividly depicted in her portrait.



178. The last 25 years of her life, however, [was / were] spent quietly outside of public attention.


 

EVH1 4-6


179. Being a [bearing / born] healer, she made her own way to the war where she was needed.



180. During the Crimean War (1853-1856), Mary Seacole was from time to time [comparing / compared] to Florence Nightingale.



181. During the Crimean War (1853-1856), Mary Seacole was from time to time compared [for / to] Florence Nightingale.



182. In fact, she risked her life to aid the [wounding / wounded] and bring comfort to dying soldiers.



183. In fact, she risked her life to aid the wounded and [bring / brings]comfort to dying soldiers.



184. In fact, she risked her life to aid the wounded and bring comfort [to / for] dying soldiers.



185. In fact, she risked her life to aid the wounded and bring comfort to [dy / dying] soldiers.



186. Unlike Nightingale, Seacole had to overcome prejudice [relating / related] to her race.


 

EVH1 5-1


187. Can't ordinary people like you and me [be / is] creative?



188. The [following / followed] are some examples that tell us creativity is not a matter of talent or a gift, but is a matter of perspective nourished by passion and hard work.



189. The following are some examples that tell us creativity is not a matter of talent or a gift, but [is / are] a matter of perspective nourished by passion and hard work.


 

EVH1 5-2


190. A means of writing turned [for / into] an object of wonder because Dalton took a new perspective.



191. He carved [however / whatever] he could think of, from a farm house to a framing hammer, all at the very tip of a pencil.



192. He carved whatever he could think [of / to], from a farm house to a framing hammer, all at the very tip of a pencil.



193. He carved whatever he could think [to / of], from a farm house to a framing hammer, all at the very tip of a pencil.



194. He carved whatever he could think of, from a farm house [for / to] a framing hammer, all at the very tip of a pencil.



195. He carved whatever he could think of, from a farm house to a [framing / framed] hammer, all at the very tip of a pencil.



196. He saw a pencil on his desk, [picking / picked] it up, and started carving its lead with a sewing needle and a very sharp blade.



197. He saw a pencil on his desk, picked [up it / it up], and started carving its lead with a sewing needle and a very sharp blade.



198. He saw a pencil on his desk, picked it up, and [starting / started] carving its lead with a sewing needle and a very sharp blade.



199. He saw a pencil on his desk, picked it up, and started carving its lead with a [sewing / sewed] needle and a very sharp blade.



200. He saw a pencil on his desk, picked it up, and started carving its lead with a [sewing / sewed] needle and a very sharp blade.



201. However, he slowly and steadily improved his technique and [turning / turned] his inspirations into pieces of artwork.



202. In fact, a man named Dalton M. Ghetti looked at a pencil as art, not just as [a mean / a means] to create it.



203. Tiny but Shiny You would probably think [to / of] using a pencil to write or draw something.



204. Tiny but Shiny You would probably think of using a pencil to write or [draw / draws] something.



205. You might not imagine a pencil actually [be / being] a creation itself.



206. You might not imagine a pencil actually being a creation [it / itself].



207. [A mean / A means] of writing turned into an object of wonder because Dalton took a new perspective.


 

EVH1 5-3


208. From the right angle, a hand can be seen as two soccer players competing for a ball or a sprinter anxiously [wait / waiting] for the starter's gun to fire, as illustrated in Annie Ralli's works.



209. He was an art major, and his interest in wildlife protection led him to be [increasing / increasingly] involved in "handimals."



210. The Italian artist, Guido Daniele, can create [amazing / amazed] illusions with his hand art.



211. The animals he creates on hands look [so / too] realistic that whoever looks at them may not realize at first that they are just painted hands.



212. The animals he creates on hands look so realistic that [who / whoever]looks at them may not realize at first that they are just painted hands.


 

EVH1 5-4


213. At night, her hair will look pitch-black, [it / which] could never be reproduced by any artificial means.



214. At night, her hair will look pitch-black, which could never [be / is]reproduced by any artificial means.



215. He cuts out a hole in paper, and the gorgeous dress designs are [borrowing / borrowed] from the real world.



216. He gets his inspiration from golden leaves in an autumn garden [for / to] the blue sky on a summer day to cars and buildings on a busy city street.



217. The color of her hair changes [depend / depending] on the time of day and the position of the sun.



218. The color of her hair changes [depend / depending] on the time of day and the position of the sun.



219. They catch every clue in nature and [respond / respond in] novel ways.



220. They catch every clue in nature and [respond / responds] in novel ways.



221. They observe their surroundings with keen eyes, get [inspired / inspiring], add a little artistic touch, and put into life what we don't see.



222. They observe their surroundings with keen eyes, get inspired, [add / adding] a little artistic touch, and put into life what we don't see.



223. They observe their surroundings with keen eyes, get inspired, add a little artistic touch, and [put / puts] into life what we don't see.



224. They observe their surroundings with keen eyes, get inspired, add a little artistic touch, and put into life [that / what] we don't see.


 

EVH1 5-5


225. A green frog looks as if it [have / were] lifting the road and raking fallen leaves under it.



226. A green frog looks as if it [was / were] lifting the road and raking fallen leaves under it.



227. A manhole cover, [it / which] we can see on any city street, changes into a pineapple with some yellow paint.



228. The street comes [live / alive] and tells us an astonishing story, energizing people who are leading busy lives in bleak, urban environments.



229. The street comes alive and [tell / tells] us an astonishing story, energizing people who are leading busy lives in bleak, urban environments.



230. The street comes alive and tells us an [astonishing / astonished] story, energizing people who are leading busy lives in bleak, urban environments.



231. The street comes alive and tells us an astonishing story, [energized / energizing] people who are leading busy lives in bleak, urban environments.



232. Who would have thought [to / of] using train tracks as a music sheet?


 

EVH1 5-6


233. It looks [so / too] real that whoever happens to see it may be tempted to take the steps up to visit with those painted men and women.



234. It looks so real that [who / whoever] happens to see it may be tempted to take the steps up to visit with those painted men and women.



235. Lyon, a city in France, [is / are] famous for its murals.



236. The city greets its visitors with its [story-telling / story-telled] murals scattered all around it.



237. The only difference is that they try to find new things in [them / themselves] and their surroundings.



238. They seek to make connections that have never been [making / made].


 

EVH1 6-1


239. Factory Farming That Dries Up Our Planet Annual meat consumption has reached [to / X] an average of over 40 kilograms per person globally, and the demand is increasing.



240. Factory Farming That Dries Up Our Planet Annual meat consumption has reached an average [over of / of over] 40 kilograms per person globally, and the demand is increasing.



241. Pigs are raised in [confining / confined] pens and fed corn that has been grown in vast fields that stretch as far as the eye can see.



242. Pigs are raised in confined pens and [fing / fed] corn that has been grown in vast fields that stretch as far as the eye can see.



243. Pigs are raised in confined pens and fed corn that has been [growning / grown] in vast fields that stretch as far as the eye can see.



244. Pigs are raised in confined pens and fed corn that has been grown in vast fields that stretch as far [as / so] the eye can see.



245. This affects the ecosystems of such bodies of water, and the fertilizer runoff ends up in fish and other marine life for kilometers [around / around it].



246. To grow the corn, huge amounts of fertilizer are used, [it / which]eventually gets washed into rivers and streams.



247. [growing / to grow] the corn, huge amounts of fertilizer are used, which eventually gets washed into rivers and streams.


 

EVH1 6-2


248. Moreover, about one third of the world's fresh water is used for meat production, [it / which] cuts into the supply of water for humans.



249. Too much water has been [draining / drained] from the river as neighboring farms need to grow feed for cows.



250. Too much water has been [draining / drained] from the river as neighboring farms need to grow feed for cows.



251. Too much water has been drained from the river as neighboring farms need [for / to] grow feed for cows.



252. Too much water has been drained from the river as neighboring farms need to grow [feed / feed for] cows.


 

EVH1 6-3


253. As more people want more meat, [it / which] is inevitable that land for livestock be extended to meet the demand.



254. As more people want more meat, it is inevitable that land [of / for]livestock be extended to meet the demand.



255. As more people want more meat, it is inevitable that land for livestock [be / is] extended to meet the demand.



256. As more people want more meat, it is inevitable that land for livestock be [extending / extended] to meet the demand.



257. More meat production [results from / results in] increased water pollution in both rivers and oceans since cows and pigs eat a lot and at the same time produce a lot of manure.



258. More meat production results in [increasing / increased] water pollution in both rivers and oceans since cows and pigs eat a lot and at the same time produce a lot of manure.



259. When rain comes, manure is washed away with the runoff, [polluted / polluting] nearby soil, streams, and rivers all the way until it reaches the ocean.



260. When rain comes, manure is washed away with the runoff, polluting nearby soil, streams, and rivers all the way until it reaches [to / X] the ocean.



261. [from Land [for / to] the Ocean].


 

EVH1 6-4


262. Concentrated levels of nutrients in water [result from / result in] the blooming of algae, which are simple forms of water plants.



263. Concentrated levels of nutrients in water result in the blooming of algae, [it / which] are simple forms of water plants.



264. Once it reaches [to / X] the ocean, it contributes to the formation of what is known as a "dead zone."



265. Once it reaches the ocean, it [contributes / contributes to] the formation of what is known as a "dead zone."



266. Once it reaches the ocean, it contributes to the formation of [how / what] is known as a "dead zone."



267. Once it reaches the ocean, it contributes to the formation of what is known [to / as] a "dead zone."



268. The largest known dead zone [occurred / occurred in] the Gulf of Mexico in 2002, when runoff from the Mississippi River resulted in over 20,000 square kilometers of the Gulf area to become uninhabitable for oceanic life.



269. The largest known dead zone occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in 2002, [when / where] runoff from the Mississippi River resulted in over 20,000 square kilometers of the Gulf area to become uninhabitable for oceanic life.



270. The largest known dead zone occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in 2002, when runoff from the Mississippi River [resulted from / resulted in] over 20,000 square kilometers of the Gulf area to become uninhabitable for oceanic life.



271. The largest known dead zone occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in 2002, when runoff from the Mississippi River resulted [over in / in over] 20,000 square kilometers of the Gulf area to become uninhabitable for oceanic life.



272. When too many plants grow in the water, they use up the ocean's oxygen, [suffocated / suffocating] other plants and animals.



273. [Concentrating / Concentrated] levels of nutrients in water result in the blooming of algae, which are simple forms of water plants.



274. [Concentrating / Concentrated] levels of nutrients in water result in the blooming of algae, which are simple forms of water plants.


 

EVH1 6-5


275. However, about 15 percent is emitted by the [growing / grown]number of cows and pigs.



276. Methane is responsible [about for / for about] 16 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions.



277. Methane is responsible [to / for] about 16 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions.



278. Statistics [vary / vary about] the exact amount of methane emitted by a cow, but it is generally agreed that a single cow releases up to 120 kilograms of methane per year, more than any other domestic animal.



279. Statistics vary about the exact amount of methane emitted by a cow, but it is generally agreed [that / what] a single cow releases up to 120 kilograms of methane per year, more than any other domestic animal.



280. That doesn't seem like much, but experts warn that methane is over 20 times as [powerful / powerfully] as carbon dioxide in trapping the sun's heat in the atmosphere.



281. The [increasing / increased] demand for meat and meat products brings trouble not only to the natural resources under our feet but also to those overhead in the atmosphere.



282. The increasing demand for meat and meat products brings trouble not only to the natural resources under our feet but also [to / for] those overhead in the atmosphere.


 

EVH1 6-6


283. A cow does this [about for / for about] eight hours on average every day during which it keeps burping and passing gas, giving off methane into the atmosphere.



284. A cow does this for about eight hours on average every day [during them / during which] it keeps burping and passing gas, giving off methane into the atmosphere.



285. A cow does this for about eight hours on average every day during which it keeps burping and passing gas, [given / giving] off methane into the atmosphere.



286. As people prefer [increased / increasing] animal protein in their meals, our land, rivers, and oceans are bound to suffer with no solution in sight.



287. As people prefer increased animal protein in their meals, our land, rivers, and oceans are [bounding / bound] to suffer with no solution in sight.



288. As people prefer increased animal protein in their meals, our land, rivers, and oceans are bound to [suffer / suffer with] no solution in sight.



289. Imagine the enormous amount of methane emitted from the [burping / burped] mouths of 1.5 billion cows on six continents.



290. Koreans ate an average of 11 kilograms of meat per person in 1980, but the average [increased / increased to] 51 kilograms in 2014.



291. Methane is produced in a cow's special [digestive / digestiveness]system.



292. The food digested in the first two rooms is sent to the mouth [to be chewed / being chewed] again, and then sent to the third and the fourth rooms.



293. The world's livestock industries are growing at an [unprecedenting / unprecedented] rate due to population growth and rising incomes.



294. The world's livestock industries are growing at an unprecedented rate [due to / due for] population growth and rising incomes.



295. The world's population is [predicting / predicted] to reach around nine billion by 2050.



296. The world's population is predicted to reach [to / X] around nine billion by 2050.



[ANSWER]
1. that 2. to 3. to 4. following 5. changing 6. Looking 7. to 8. around on 9. teaching 10. hold


11. it 12. cramp 13. which 14. eventually 15. it 16. arm 17. the heavier 18. asked 19. look 20. smiled


21. with 22. placed 23. pots 24. struggling with 25. with 26. frustrated 27. Turning 28. boiling 29. objects 30. had faced


31. brought about 32. about by 33. changed 34. itself 35. making 36. hardened 37. being boiled 38. had 39. had traveled 40. hearing


41. asked 42. looking 43. himself 44. proud 45. which 46. starting 47. expressing 48. Behind him were an 49. Whenever 50. finish


51. done 52. proud 53. holding 54. finishing 55. waved 56. in 57. before 58. upon which 59. to build 60. by which


61. pass 62. linking 63. following 64. of 65. high 66. who 67. willing 68. to 69. can 70. X


71. of whom 72. heightened 73. play 74. handed 75. to 76. shaped 77. drying 78. stred 79. hang 80. refers to


81. baked 82. dried 83. let 84. baked 85. is 86. because of 87. appear at 88. being 89. to 90. moving


91. where 92. hooked 93. believed 94. to 95. varies from 96. to 97. practiced 98. practiced 99. who 100. competitive


101. winning 102. preparing 103. of 104. amazing 105. is 106. Whatever 107. in about 108. why 109. clocking 110. that


111. the more 112. which 113. heavy 114. called 115. why 116. is 117. which 118. elements 119. with which 120. which


121. results in 122. going 123. to keep 124. covering 125. hits 126. covering 127. X 128. catch 129. direct 130. towards


131. unwanted 132. called 133. which 134. thrown 135. making 136. passing 137. framed 138. purchased 139. quoting 140. quoting


141. mixed 142. huge 143. to 144. displayed 145. displayed 146. boarding 147. wounded 148. were 149. were 150. herself


151. recovered 152. to save 153. nursing 154. who 155. was 156. were 157. supposed 158. herself 159. help 160. wounded


161. because of 162. wounded 163. were 164. were 165. who 166. doctors 167. that 168. despite 169. numbing 170. wounded


171. why 172. amazing 173. amazing 174. had done 175. that 176. had spent 177. which 178. were 179. born 180. compared


181. to 182. wounded 183. bring 184. to 185. dying 186. related 187. be 188. following 189. is 190. into


191. whatever 192. of 193. of 194. to 195. framing 196. picked 197. it up 198. started 199. sewing 200. sewing


201. turned 202. a means 203. of 204. draw 205. being 206. itself 207. A means 208. waiting 209. increasingly 210. amazing


211. so 212. whoever 213. which 214. be 215. borrowed 216. to 217. depending 218. depending 219. respond in 220. respond


221. inspired 222. add 223. put 224. what 225. were 226. were 227. which 228. alive 229. tells 230. astonishing


231. energizing 232. of 233. so 234. whoever 235. is 236. story-telling 237. themselves 238. made 239. X 240. of over


241. confined 242. fed 243. grown 244. as 245. around 246. which 247. to grow 248. which 249. drained 250. drained


251. to 252. feed for 253. it 254. for 255. be 256. extended 257. results in 258. increased 259. polluting 260. X


261. to 262. result in 263. which 264. X 265. contributes to 266. what 267. as 268. occurred in 269. when 270. resulted in


271. in over 272. suffocating 273. Concentrated 274. Concentrated 275. growing 276. for about 277. for 278. vary about 279. that 280. powerful


281. increasing 282. to 283. for about 284. during which 285. giving 286. increased 287. bound 288. suffer with 289. burping 290. increased to


291. digestive 292. to be chewed 293. unprecedented 294. due to 295. predicted 296. X 

Comment +0

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evh | Since 2005 임희재 | 블루티쳐학원 | 01033383436 | 200710 22:34:52

 

GRAMMAR

정답에 O표시, 이유를 쓰세요.



영비홍 1-1


1. He has set his mind on studying psychology in college as magic basically [deals / deals with] people's minds.



2. He watches magic performance shows almost every day and [keep / keeps] practicing magic tricks until he can perform them perfectly.



3. Here's [that / what] I received from them.



4. I wish I [have / had] a plan for my future.


 

영비홍 1-2


5. To make the [right / rightly] career choice, you have to learn about yourself first.



6. You can use self-assessment tests, often [calling / called] career tests, to better understand yourself.



7. You can use self-assessment tests, often called career tests, [for better / to better] understand yourself.



8. Your values, interests, and personality will make some careers more [suitable / suitably] for you and others less appropriate.



9. [making / to make] the right career choice, you have to learn about yourself first.


 

영비홍 1-3


10. After researching, you can eliminate careers [in them / in which] you are no longer interested.



11. After researching, you can eliminate careers in which you are no longer [interesting / interested].



12. Now, you should make a list of occupations [basing / based] on your self-assessment test results.



13. You should identify who they are and [conduct / conducts] interviews with them or ask them for a job-shadowing opportunity.



14. You should identify who they are and conduct interviews with them or ask them for a [job-shadowing / job-shadowed] opportunity.


 

영비홍 1-4


15. He also explained what needs [to be done / being done] to create an album, from planning the album to arranging, recording, and editing the music.



16. He also explained what needs to be done to create an album, from planning the album [for / to] arranging, recording, and editing the music.



17. He also explained what needs to be done to create an album, from planning the album to [arrang / arranging], recording, and editing the music.



18. He also explained what needs to be done to create an album, from planning the album to arranging, [recorded / recording], and editing the music.



19. He also explained what needs to be done to create an album, from planning the album to arranging, recording, and [edit / editing] the music.



20. I left home very [exciting / excited].



21. More than half of [how / what] he said sounded like a foreign language to me.



22. More than half of [that / what] he said sounded like a foreign language to me.



23. The studio was full of the [lately / latest] equipment, whose size and complexity amazed me.



24. The studio was full of the latest equipment, [where / whose] size and complexity amazed me.



25. The studio was full of the latest equipment, [who / whose] size and complexity amazed me.



26. The studio was full of the latest equipment, whose size and complexity [amazing / amazed] me.



27. [Not only I was getting / Not only was I getting] the day off of school, but I was also getting a chance to see in person how a music album is made.


 

영비홍 1-5


28. It took a whole day [finishing / to finish] one song!



29. My day at X-Music helped me realize that love of music is not the only thing [requiring / required] to become a music producer: patience, leadership, and communication skills on top of a good ear for music are important skills to learn, too.



30. My uncle sat down in the middle next to the composer when the [recording / recorded] started.



31. They didn't like this or that about the music and [having / had] the singers repeat the same line again and again, all of which sounded perfect to me.



32. They didn't like this or that about the music and had the singers repeat the same line again and again, all [of them / of which] sounded perfect to me.



33. We headed to the [recording / recorded] booth, where two singers were recording music for their rock band.



34. We headed to the recording booth, [there / where] two singers were recording music for their rock band.


 

영비홍 1-RM1


35. I put a small piece into my mouth, [press / pressing] it lightly against the roof of my mouth, and wait until it melts.



36. I put a small piece into my mouth, press it lightly against the roof of my mouth, and [wait / waits] until it melts.



37. I taste chocolate and evaluate its quality, [telled / telling] good chocolate from bad, faulty chocolate.



38. The evaluation process begins with smelling samples and [breaking / breaked] them to see if they sound crisp.



39. The evaluation process begins with smelling samples and breaking them to see [if / that] they sound crisp.



40. Then I [breath / breathe] out through my nose to identify the smell.



41. Then [come / comes] the actual tasting.



42. Then comes the actual [tasting / tasted].


 

영비홍 1-RM2


43. As soon as one is [done / doing], I spit it back out and wait for a while.



44. As soon as one is done, I spit it back out and [wait / waits] for a while.



45. I have to keep my mouth [ready / readyly] and lively so that my evaluation may be as objective as possible.



46. I have to keep my mouth ready and lively [too / so] that my evaluation may be as objective as possible.



47. I have to keep my mouth ready and lively so that my evaluation may be as [objective / objectively] as possible.



48. Keen observation skills and a good [understanding / understanded] of basic concepts of chemistry are required, and a degree in Food Technology is recommended.


 

영비홍 2-1


49. Here are some tips from three teenage fashion leaders on how to experiment and [find / finds] your own style.



50. Likewise, you can showcase your own charm and individuality with your own unique style, [it / which] can become a part of your personal image: a signature style.



51. Think of Steve Jobs, and a figure of a man [wearing / weared] a black shirt and blue jeans might pop into your head.



52. Wide pants, a [striping / striped] shirt, a baseball cap: walk down the street and you'll see what's in fashion.


 

영비홍 2-2


53. If you like a certain color, you can try various shades like I did, and [find / finds] one that suits you.



54. One day, I realized that green has many shades, so I experimented with various shades of green and eventually, I found that a deep [green / greenly]helps me look great.



55. One day, I realized that green has many shades, so I experimented with various shades of green and eventually, I found that a deep green helps me look [great / greatly].


 

영비홍 2-3


56. Choosing a mixture of analogous and complementary colors together, [calling / called] split complementary colors, can be tricky but results in a calmer look than a combination of complementary colors.



57. Choosing a mixture of analogous and complementary colors together, [calling / called] split complementary colors, can be tricky but results in a calmer look than a combination of complementary colors.



58. Choosing a mixture of analogous and complementary colors together, called split complementary colors, [to / can] be tricky but results in a calmer look than a combination of complementary colors.



59. Choosing a mixture of analogous and complementary colors together, called split complementary colors, can be tricky but [result / results] in a calmer look than a combination of complementary colors.



60. Choosing a mixture of analogous and complementary colors together, called split complementary colors, can be tricky but [results from / results in]a calmer look than a combination of complementary colors.



61. Combining analogous colors [is / are] one of the easiest ways of matching colors that will give you an elegant look, for example, a yellow shirt on top of green pants.



62. Combining analogous colors is one of the easiest ways of matching [color / colors] that will give you an elegant look, for example, a yellow shirt on top of green pants.



63. There are three simple ways to use the color wheel: combining analogous colors, [choosed / choosing] complementary colors, and mixing together analogous and complementary colors.



64. There are three simple ways to use the color wheel: combining analogous colors, choosing complementary colors, and [mix / mixing]together analogous and complementary colors.



65. Unless your signature style is to wear colors that clash, [used / using] the color wheel will help you choose colors that are natural and pleasing to the eye.



66. Unless your signature style is to wear colors that clash, using the color wheel will help you choose colors that are natural and [pleasing / pleased] to the eye.



67. [Choos / Choosing] a mixture of analogous and complementary colors together, called split complementary colors, can be tricky but results in a calmer look than a combination of complementary colors.



68. [Choos / Choosing] complementary colors, like wearing a green skirt with red shoes, creates a bold impression.



69. [Combin / Combining] analogous colors is one of the easiest ways of matching colors that will give you an elegant look, for example, a yellow shirt on top of green pants.


 

영비홍 2-4


70. I spend a lot of time at school in my uniform, so I don't pay too much attention [whating / to what] I wear.



71. I spend a lot of time at school in my uniform, so I don't pay too much attention to [that / what] I wear.



72. Mixing and matching clothes [is / are] a lot of fun!


 

영비홍 2-5


73. AFTER/ The frames do not cover the eyebrows, [made / making] him look less strict.



74. BEFORE/ The frames cover the eyebrows, [made / making] him look strict.



75. Eyebrows can be so expressive, and [cover / covering] them with your frames may hide the feelings you express, eventually making you look strict.



76. I spend a lot of time [choosing / to choose] my eye glasses because they can be an important part of my look.



77. One of the simplest ways to develop your own style is to pay attention to [accessorie / accessories] like shoes, hats, glasses, or watches.



78. People tend to make purchasing decisions about frames in terms of material or color, but [notes / note] many think about their eyebrows.



79. When I choose frames, I think [to / of] my face shape.


 

영비홍 2-6


80. A few artistic souls went further to begin dancing in klompen, [it / which] makes a pleasant series of rhythms, eventually providing a basis for modern tap dancing.



81. Climate plays a key role in [how / what] we wear, and the way we live as a whole.



82. Climate plays a key role in [that / what] we wear, and the way we live as a whole.



83. In India, [there / where] staying cool is very important, a pair of wide pants made of light and soft fabric seemed to be the perfect way to stay cool.



84. In India, where staying [cool / coolly] is very important, a pair of wide pants made of light and soft fabric seemed to be the perfect way to stay cool.



85. In India, where staying cool is very important, a pair of wide pants made [of / from] light and soft fabric seemed to be the perfect way to stay cool.



86. In the Netherlands, for example, [there / where] one fourth of its land area is located below sea level, an interesting form of shoes developed as a way of getting around the muddy roads.



87. In the Netherlands, for example, where one fourth of its land area is located below sea level, an [interesting / interested] form of shoes developed as a way of getting around the muddy roads.



88. In the Netherlands, for example, where one fourth of its land area is located below sea level, an [interesting / interested] form of shoes developed as a way of getting around the muddy roads.



89. It was originally [making / made] from seal skin, and its surface had to be cared for regularly with fish oil for constant water resistance.



90. It was originally made from [seal / to seal] skin, and its surface had to be cared for regularly with fish oil for constant water resistance.



91. It was originally made from seal skin, and its surface had [to be cared / being cared] for regularly with fish oil for constant water resistance.



92. Now, it is a modern winter necessity, [come / coming] in a variety of styles and colors.



93. The British rulers at the time liked the idea and [spread / spreads] the Indian pajamas to the rest of the world, helping them to arrive in our bedrooms.



94. The British rulers at the time liked the idea and spread the Indian pajamas to the rest of the world, [helped / helping] them to arrive in our bedrooms.



95. The Inuit had to fight the cold and the wind, and came up with the idea of [wearing / weared] a heavy jacket called an anorak.



96. The Inuit had to fight the cold and the wind, and came up with the idea of wearing a heavy jacket [calling / called] an anorak.



97. The old saying [that / what] necessity is the mother of invention does make sense, and some good inventions seem to spread quickly and easily.



98. Wooden shoes, [calling / called] klompen, were the perfect tool to keep farmers' feet dry while working in wet areas.



99. Wooden shoes, called klompen, [was / were] the perfect tool to keep farmers' feet dry while working in wet areas.



100. Wooden shoes, called klompen, were the perfect tool to keep farmers' feet dry while [working / worked] in wet areas.


 

영비홍 3-1


101. It makes sense to try to live in a way that does not harm the environment, but [is / are] it easy to go green?


 

영비홍 3-2


102. It is a special garbage bag that can be filled with [using / used], but still usable items.



103. People can help [them / themselves] to anything they like.



104. Placing the bag [on outside / outside on] the pavement makes whatever is in it available to anyone in the community.



105. Placing the bag outside on the pavement makes [however / whatever]is in it available to anyone in the community.



106. [Place / Placing] the bag outside on the pavement makes whatever is in it available to anyone in the community.


 

영비홍 3-3


107. Having been [founding / founded] to tackle this problem on a local scale, the online platform, "foodsharing∙de" allows extra food in your fridge or cupboard to be distributed to neighbors.



108. Having been founded to tackle this problem on a local scale, the online platform, "foodsharing∙de" allows extra food in your fridge or cupboard [to be distributed / being distributed] to neighbors.



109. This project may change the way people think about food: if food is not shared, [it / which] is wasted.



110. [Having founded / Having been founded] to tackle this problem on a local scale, the online platform, "foodsharing∙de" allows extra food in your fridge or cupboard to be distributed to neighbors.


 

영비홍 3-4


111. A cookie forms the main structure, with a white chocolate layer on the inside and a thin layer of sugar paper on the [outside / outside it].



112. Every year, people in the U.S. use over 100 billion disposable cups, and Koreans dispose [over of / of over] 15 billion cups each year.



113. This structure allows you to drink coffee without finding yourself [to hold / holding] a soaked mess.



114. This structure allows you to drink coffee without finding yourself holding a [soaking / soaked] mess.



115. Waste Not Drink and [eat / eats] it!



116. You can think [to / of] it as a treat for coffee!



117. [Use / Using] disposable cups may be convenient, but it is not necessarily eco-friendly.


 

영비홍 3-5


118. A designer thought [if that / that if] he could create fonts that have tiny holes in them, he might be able to make more efficient use of the amount of ink used.



119. A designer thought that if he [have / could] create fonts that have tiny holes in them, he might be able to make more efficient use of the amount of ink used.



120. A designer thought that if he could create fonts that have tiny holes in them, he might be able to make more [efficient / efficiently] use of the amount of ink used.



121. Another green strategy is to use less ink, [it / which] is what many people already do.



122. But what if you [have / could] take it a step further?



123. Many green strategies [focus / focus on] using less paper, like printing on both sides.



124. What can you [to do / do to] go green when you have 500 photocopies to make?


 

영비홍 3-6


125. It is about becoming aware [of / that] your own wasteful ways and then helping others become aware of theirs.



126. When you go one step further and [help / helps] others do them too, you are an activist and big changes can happen.


 

영비홍 4-1


127. However, I forced [me / myself] to stay awake to begin my trip in earnest.



128. However, I forced myself to stay awake [begining / to begin] my trip in earnest.



129. I had never been abroad by [me / myself], and I was a bit worried, but after the long flight for twelve hours, I was pleased to be greeted by my cousin at Leonardo da Vinci International Airport in Rome.



130. I had never been abroad by myself, and I was a bit worried, but after the long flight for twelve hours, I was [pleasing / pleased] to be greeted by my cousin at Leonardo da Vinci International Airport in Rome.



131. I had never been abroad by myself, and I was a bit worried, but after the long flight for twelve hours, I was [pleasing / pleased] to be greeted by my cousin at Leonardo da Vinci International Airport in Rome.



132. I had never been abroad by myself, and I was a bit worried, but after the long flight for twelve hours, I was pleased [to be greeted / being greeted] by my cousin at Leonardo da Vinci International Airport in Rome.



133. I was thrilled when my cousin, Suji, [inviting / invited] me to Italy, a country in southern Europe that looks like a boot.



134. She had a few days [from off / off from] studying music in a conservatory, so we could spend a week together in Rome and Venice.


 

영비홍 4-2


135. As I reached [to / X] the top of the stairs inside, I looked down and I could almost hear the cheer of the crowd.



136. As I reached the top of the stairs [inside / to], I looked down and I could almost hear the cheer of the crowd.



137. It [amazing / amazed] me to think that people could build such a structure without modern construction equipment.



138. Nowadays, we can only see a part of [how / what] was once the greatest structure in the ancient world.



139. The Colosseum has eighty arches [through them / through which]about fifty thousand people could go in and out in fifteen minutes!



140. The Colosseum has eighty arches through which about fifty thousand people could [go / go in] and out in fifteen minutes!


 

영비홍 4-3


141. I found [it / them] interesting that even on the other side of the world, people still wish for simple things like happiness, love, and marriage.



142. I found it [interesting / interested] that even on the other side of the world, people still wish for simple things like happiness, love, and marriage.



143. I found it [interesting / interested] that even on the other side of the world, people still wish for simple things like happiness, love, and marriage.



144. I threw one over my shoulder, [wished / wishing] a return to Italy someday.



145. Legend says that a single coin [throwing / thrown] into the fountain will ensure a return to Rome, a second coin will bring true love, and a third coin marriage!



146. Suji and I walked along a path [leading / leaded] away from the Colosseum and heard the sound of falling water.


 

영비홍 4-4


147. After [looking / looked] around, we walked out to see many people lined up in front of a small store where green apple gelato was served.



148. After looking [around / to], we walked out to see many people lined up in front of a small store where green apple gelato was served.



149. Although I knew photographs are not allowed, the masterpiece was [so / too] impressive that I almost took one.



150. I was [overwhelming / overwhelmed], however, by the collection of sculptures and paintings in the Vatican Museums.



151. In fact, it takes only thirty minutes [walking / to walk] from one border to the other!



152. In fact, it takes only thirty minutes to walk from one border [for / to] the other!



153. It is known [to / as] the smallest state in the world.



154. Suji convinced me to wait in line [over for / for over] twenty minutes saying that it would be worth it.



155. The Creation of Adam, one of Michelangelo's [masterpiece / masterpieces], on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, still lingers in my mind.


 

영비홍 4-5

 

영비홍 4-6


156. After [looking / looked] around for a while, I bought small glasses for my parents.



157. After looking [for around / around for] a while, I bought small glasses for my parents.



158. After some wandering, I was [enough lucky / lucky enough] to meet a group of tourists my age from Britain.



159. But what truly made me [stop / to stop] and stare in wonder were the beautiful buildings surrounding all three sides of the square.



160. I [have never seen / had never seen] so many pigeons in my life.



161. I said goodbye to my British friends and [walking / walked] to St_ Mark's Square, one of the prime attractions of Venice.



162. I said goodbye to my British friends and walked to St_ Mark's Square, one of the prime [attraction / attractions] of Venice.



163. The bridge [it / itself] was as elegant as people say it is, but I was more impressed by the beautiful view of the canal from the steps of the bridge.



164. The bridge itself was as elegant as people say it is, but I was more [impressing / impressed] by the beautiful view of the canal from the steps of the bridge.



165. They were [so / too] used to being around people that they would wait until people weren't paying attention and then steal their crackers!



166. They were so used to [be / being] around people that they would wait until people weren't paying attention and then steal their crackers!



167. They were so used to being around people that they would wait until people weren't paying attention and then [steal / stealing] their crackers!



168. Within moments, the [winding / winded] alleys made my map almost useless.



169. Within moments, the winding alleys made my map almost [useless / uselessly].


 

영비홍 4-7


170. I was [disappointing / disappointed] to find out the fare to ride the Grand Canal by myself was so expensive that I could not afford it.



171. I was [disappointing / disappointed] to find out the fare to ride the Grand Canal by myself was so expensive that I could not afford it.



172. I was disappointed to find out the fare to ride the Grand Canal by [me / myself] was so expensive that I could not afford it.



173. I was disappointed to find out the fare to ride the Grand Canal by myself was [so / too] expensive that I could not afford it.



174. My trip to Venice would not be complete without a gondola ride along the Grand Canal, [it / which] snakes through the city in a large S shape.



175. The moment I was turning back, I saw my British tourist friends walking [forward / toward] the ticket office.



176. We had a nice chat, took some great pictures, and [exchanging / exchanged] email addresses before we got off the gondola.


 

영비홍 4-8


177. People say that the world is a book, and that those who do not travel read only one of the [page / pages] in it.


 

영비홍 5-1


178. On October 13, 2010, thirty three Chilean miners who had been [buriing / buried] inside the San José mine for 69 days were finally rescued.



179. On October 13, 2010, thirty three Chilean miners who had been [burying / buried] inside the San José mine for 69 days were finally rescued.



180. The [Amazing / Amazed] Story of the 33 / Alone in the Dark.



181. The [Amazing / Amazed] Story of the 33 / Alone in the Dark.



182. The miners [locking / locked] in below did not give up in the dark, nor did their families above ground surrender to despair.



183. The miners locked in below did not give up in the dark, nor [their families / did their families] above ground surrender to despair.


 

영비홍 5-2


184. A massive piece of the nearby mountain [have broken / had broken]off, burying almost all the layers of the mine.



185. A massive piece of the nearby mountain had broken [off / to], burying almost all the layers of the mine.



186. A massive piece of the nearby mountain had broken off, [buryed / burying] almost all the layers of the mine.



187. A small exploratory hole was drilled on August 22, and the camera captured a message that said, "We are still [live / alive].



188. Almost immediately after the vibrations began, they heard a sudden huge explosion, and the whole mine filled up [with / for] dust and rock.



189. As the days passed, Chileans grew increasingly uncertain that any of the miners [have survived / had survived].



190. On August 5, 2010, [around at / at around] lunch break, miners digging for copper and gold started to feel vibrations in the earth.



191. Soon, a video camera was sent down 700 meters deep and [capturing / captured] the first images of the miners, all clearly in good health.


 

영비홍 5-3


192. Another factor which bothered the miners severely was the [high / highly] heat and humidity of the shelter.



193. Each miner [have lost / had lost] an average of 8 kilograms by the time they were rescued.



194. For eighteen days, each person had to live on two spoonfuls of tuna, a mouthful of milk, bits of crackers, and a bite of [canning / canned] fruit every other day.



195. The miners were lucky to have an air tunnel that allowed enough fresh air [reaching / to reach] them.



196. The miners were lucky to have an air tunnel that allowed enough fresh air to reach [to / X] them.



197. They also [have broken / had broken] trucks from which they could charge the batteries of their head lamps.



198. They also had broken trucks [from them / from which] they could charge the batteries of their head lamps.


 

영비홍 5-4


199. For example, José Henríquez, a religious man, tried to keep morale up, and Yonni Barrios, [whose / who] had had some medical training, helped other miners with their health problems.



200. For example, José Henríquez, a religious man, tried to keep morale up, and Yonni Barrios, who had had some medical training, [helping / helped]other miners with their health problems.



201. For this purpose, a [special / specially] designed capsule was built.



202. It createn a tunnel [enough large / large enough] to lift them one by one.



203. More than 1,400 news reporters from all over the world, together with the family members of the miners, [gathering / gathered] to watch the rescue process.



204. More than 1,400 news reporters from all over the world, together with the family members of the miners, gathered to watch the rescue [process / to process].



205. They all knew [if that / that if] their social structure broke down, their problems would become more serious and did what they could do best.



206. They all knew that if their social structure broke down, their problems [have / would] become more serious and did what they could do best.



207. They all knew that if their social structure broke down, their problems would become more serious and did [that / what] they could do best.



208. They organized [them / themselves] into a society where each person had one vote.


 

영비홍 5-5


209. "The 69 days [during them / during which] we tried so hard were not useless.



210. "The 69 days during which we tried so hard [was / were] not useless.



211. Luis Urzúa, [whose / who] had taken a major role as a democratic leader while underground, was the last one to come up to the surface on October 13.



212. Luis Urzúa, who [have taken / had taken] a major role as a democratic leader while underground, was the last one to come up to the surface on October 13.



213. Luis Urzúa, who had taken a major role as a democratic leader while underground, [was / were] the last one to come up to the surface on October 13.



214. Luis Urzúa, who had taken a major role as a democratic leader while underground, [was / were] the last one to come up to the surface on October 13.



215. Luis Urzúa, who had taken a major role as a democratic leader while underground, [were / was] the last one to come up to the surface on October 13.



216. On October 12, the first rescue worker was sent downward to the miners, [whose / who] greeted him with nervous relief.



217. Then, the rescuers and the [rescuing / rescued] began singing the Chilean national anthem with the thousands of joyous people who came to support the operation, celebrating the heroics and the humanity of all those involved.



218. Then, the rescuers and the rescued began singing the Chilean national anthem with the thousands of joyous people who came to support the operation, [celebrated / celebrating] the heroics and the humanity of all those involved.



219. They had been [trapping / trapped] for so long that their first priority was to get medical attention.



220. They had been [trapping / trapped] for so long that their first priority was to get medical attention.



221. They had been trapped for [so / too] long that their first priority was to get medical attention.


 

영비홍 5-RM


222. In an emergency, such as the capsule [getting / getted] stuck in the rescue hole, the bottom could be opened from the inside so that the miner could be lowered back down to the shelter.



223. In an emergency, such as the capsule getting stuck in the rescue hole, the bottom could be [opening / opened] from the inside so that the miner could be lowered back down to the shelter.



224. In an emergency, such as the capsule getting stuck in the rescue hole, the bottom could be opened from the inside [too / so] that the miner could be lowered back down to the shelter.



225. It also had a communication system [too / so] that the miners could speak to the surface while being lifted up.



226. It also had a communication system so that the miners could speak to the surface while [lifted / being lifted] up.



227. Thanks to the capsule and the [organizing / organized] rescue efforts, the miners put an end to their life of darkness.



228. The bottom of the capsule held three tanks of air, [it / which] would provide enough air for one person to breathe for about 90 minutes.



229. The bottom of the capsule held three tanks of air, which would provide enough air for one person to [breath / breathe] for about 90 minutes.



230. The bottom of the capsule held three tanks of air, which would provide enough air for one person to breathe [about for / for about] 90 minutes.



231. The device was nearly 3.95 meters [high / highly] on the outside, and the inside was 1.9 meters high and about 51 centimeters across, which was just enough room for an adult male.



232. The device was nearly 3.95 meters high on the [outside / to], and the inside was 1.9 meters high and about 51 centimeters across, which was just enough room for an adult male.



233. The device was nearly 3.95 meters high on the outside, and the inside was 1.9 meters high and about 51 centimeters across, [it / which] was just enough room for an adult male.



234. When [mobilizing / mobilized] by the rescue team, the Fénix was equipped with an emergency oxygen supply.



235. When they stepped out of the capsule door to meet their [loving / loved] ones, the designers of the Fénix shared in the joy;.



236. When they stepped out of the capsule door to meet their loved ones, the designers of the Fénix [sharing / shared] in the joy;.



237. [Painting / Painted] in the red, white, and blue colors of Chile, the Fénix looked like a military missile.



238. [Thanks to / Thanks for] the capsule and the organized rescue efforts, the miners put an end to their life of darkness.



239. their efforts [resulted from / resulted in] the saving of 33 lives.


 

영비홍 6-1


240. Advertisements cover cars and buildings, TV commercials shout slogans, and pop-up promotions on the Internet can be [annoying / annoyed].



241. At the same time, without decisions to make, [beed / being] a consumer would be easier but much less interesting.



242. At the same time, without decisions to make, [is / being] a consumer would be easier but much less interesting.



243. At the same time, without decisions to make, being a consumer [will / would] be easier but much less interesting.



244. At the same time, without decisions to make, being a consumer would be easier but much less [interesting / interested].



245. Since we can't have everything we want, we have to make the resources that we have go as far [as / so] possible.



246. [Be / Being] a consumer is tough these days.


 

영비홍 6-2


247. If the jeans [have / were] originally 100 but are now on sale for 80, the lower price would lead more customers to consider buying the jeans and spending another 20 on a T-shirt, too.



248. If the jeans were originally 100 but [is / are] now on sale for 80, the lower price would lead more customers to consider buying the jeans and spending another 20 on a T-shirt, too.



249. If the jeans were originally 100 but are now on sale for 80, the lower price would lead more customers [considering / to consider] buying the jeans and spending another 20 on a T-shirt, too.



250. If the jeans were originally 100 but are now on sale for 80, the lower price would lead more customers to consider [to buy / buying] the jeans and spending another 20 on a T-shirt, too.



251. Sales reduce inventory size, [made / making] room for the store to buy more stuff to sell, and they attract customers.



252. The bottom line is that sales attract customers that might not have made purchases at the [regular / regularly] price, and they motivate customers to spend because their money can now buy more.



253. The bottom line is that sales attract customers that might not have made purchases at the regular price, and they motivate customers [spending / to spend] because their money can now buy more.


 

영비홍 6-3


254. Is this worth [payed / paying] 25, 50, or even 100 more?



255. Well, [what / that]'s up to each individual to decide on his or her own.



256. When advertisers associate appealing images with certain products, consumers may buy the products to associate [them / themselves] with those images.


 

영비홍 6-4


257. "Have you ever been [offering / offered] to buy something that you had not planned on buying?



258. "Have you ever been [offering / offered] to buy something that you had not planned on buying?



259. "Have you ever been offered to buy something that you [have not planned / had not planned] on buying?



260. A sales clerk may make suggestions to you about [how / what] else to buy in addition to your originally planned purchase.



261. A sales clerk may make suggestions to you about what else to buy [in addition / in addition to] your originally planned purchase.



262. A sales clerk may make suggestions to you about what else to buy in addition [to / for] your originally planned purchase.



263. No one can tell you [that / what] you shouldn't buy something that really suits you, but remember that the arrangement of items in a store is not random.



264. No one can tell you that you shouldn't buy something that really suits you, but [remember / remembers] that the arrangement of items in a store is not random.



265. Product placement seems to [be / have] been designed to give subtle suggestions to consumers while they shop.



266. Product placement seems to have been [designing / designed] to give subtle suggestions to consumers while they shop.



267. Product placement seems to have been [designing / designed] to give subtle suggestions to consumers while they shop.



268. This is [calling / called] up-selling and it's designed to be not only helpful for you, but also for the store's bottom line.



269. This is called [up-selling / up-selled] and it's designed to be not only helpful for you, but also for the store's bottom line.


 

영비홍 6-5


270. "[Instead of / Instead for] deliberating, you choose the easy way and make your decisions automatically.



271. Furthermore, if a cashier recommends [to someth / something], you may feel as if you "needed" it all along.



272. Well, when your brain is loaded with too many decisions [making / to make], it may go on "autopilot.



273. Well, when your brain is loaded with too many decisions to make, [it / which] may go on "autopilot.



274. What's going [in on / on in] your head?


 

영비홍 6-6


275. In the jungle of information, you may feel [overwhelmed / overwhelming].



276. In the jungle of information, you may feel [overwhelming / overwhelmed].



277. In the jungle of information, you may feel [overwhelming / overwhelmed].



278. There isn't a "right" answer for everyone because we have different tastes and different values, but the first step is to be aware [of / that] your "autopilot" mode.



279. Would my money [be / is] better spent on something else?



280. [Be / Being] a smart consumer is not something that comes naturally.



281. [preventing / to prevent] this, ask yourself these questions before you make any purchase.


 

영비홍 6-RM


282. At the same time, consumers benefit [because of / because for] the variety of food that is available.



283. Customers can pay online, select a time, [stand / standing] on an 'X' marked outside the building, and wait for the parachute with their name on it.



284. Customers can pay online, select a time, stand on an 'X' marked outside the building, and [wait / waits] for the parachute with their name on it.



285. Food trucks can move [around / to], and many sell food that originated in other countries like Mexico, China, Brazil, and Turkey.



286. For example, one of many recently popular food [truck / trucks], called Kogi, sells a mix of BBQ from Korea and food from Mexico.



287. For example, one of many recently popular food trucks, [calling / called]Kogi, sells a mix of BBQ from Korea and food from Mexico.



288. For example, one of many recently popular food trucks, [calling / called]Kogi, sells a mix of BBQ from Korea and food from Mexico.



289. For example, one of many recently popular food trucks, called Kogi, [sell / sells] a mix of BBQ from Korea and food from Mexico.



290. In the [crowding / crowded] cities in Vietnam, people usually keep their doors open, so cooking and eating food on the street is natural.



291. In the crowded cities in Vietnam, people usually keep their doors [open / openly], so cooking and eating food on the street is natural.



292. People run street food booths around the world for a number of reasons, such as to get an opportunity to open their own business on a budget, [for sell / to sell] food in a lively place, or to promote their own special recipe.



293. People run street food booths around the world for a number of reasons, such as to get an opportunity to open their own business on a budget, to sell food in a lively place, or [to / X] promote their own special recipe.



294. These recipes are often handed down from the mother of the family [for / to] her children.



295. This gave [rise / rise to] a unique restaurant called Jafflechutes, which sells sandwiches by parachute.



296. This gave rise to a unique restaurant [calling / called] Jafflechutes, which sells sandwiches by parachute.



297. This gave rise to a unique restaurant called Jafflechutes, [it / which] sells sandwiches by parachute.



298. [Instead of / Instead for] customers coming up, they thought why not send sandwiches down?


 

영비홍 7-1


299. Some scientists [have been studyed / have been studying] how the lowly mosquito is able to bite us without us knowing.



300. This is what "biomimetics" is [about / about it].


 

영비홍 7-2


301. People [who / which] study biomimetics look to solve human problems by copying how nature does it.


 

영비홍 7-3


302. Inspired by termite mounds, Mike Pearce, an African architect, [constructing / constructed] a building in Zimbabwe and another in Australia using the same passive cooling techniques.



303. Some termite mounds can reach [to / X] 7 meters in height.



304. Termite mounds are built in a way that hot air rises out and cool air comes [through in / in through] the bottom.



305. There is another [amazing / amazed] fact about termite mounds:.



306. These buildings were 10 cheaper to build because less money was spent on air [moving / to mov] equipment, and this design reduced cooling energy costs by 35.



307. [Inspiring / Inspired] by termite mounds, Mike Pearce, an African architect, constructed a building in Zimbabwe and another in Australia using the same passive cooling techniques.



308. even though the temperature outside can [vary / vary from] 40 degrees Celsius during the day to 1 degree Celsius at night, it is always about 30 degrees Celsius inside.



309. even though the temperature outside can vary from 40 degrees Celsius during the day [for / to] 1 degree Celsius at night, it is always about 30 degrees Celsius inside.



310. even though the temperature outside can vary from 40 degrees Celsius during the day to 1 degree Celsius at night, [it / which] is always about 30 degrees Celsius inside.



311. even though the temperature outside can vary from 40 degrees Celsius during the day to 1 degree Celsius at night, it is always about 30 degrees Celsius [inside / inside it].


 

영비홍 7-4


312. The end result is that the airplane winglets [help keep / help keeping]planes smaller, saving about 10 in fuel costs.



313. The end result is that the airplane winglets help keep planes smaller, [saved / saving] about 10 in fuel costs.



314. The engineers thought [if that / that if] it worked for birds, why not for airplanes?



315. The engineers thought [that / what] if it worked for birds, why not for airplanes?



316. These are [calling / called] "winglets" and they may look neat, but they have measurable benefits.



317. They found that the tips smooth the flow of air, [it / which] helps them conserve energy when flying.



318. They found that the tips smooth the flow of air, which helps them conserve energy when [flying / flyed].



319. This is beneficial not just for the environment [but / so] for passengers' wallets, too.


 

영비홍 7-5


320. A sea urchin mouth looks a lot like a five-fingered claw you might see while [to try / trying] to pick up prizes at the arcade.



321. A sea urchin mouth looks a lot like a five-fingered claw you might see while [trying / tried] to pick up prizes at the arcade.



322. Amazingly, a design [developed / developing] naturally in the deep sea may soon be seen in deep space.



323. Amazingly, a design developed naturally in the deep sea may soon [be / is] seen in deep space.



324. The efficiency of this natural design [is now testing / is now being tested] for incorporation into missions in space.



325. When small robots are sent to another planet to collect soil samples, the standard method is to use [inefficient something / something inefficient]like a small shovel.


 

영비홍 7-6


326. Because there is still so much we do not know about nature, there is still much [lefting / left] to discover.



327. When we observe nature, we can be [amazing / amazed] by its beauty and its grand scale.


 

영비홍 8-1


328. Likewise, a painting can inspire a musician to create music [in them / in which] you can almost see different colors and shapes.



329. These interactions between artists can have unexpected results, [produced / producing] works of art that have strong visual, auditory or emotional influences on people.



330. Where Sound, Color and Letters Meet A piece of work in one field can inspire artists in another field to create [new something / something new].


 

영비홍 8-2


331. He felt as if wild and powerful lines [appeared / appeared in] front of him.



332. However, in his early 30's, he had an unusual visual experience while [looking / looked] at Monet's Haystacks.



333. In his paintings, for example, yellow is linked with the sound of the trumpet and blue with [that / those] of the cello.



334. Kandinsky studied law and economics and [was / were] successful in his law career.



335. [each / many] time he stroked the canvas with his brush, he might have intended to turn a series of musical notes into visual forms.


 

영비홍 8-3


336. After [visiting / visited] a memorial exhibition of Hartmann's works, Mussorgsky composed a piano suite in 10 movements to describe each of Hartmann's paintings displayed at the exhibition.



337. After visiting a memorial exhibition of Hartmann's works, Mussorgsky composed a piano suite in 10 movements to describe each of Hartmann's [painting / paintings] displayed at the exhibition.



338. Anyone [who / which] listens to the movements can associate the melodies with what they see in Hartmann's paintings.



339. Anyone who listens to the movements can associate the melodies with [how / what] they see in Hartmann's paintings.



340. Anyone who listens to the movements can associate the melodies with [that / what] they see in Hartmann's paintings.



341. One of his most frequently performed piano [work / works], Pictures at an Exhibition, was composed in his efforts to capture what he felt about the paintings of an artist friend named Viktor Hartmann, who died at the early age of 39.



342. One of his most frequently performed piano works, Pictures at an Exhibition, [was / were] composed in his efforts to capture what he felt about the paintings of an artist friend named Viktor Hartmann, who died at the early age of 39.



343. One of his most frequently performed piano works, Pictures at an Exhibition, [was / were] composed in his efforts to capture what he felt about the paintings of an artist friend named Viktor Hartmann, who died at the early age of 39.



344. One of his most frequently performed piano works, Pictures at an Exhibition, was composed in his efforts to capture [that / what] he felt about the paintings of an artist friend named Viktor Hartmann, who died at the early age of 39.



345. One of his most frequently performed piano works, Pictures at an Exhibition, was composed in his efforts to capture what he felt about the paintings of an artist friend named Viktor Hartmann, [whose / who] died at the early age of 39.



346. While Mussorgsky was writing the melodies, he [must / should] have wanted to translate the stories in the paintings into his musical language.


 

영비홍 8-4


347. For example, Felix Mendelssohn was inspired after [reading / readed]Shakespeare's play, A Midsummer Night's Dream, at the age of 17 and began to compose a piece of music to capture the magic and fantasy in Shakespeare's imaginary world.



348. Marc Chagall, [known for / known to] his use of dreamy colors, was also moved by the play and drew a painting with the same title, Midsummer Night's Dream.



349. Marc Chagall, known for his use of dreamy colors, [was / were] also moved by the play and drew a painting with the same title, Midsummer Night's Dream.



350. Marc Chagall, known for his use of dreamy colors, [was / were] also moved by the play and drew a painting with the same title, Midsummer Night's Dream.



351. Marc Chagall, known for his use of dreamy colors, [were / was] also moved by the play and drew a painting with the same title, Midsummer Night's Dream.



352. The Wedding March is one of the best known [piece / pieces] from the suite.


 

영비홍 8-5


353. Air [breathing / breathed] in has to be breathed out in one way or another.



354. Air breathed in has [to be breathed / being breathed] out in one way or another.



355. Maybe, they knew we would interpret their works accordingly, [noticed / noticing] the melodies, colors, shapes, and the words influencing each other.



356. Maybe, they knew we would interpret their works accordingly, noticing the melodies, colors, shapes, and the words [influencing / influenced] each other.



357. The English word "inspire" originally meant "to [breath / breathe] in."



358. The English word "inspire" originally meant "to breathe [in / in it]."



[ANSWER]
1. deals with 2. keeps 3. what 4. had 5. right 6. called 7. to better 8. suitable 9. to make 10. in which


11. interested 12. based 13. conduct 14. job-shadowing 15. to be done 16. to 17. arranging 18. recording 19. editing 20. excited


21. what 22. what 23. latest 24. whose 25. whose 26. amazed 27. Not only was I getting 28. to finish 29. required 30. recording


31. had 32. of which 33. recording 34. where 35. press 36. wait 37. telling 38. breaking 39. if 40. breathe


41. comes 42. tasting 43. done 44. wait 45. ready 46. so 47. objective 48. understanding 49. find 50. which


51. wearing 52. striped 53. find 54. green 55. great 56. called 57. called 58. can 59. results 60. results in


61. is 62. colors 63. choosing 64. mixing 65. using 66. pleasing 67. Choosing 68. Choosing 69. Combining 70. to what


71. what 72. is 73. making 74. making 75. covering 76. choosing 77. accessories 78. note 79. of 80. which


81. what 82. what 83. where 84. cool 85. of 86. where 87. interesting 88. interesting 89. made 90. seal


91. to be cared 92. coming 93. spread 94. helping 95. wearing 96. called 97. that 98. called 99. were 100. working


101. is 102. used 103. themselves 104. outside on 105. whatever 106. Placing 107. founded 108. to be distributed 109. it 110. Having been founded


111. outside 112. of over 113. holding 114. soaked 115. eat 116. of 117. Using 118. that if 119. could 120. efficient


121. which 122. could 123. focus on 124. do to 125. of 126. help 127. myself 128. to begin 129. myself 130. pleased


131. pleased 132. to be greeted 133. invited 134. off from 135. X 136. inside 137. amazed 138. what 139. through which 140. go in


141. it 142. interesting 143. interesting 144. wishing 145. thrown 146. leading 147. looking 148. around 149. so 150. overwhelmed


151. to walk 152. to 153. as 154. for over 155. masterpieces 156. looking 157. around for 158. lucky enough 159. stop 160. had never seen


161. walked 162. attractions 163. itself 164. impressed 165. so 166. being 167. steal 168. winding 169. useless 170. disappointed


171. disappointed 172. myself 173. so 174. which 175. toward 176. exchanged 177. pages 178. buried 179. buried 180. Amazing


181. Amazing 182. locked 183. did their families 184. had broken 185. off 186. burying 187. alive 188. with 189. had survived 190. at around


191. captured 192. high 193. had lost 194. canned 195. to reach 196. X 197. had broken 198. from which 199. who 200. helped


201. specially 202. large enough 203. gathered 204. process 205. that if 206. would 207. what 208. themselves 209. during which 210. were


211. who 212. had taken 213. was 214. were 215. was 216. who 217. rescued 218. celebrating 219. trapped 220. trapped


221. so 222. getting 223. opened 224. so 225. so 226. being lifted 227. organized 228. which 229. breathe 230. for about


231. high 232. outside 233. which 234. mobilized 235. loved 236. shared 237. Painted 238. Thanks to 239. resulted in 240. annoying


241. being 242. being 243. would 244. interesting 245. as 246. Being 247. were 248. are 249. to consider 250. buying


251. making 252. regular 253. to spend 254. paying 255. that 256. themselves 257. offered 258. offered 259. had not planned 260. what


261. in addition to 262. to 263. that 264. remember 265. have 266. designed 267. designed 268. called 269. up-selling 270. Instead of


271. something 272. to make 273. it 274. on in 275. overwhelmed 276. overwhelmed 277. overwhelmed 278. of 279. be 280. Being


281. to prevent 282. because of 283. stand 284. wait 285. around 286. trucks 287. called 288. called 289. sells 290. crowded


291. open 292. to sell 293. to 294. to 295. rise to 296. called 297. which 298. Instead of 299. have been studying 300. about


301. who 302. constructed 303. X 304. in through 305. amazing 306. moving 307. Inspired 308. vary from 309. to 310. it


311. inside 312. help keep 313. saving 314. that if 315. that 316. called 317. which 318. flying 319. but 320. trying


321. trying 322. developed 323. be 324. is now being tested 325. something inefficient 326. left 327. amazed 328. in which 329. producing 330. something new


331. appeared in 332. looking 333. that 334. was 335. each 336. visiting 337. paintings 338. who 339. what 340. what


341. works 342. was 343. were 344. what 345. who 346. must 347. reading 348. known for 349. was 350. were


351. was 352. pieces 353. breathed 354. to be breathed 355. noticing 356. influencing 357. breathe 358. in 

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esh | Since 2005 임희재 | 블루티쳐학원 | 01033383436 | 200710 22:26:29

 

GRAMMAR

정답에 O표시, 이유를 쓰세요.



영시한 1-1


1. Don't stop [dreaming / to dream] until your dreams come true.



2. President Hanlon, staff, honored guests, parents, students, families, and friends, good morning and congratulations to the [graduating / graduated]class!



3. Rhimes delivered the [following / followed] speech at the graduation ceremony for Dartmouth College in 2014.


 

영시한 1-2


4. And while they are busy [dream / dreaming], the really happy and successful people are busy doing.



5. If you don't have a job, [get / getting] one.



6. It doesn't have to be the perfect job or the perfect life that you dream [of / of it].



7. It is hard work that makes things [happen / to happen] and creates change.



8. Maybe you know exactly [that / what] you want to do, or maybe you have no idea what you truly want to do.



9. Perfect is [boring / bored], and dreams are not real.



10. You just have to keep doing something, [seized / seizing] the next opportunity, and staying open to trying something new.



11. You just have to keep doing something, seizing the next opportunity, and [stay / staying] open to trying something new.



12. You just have to keep doing something, seizing the next opportunity, and staying [open / openly] to trying something new.



13. You just have to keep doing something, seizing the next opportunity, and staying open [to / for] trying something new.



14. You just have to keep doing something, seizing the next opportunity, and staying open to [try / trying] something new.



15. You just have to keep doing something, seizing the next opportunity, and staying open to trying [new something / something new].


 

영시한 1-3


16. So before you complain, remember that you have been [giving / given] a gift.



17. We live in the country where we are free to speak our own mind and most people believe that everyone should be treaten equally [regardless of / regardless for] gender or race.


 

영시한 1-4


18. Anyone [who / which] tells you they are doing it all perfectly is a liar.



19. If I'm writing really [exciting / excited] stories for television, I'm not spending enough time with my children.



20. [When / Whenever] I'm succeeding in one area of my life, I'm failing in another area.


 

영시한 1-5


21. And then 20 years from now, one of you can find yourself [right / rightly]here where I stand, giving a graduation speech.



22. And then 20 years from now, one of you can find yourself right here where I stand, [given / giving] a graduation speech.



23. And yet, you can still wake up in the morning and be [amazing / amazed] at everything you have and everything you have achieved.


 

영시한 2-1


24. In the [following / followed] three examples, it is inspiring to see how animals cooperate to help each other.



25. Often, animals help each other and [work / works] together for the greater good.


 

영시한 2-2


26. Ants never get into a traffic jam, no matter [what / how] fast they move or how many of them occupy the road.



27. Ants never get into a traffic jam, no matter how fast they move or how [many / many of] them occupy the road.



28. As their number increases, however, they communicate with each other [too / so] that they all move at the same speed.



29. If so, it [may / should] have reminded you of a highway packed with cars.



30. This arrangement makes sense because it is more difficult [of / for]inbound ants to change direction due to their heavy loads.



31. This arrangement makes sense because it is more difficult for inbound ants to change direction [due to / due for] their heavy loads.



32. This is [why / because] their movements are based on cooperation.



33. When this happens, the inbound ants, the ones [carrying / carryed] a burden, always have the right of way.



34. [Follow / Following] these rules and cooperating in this way, ants improve the traffic flow and make the delivery of food to the nest more efficient.


 

영시한 2-3


35. After the cleaners do their job, the clients let them go, [instead of / instead for] swallowing them.



36. First, the cleaners are too small [satisfying / to satisfy] their hunger.



37. Once the cleaners and the clients establish trust, the clients want to cooperate with the cleaners and [keep / keeps] them around.



38. Once the cleaners and the clients establish trust, the clients want to cooperate with the cleaners and keep them [around / around it].



39. Tiny fish, [it / which] scientists refer to as "cleaners," swim into the mouths of bigger fish, which are referred to as "clients."



40. Tiny fish, which scientists [refer / refer to] as "cleaners," swim into the mouths of bigger fish, which are referred to as "clients."



41. Tiny fish, which scientists refer [to / to as] "cleaners," swim into the mouths of bigger fish, which are referred to as "clients."


 

영시한 2-4


42. As more and more birds join the group, the predator becomes [frightening / frightened] and runs away.



43. As more and more birds join the group, the predator becomes [frightening / frightened] and runs away.



44. As more and more birds join the group, the predator becomes frightened and [run / runs] away.



45. They do not answer the calls of birds that have refused [helping / to help]others before.



46. They do not answer the calls of birds that have refused to help others [before / before it].


 

영시한 2-5


47. Living things, from their beginnings more than three billion years ago, [took / tooking] over the planet by learning to cooperate.



48. We human beings cooperate in plenty of ways, from lining up at a bus stop [sharinging / to sharing] knowledge on a website.



49. We human beings cooperate in plenty of ways, from lining up at a bus stop to [share / sharing] knowledge on a website.



50. [Liv / Living] things, from their beginnings more than three billion years ago, took over the planet by learning to cooperate.



51. [fostering / to foster] cooperative success among humans, we should perhaps look to nature for inspiration.


 

영시한 2-6


52. Four-thousand-year-old drawings of men playing a simple version of a hockey game have been [founding / found] in tombs in Egypt.



53. Now one of the most famous [competition / competitions] is the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race.



54. Now one of the most famous competitions [is / are] the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race.



55. Rowing has existed since humans first [traveled / traveled on] water by boat.



56. Soccer A Chinese game [calling / called] cuju meaning "kick a ball" existed during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC and has been recognized as the first version of soccer with similar rules to the modern game.



57. Soccer A Chinese game called cuju [meant / meaning] "kick a ball" existed during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC and has been recognized as the first version of soccer with similar rules to the modern game.



58. Soccer A Chinese game called cuju meaning "kick a ball" existed during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC and has been [recognizing / recognized] as the first version of soccer with similar rules to the modern game.



59. Soccer A Chinese game called cuju meaning "kick a ball" existed during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC and has been [recognizing / recognized] as the first version of soccer with similar rules to the modern game.



60. The first reference to [row / rowing] as a sport comes from 15thcentury BC Egypt.



61. [Row / Rowing] has existed since humans first traveled on water by boat.


 

영시한 3-1


62. Most people, however, understand that sodas are not good for their health [due to / due for] the ingredients.



63. Soda, also [calling / called] a soft drink, is a sweet drink with carbonation.



64. Soda, also called a soft drink, [is / are] a sweet drink with carbonation.



65. When you go to the movies or when you just want something [refreshing / refreshed] to satisfy your thirst, a soda is often the first choice.



66. When you go to the movies or when you just want something refreshing [satisfying / to satisfy] your thirst, a soda is often the first choice.



67. [Of / For] all age groups, teenagers drink the most soda.



68. [What / Which] ingredients are really not good for you?


 

영시한 3-2


69. A typical 250ml can [be / of] soda contains 30 grams of sugar.



70. According to a recent study, artificial sweeteners make you [want / to want] more sweet foods.



71. Artificial sweeteners provide a sweet, sugary taste with [fewer / lesser]calories.



72. Diet sodas replace the sugar [for / with] artificial sweeteners.



73. In addition, artificial sweeteners are known to generate headaches, emotional disorders, and [sleep / sleeping] problems.



74. Therefore, if you drink one small can [be / of] soda, your daily sugar intake already exceeds the recommended amount.



75. Therefore, if you drink one small can of soda, your daily sugar intake already exceeds the [recommending / recommended] amount.



76. [Hav / Having] extra sugar means adding unnecessary calories.



77. [WHO / whose], the World Health Organization, recommends that people consume less than 25 grams of sugar a day.


 

영시한 3-3


78. Acid also delays the growth of bacteria, [it / which] extends the expiration date of a product.



79. Also, the acid in sodas [interacts / interacts with] stomach acid, slowing digestion and blocking nutrient absorption.



80. Also, the acid in sodas interacts with stomach acid, [slowed / slowing]digestion and blocking nutrient absorption.



81. However, acid [interferes / interferes with] the body's ability to absorb calcium, and as a result, bone softening occurs.



82. When [adding / added] to water, it produces a sharp flavor.


 

영시한 3-4


83. A single can [be / of] cola may not affect you much, but if you consume colas regularly, they can make you feel more nervous and keep you from sleeping well at night.



84. A single can of cola may not affect you much, but if you consume colas regularly, they can make you [feel / to feel] more nervous and keep you from sleeping well at night.



85. A single can of cola may not affect you much, but if you consume colas regularly, they can make you feel more [nervous / nervously] and keep you from sleeping well at night.



86. A single can of cola may not affect you much, but if you consume colas regularly, they can make you feel more nervous and [keep / keeps] you from sleeping well at night.



87. But some sodas, especially colas and [carbonating / carbonated] energy drinks, also contain caffeine.



88. Caffeine makes you [feel / to feel] more awake, but it may bring about an irregular heartbeat.



89. For example, the artificial color Yellow No_6, [using / used] in some pineapple juices, adds nothing to the taste.



90. For example, the artificial color Yellow No_6, used in some pineapple juices, [add / adds] nothing to the taste.



91. It is just there to make the drink [look / to look] pretty.



92. Most of these colors and flavors, however, [is / are] not natural.



93. When you hear the word "caffeine," you most likely think [to / of] coffee.


 

영시한 3-5


94. And if you want something [adding / to add] a boost of flavor, put a slice of lemon in the water.



95. And if you want something to add a boost of flavor, [put / puting] a slice of lemon in the water.



96. For example, replace one regular soft drink or one diet soda per day [for / with] another more healthy drink.



97. However, if quitting sodas altogether sounds too difficult, [cut / cuting]down gradually.



98. Once you start cutting back, you are [heading / heading in] the right direction.



99. Perhaps you might now understand that you should stop [drinking / to drink] them.


 

영시한 4-1


100. And sometimes there is another sound, one that does not [belong / belong in] the forest at all.



101. Insects, birds, and monkeys are responsible [to / for] much of this noise.



102. You are surrounded by tall trees, [many / many of] which are more than 40 meters tall.



103. You are surrounded by tall trees, many [of them / of which] are more than 40 meters tall.


 

영시한 4-2


104. After [walking / walked] only five minutes, his group came upon people who were cutting down trees illegally.



105. Despite the fact [that / which] they were still fairly close to the ranger station, it had been impossible to hear anything from back there.



106. Despite the fact that they were still fairly close to the ranger station, [it / which] had been impossible to hear anything from back there.



107. Destruction of the rainforest is caused by logging, farming, [mined / mining], and other human activities.



108. It all started in 2011, [when / where] Topher White visited Indonesia as a volunteer.



109. It is [why / because] the forest was so full of other sounds.



110. It is because the forest was so [full / fully] of other sounds.



111. One day, he and some of the other volunteers set out from the ranger station on a walk into a [protecting / protected] rainforest.



112. Some 70 to 80 percent of the [logging / logged] in the rainforests is thought to be illegal.



113. The [surprising / surprised] loggers fled, but White was shocked.



114. The [surprising / surprised] loggers fled, but White was shocked.



115. [Though / Despite] the fact that they were still fairly close to the ranger station, it had been impossible to hear anything from back there.


 

영시한 4-3


116. After he returned home to the U.S., in his father's garage he developed a small [listening / listened] device using an old cell phone.



117. He attached a sensitive microphone to the cell phone [too / so] that it could detect chainsaw noise from up to three kilometers away.



118. He attached a sensitive microphone to the cell phone so that it could detect chainsaw noise from up [for / to] three kilometers away.



119. Since there was no electricity where the phone needed [to be placed / being placed], the device had to be able to power itself.



120. Since there was no electricity where the phone needed to be placed, the device had to be able to power [it / itself].



121. This device would [placed / be placed] high up in a tree.



122. This device would be placed [high / highly] up in a tree.



123. When it picked up the buzz of a saw, [it / which] would send a message to a ranger's cell phone.



124. White knew that he had to protect the cell phone [too / so] that it could survive in the hot and wet rainforest environment.


 

영시한 4-4


125. Others, [around from / from around] the world, started sending him their old cell phones so he could build more devices.



126. Others, from around the world, [starting / started] sending him their old cell phones so he could build more devices.



127. People [live / living] in other countries contacted White and asked if they could use the device.



128. People [lived / living] in other countries contacted White and asked if they could use the device.



129. People living in other countries contacted White and [asking / asked] if they could use the device.



130. People living in other countries contacted White and asked if they [have / could] use the device.



131. Surprisingly, on only the second day after he installed the device, [it / which] picked up chainsaw noises.



132. These devices, [calling / called] Rainforest Connection (RFCx), are now being used in the rainforests in Africa and South America.



133. These devices, called Rainforest Connection (RFCx), [are now using / are now being used] in the rainforests in Africa and South America.



134. These devices, called Rainforest Connection (RFCx), [is / are] now being used in the rainforests in Africa and South America.



135. When they approached the [logging / logged] spot, the illegal loggers ran away.


 

영시한 4-5


136. Preventing this amount of CO² from [having / being] released has the same effect as taking 3,000 cars off the road for a year.



137. Preventing this amount of CO² from [released / being released] has the same effect as taking 3,000 cars off the road for a year.



138. Preventing this amount of CO² from being released has the same effect as [taking / taked] 3,000 cars off the road for a year.



139. These devices are saving rainforests and providing new life for thousands of [discarding / discarded] cell phones.



140. [Prevent / Preventing] this amount of CO² from being released has the same effect as taking 3,000 cars off the road for a year.



141. [Thanks to / Thanks for] Topher White and his RFCx devices, the earth is now a better place to live.


 

영시한 5-1


142. If you have ever been [confusing / confused] about what to do, you are not alone.



143. If you have ever been [confusing / confused] about what to do, you are not alone.



144. If you have ever been [confusing / confused] about what to do, you are not alone.



145. If you have ever been confused about [how / what] to do, you are not alone.



146. Maybe it was someone you had difficulty [worked / working] with or it could have been someone you were always arguing with.



147. Maybe it was someone you had difficulty working with or it could have been someone you were always arguing [with / with it].



148. Should you ignore them, [be / being] extra nice to them, or stand up to them?



149. Should you ignore them, be extra nice to them, or [stand / stands] up to them?



150. This kind of situation can leave you [to wonder / wondering] what you should do.



151. This kind of situation can leave you wondering [that / what] you should do.



152. [you should / Should you] ignore them, be extra nice to them, or stand up to them?


 

영시한 5-2


153. Benjamin Franklin was a very smart man, not just in politics and science, but also in his ability to [deal / deal with] people.



154. He asked the man [lending / to lend] him a very rare and valuable book, one that he knew the man had in his personal library.



155. This speech was [so / too] powerful that it threatened Franklin's political career.



156. This speech was so powerful that it [threatening / threatened] Franklin's political career.



157. To do this, he sent a letter to the man [asking / asked] for a favor.



158. [doing / to do] this, he sent a letter to the man asking for a favor.


 

영시한 5-3


159. Franklin wrote, "He that has once [doing / done] you a kindness will be more ready to do you another.



160. Franklin wrote, "He that has once done you a kindness will be more ready [to / for] do you another.



161. However, if you want to try to create a connection with someone who does not like you, [asked / asking] that person to do you a favor is more effective.



162. It is commonly thought [if that / that if] you want people who do not like you to like you, you should do favors for them.



163. Today this phenomenon is known [to / as] the Benjamin Franklin effect.



164. [testing / to test] this phenomenon, a psychologist performed an experiment and came to the same conclusion.


 

영시한 5-4


165. About 80 students were invited to participate in an experiment and [was / were] told they would be given some money after a series of tests.



166. About 80 students were invited to participate in an experiment and were told [what / that] they would be given some money after a series of tests.



167. Despite the fact [that / which] they had had a bad impression of him during the experiment, they had more positive feelings for him after returning "his money."



168. Despite the fact that they had had a bad impression of him during the experiment, they had more positive feelings for him after [returning / returned] "his money."



169. Group 1 was asked by the researcher [returning / to return] some of the prize money.



170. Group 2 was asked by a secretary [returning / to return] some of the money to the institution because the budget was running low.



171. Group 3 was not [asking / asked] to return any money.



172. He explained that he [have used / had used] his own money for the tests and the study was in danger of running out of funds.



173. The people in Group 1, [whose / who] had done the researcher a personal favor by returning some of the money, rated the researcher the highest.



174. The people in Group 1, who [have done / had done] the researcher a personal favor by returning some of the money, rated the researcher the highest.



175. The people in Group 1, who had done the researcher a personal favor by returning some of the money, [rating / rated] the researcher the highest.



176. The students took the tests and [was / were] all awarded the promised money.



177. The students took the tests and were all awarded the [promising / promised] money.



178. They were then divided [into / onto] three groups.



179. [Though / Despite] the fact that they had had a bad impression of him during the experiment, they had more positive feelings for him after returning "his money."


 

영시한 5-5


180. "We want our actions and our thoughts [being / to be] in harmony.



181. After [lending / lended] Franklin the book, Franklin's enemy experienced cognitive dissonance.



182. Feeling [anxious / anxiously] and unhappy, he had to find a way to resolve his feelings.



183. He felt [troubling / troubled] because he was doing something nice for someone he disliked.



184. He felt troubled because he was doing [nice something / something nice] for someone he disliked.



185. He justified doing the favor by telling [him / himself] that Franklin was not a bad person after all and convinced himself that he actually liked Franklin.



186. He justified doing the favor by telling himself that Franklin was not a bad person after all and [convincing / convinced] himself that he actually liked Franklin.



187. How can it [be / is] that we feel more positively toward people for whom we do favors?



188. How can it be that we feel more positively [forward / toward] people for whom we do favors?



189. How can it be that we feel more positively toward people [for them / for whom] we do favors?



190. If there [is / will be] a conflict between our thoughts and our actions (cognitive dissonance), we will change one or the other to relieve the conflict.



191. Is there someone [with them / with whom] you would like to have a better relationship?



192. It is [because of / because for] what psychologists refer to as "cognitive dissonance.



193. It is [why / because] of what psychologists refer to as "cognitive dissonance.



194. It is because of [how / what] psychologists refer to as "cognitive dissonance.



195. It is because of what psychologists [refer / refer to] as "cognitive dissonance.



196. It is because of what psychologists refer [to / to as] "cognitive dissonance.



197. Then see [if / that] their feelings toward you change.



198. Then see if their feelings [forward / toward] you change.



199. When we do something that we do not like, the balance is [broken / brokening], and we feel unhappy.



200. When we do something that we do not like, the balance is broken, and we feel [unhappy / unhappily].



201. [Feel / Feeling] anxious and unhappy, he had to find a way to resolve his feelings.



202. it is because [for / of] what psychologists refer to as "cognitive dissonance.


 

영시한 5-6


203. He [who / which] gets close to a good tree will have good shade - Spain.



204. Read the [following / followed] proverbs different countries and cultures and think about the meaning of each one.



205. Read the following proverbs different countries and cultures and [think / thinks] about the meaning of each one.


 

영시한 6-1


206. Dabbawalas are delivery men who carry hot lunch boxes for Mumbai office workers from their homes [for / to] their offices.



207. Dabbawalas: Mumbai's Lunch Box Delivery Men In India, many traditions [are today challenging / are today being challenged] as a result of globalization.



208. Dabbawalas: Mumbai's Lunch Box Delivery Men In India, many traditions are today being [challenging / challenged] as a result of globalization.



209. Dabbawalas: Mumbai's Lunch Box Delivery Men In India, many traditions are today being challenged [as a result / as a result of]globalization.



210. In Mumbai, many people who work in offices far from home rely on an express food delivery service [run / running] by dabbawalas.



211. The word dabbawala comes from the Hindi dabba [meant / meaning]"lunch box," and wala meaning "the person who carries it."


 

영시한 6-2


212. A third person rides on each of the [train / trains] with the dabbas.



213. A typical scenario would have one person on a bicycle pick up a dabba by 9:00 a.m. [about from / from about] thirty different addresses.



214. After [collecting / collected] all of the dabbas assigned to him, he takes them to the nearest train station.



215. After collecting all of the dabbas [assigning / assigned] to him, he takes them to the nearest train station.



216. Another person loads each dabba onto the right train, [sended / sending] them off in different directions.



217. Another person loads each dabba onto the right train, sending them [in off / off in] different directions.



218. Finally, a fourth person picks up the boxes at the [receiving / received]station and distributes them, again by bicycle, to each customerʼ office, all by 12:30 p.m.



219. Finally, a fourth person picks up the boxes at the receiving station and distributes them, again by bicycle, [for each / to each] customerʼ office, all by 12:30 p.m.



220. Most dabbas, or lunches, reach [to / X] their destination after passing through several pairs of hands.



221. Most dabbas, or lunches, reach their destination after [passing / passed]through several pairs of hands.



222. The empty dabbas are picked up by 5:00 p.m. and [is / are] returned to their original addresses by the same team, following the same procedure in reverse.



223. The empty dabbas are picked up by 5:00 p.m. and are returned to their original addresses by the same team, [followed / following] the same procedure in reverse.


 

영시한 6-3


224. Also, they often have dietary restrictions, [depend / depending] upon their religion.



225. As a result, it is not easy [of / for] workers to find the right food in restaurants near their office.



226. As a result, it is not easy for workers to find the [right / rightly] food in restaurants near their office.



227. Other people liked the idea and [copiing / copied] it.



228. The dabbawala service began around 1890, [when / where] a banker hired a young man to deliver a lunch box from his home to his Mumbai office.



229. The dabbawala service began around 1890, when a banker hired a young man to deliver a lunch box from his home [for / to] his Mumbai office.



230. They have to leave for the office early in the morning, [rided / riding] on a packed train.



231. They have to leave for the office early in the morning, riding on a [packing / packed] train.



232. Those [who / which] use the dabbawala service are mostly middle-class office workers who live in one of Mumbai's suburbs.



233. Those who use the dabbawala service are mostly middle-class office workers who live in one of Mumbai's [suburb / suburbs].



234. To meet their dietary needs, Indian workers prefer their home-cooked meals, [making / made] especially for them.


 

영시한 6-4


235. "The dabbawalas are proud of their 99.99 percent accuracy rate, [it / which] means just one mistake in every six million deliveries.



236. Each dabba carries a code, [painting / painted] with different colors, numbers, and symbols.



237. It is an [amazing / amazed] record, considering that most of the dabbawalas are illiterate and that not a single piece of paper is used in the delivery process.



238. It is an [amazing / amazed] record, considering that most of the dabbawalas are illiterate and that not a single piece of paper is used in the delivery process.



239. It is an amazing record, [considered / considering] that most of the dabbawalas are illiterate and that not a single piece of paper is used in the delivery process.



240. The secret to [thising / this] error-free system is in a coding system.



241. The secret to this error-free system is in a [coding / coded] system.



242. These codes tell the dabbawala where the food comes from and which railway stations it must pass [on through / through on] its way to a specific office in a specific building, in Mumbai.



243. They even deliver in the [pouring / poured] rain and during political strife.


 

영시한 6-5


244. Dabbawalas, however, demonstrate [that / those] with no form of technology, some of the old ways may still be the best ways.



245. Dabbawalas, however, demonstrate that with no form of technology, some of the old ways may still [be / is] the best ways.



246. It is not [surprising / surprised], then, that business schools and large corporations around the world learn from the dabbawala system.



247. It is not surprising, then, [what / that] business schools and large corporations around the world learn from the dabbawala system.



248. It is simple, relies on teamwork, [has / having] a low operating cost, and delivers almost 100 percent customer satisfaction.



249. It is simple, relies on teamwork, has a low [operating / operated] cost, and delivers almost 100 percent customer satisfaction.



250. It is simple, relies on teamwork, has a low operating cost, and [deliver / delivers] almost 100 percent customer satisfaction.



251. The dabbawala organization is an [outstanding / outstanded] example of an efficient distribution system.



252. The dabbawala organization is an [outstanding / outstanded] example of an efficient distribution system.


 

영시한 6-6


253. ITALY Central Institute of Restoration Italy is a country [filling / filled]with valuable cultural assets.



254. Now Switzerland has several watchmaking schools [who / whose]students take the traditional watchmaking course.



255. Now Switzerland has several watchmaking schools whose students take the traditional [watchmaking / watchmade] course.



256. They are recognized for their abundance of color, different patterns, and [weav / weaving] techniques.


 

영시한 7-1


257. As a child, he was [fascinating / fascinated] by the natural wonders of the surrounding countryside.



258. As a child, he was fascinated by the natural wonders of the [surrounding / surrounded] countryside.



259. Few countries, however, can claim to [have produced / be produced] a great architect.



260. Gaudi took an interest in architecture at a young age and [studiing / studied] architecture in Barcelona, the city that would become home to his greatest works.



261. Gaudi took an interest in architecture at a young age and studied architecture in Barcelona, the city [that / what] would become home to his greatest works.



262. Gaudi's work is also [known for / known to] its use of bold colors.



263. He decorated [many / many of] his buildings with colorful tiles.



264. He understood that the natural world is full of [curving / curved] lines, rather than straight lines.



265. Here are some of Gaudi's greatest works, all [of them / of which] are found in the city of Barcelona.



266. One country that can make that [claim / to claim] without embarrassment is Spain.



267. There, at the summit of the nation's architectural genius, [stand / stands] Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926).



268. This combination of natural designs and bright colors creates a [breathtaking / breathtaked] visual experience.


 

영시한 7-2


269. "The park is also home to a famous dragon fountain, [covering / covered] with beautiful colored tiles.



270. At the entrance to the park are two buildings, both with [curving / curved] roofs.



271. On a hill within the park are curved terraces and [multicoloring / multicolored] tile seats where visitors can enjoy wonderful views of Barcelona and the sea beyond.



272. On a hill within the park are curved terraces and multicolored tile seats where visitors can enjoy wonderful views of Barcelona and the sea [beyond / beyond it].



273. Parc Güell contains [amazing / amazed] stone structures, gorgeous tiles, and beautiful buildings.



274. Parc Güell is a public park and [is / are] one of Gaudi's most decorative works.



275. Parc Güell is a public park and is one of Gaudi's most decorative [work / works].



276. These buildings seem [to be taken / being taken] directly from "Hansel and Gretel.



277. [Knowning / Known] as "El Drac," which means "the dragon" in the language of Catalonia, this colorful fountain is a symbol of Parc Güell.


 

영시한 7-3


278. Because of the curves, the Batllo family could not fit their traditional, straight furniture against the [curving / curved] surfaces.



279. Built in 1877, the original building was very different from [how / what]it is today.



280. Built in 1877, the original building was very different from [that / what]it is today.



281. Everything is curved, [includ / including] the walls, the ceilings, and the wooden doors.



282. From the [outside / to], Casa Batllo looks as if it has been made from skulls and bones.



283. From the outside, Casa Batllo looks as if it has been [making / made]from skulls and bones.



284. Indeed, the design of the green and blue tiles on the wall remind people of the sea, while the [curving / curved] window frames were inspired by ocean waves.



285. When it was purchased by Joseph Batllo, he asked Gaudi [adding / to add] his impressive touch to the design.



286. [Because of / Because for] the curves, the Batllo family could not fit their traditional, straight furniture against the curved surfaces.



287. [Builting / Built] in 1877, the original building was very different from what it is today.


 

영시한 7-4


288. Between the columns are skylights to [leting / let] natural light in.



289. Between the columns are skylights to let natural light [in / in it].



290. Despite its incomplete state, Sagrada Familia's incredible design draws an [estimating / estimated] 2.5 million tourists every year.



291. It is expected [that / what] the church will be completed in 2026, on the 100th anniversary of Gaudi's death.



292. On the [outside / to], the church will have 18 high towers.



293. Sagrada Familia is the most widely-known symbol of Barcelona and one of the world's largest [churche / churches].



294. The colorful stained glass windows filter the sunlight and [project / projects] red, blue, and green light all over the interior space.



295. The columns branch out at the top [too / so] that each column looks like a huge tree.



296. When [completing / completed], the highest tower will reach a height of 170 meters.



297. When completed, the highest tower will reach [to / X] a height of 170 meters.



298. [Beguning / Begun] in 1882, it has been under construction for more than one hundred years.



299. [Though / Despite] its incomplete state, Sagrada Familia's incredible design draws an estimated 2.5 million tourists every year.


 

영시한 7-5


300. All are recognized as important works of architecture, and seven have been [naming / named] UNESCO World Heritage Sites.



301. All are recognized as important works of architecture, and seven have been [naming / named] UNESCO World Heritage Sites.



302. No visitor to Barcelona would want to leave without [to see / seeing]these works of Antoni Gaudi.



303. These extraordinary works show how [important / importantly] Gaudi was to the development of modern architecture in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.


 

영시한 8-1


304. Eventually, humans had to do most of the [extreme / extremely]dangerous work.



305. Since it was impossible [of / for] humans to work in this environment, the Japanese government considered sending in robots to handle the situation.



306. Since it was impossible for humans to work in this environment, the Japanese government considered [to send / sending] in robots to handle the situation.



307. The [resulting / resulted] nuclear disaster released large amounts of radioactive material into the surrounding area.



308. The robots the Japanese were using, however, [was / were] not up to the task.


 

영시한 8-2


309. During the competition, the robots had to solve a series of problems they might come [in upon / upon in] a disaster situation.



310. HUBO [have wheels attached / had wheels attached] to its knees and feet.



311. In response [for / to] Japan's nuclear disaster, the 2015 DARPA Robotics Challenge was createn to speed up the development of robots that could work in disaster-stricken areas.



312. Since then, there has been [renewing / renewed] emphasis on developing robots that can serve in dangerous situations.



313. Since then, there has been [renewing / renewed] emphasis on developing robots that can serve in dangerous situations.



314. The competition attracted 25 teams [around from / from around] the world.



315. The key [to / for] HUBO's success was its ability to move from a standing position to a kneeling position.



316. The key to HUBO's success was its ability to move from a [standing / standed] position to a kneeling position.



317. The key to HUBO's success was its ability to move from a standing position [for / to] a kneeling position.



318. The key to [HUBOing / HUBO]'s success was its ability to move from a standing position to a kneeling position.



319. The key to [HUBOing / HUBO]'s success was its ability to move from a standing position to a kneeling position.



320. The tasks were: driving a vehicle, getting out of the vehicle, opening a door, locating and closing a [leaking / leaked] valve, using a drill to cut through a wall, pulling a plug out of a wall socket and then plugging it in, navigating rough terrain, and climbing stairs.



321. The tasks were: driving a vehicle, getting out of the vehicle, opening a door, locating and closing a leaking valve, using a drill to cut through a wall, pulling a plug out of a wall socket and then plugging it [in / to], navigating rough terrain, and climbing stairs.



322. The tasks were: driving a vehicle, getting out of the vehicle, opening a door, locating and closing a leaking valve, using a drill to cut through a wall, pulling a plug out of a wall socket and then plugging it in, [navigated / navigating] rough terrain, and climbing stairs.



323. The tasks were: driving a vehicle, getting out of the vehicle, opening a door, locating and closing a leaking valve, using a drill to cut through a wall, pulling a plug out of a wall socket and then plugging it in, navigating rough terrain, and [climb / climbing] stairs.



324. The winner was a Korean team from KAIST who developed a robot [calling / called] HUBO.



325. When kneeling, HUBO was able to use these wheels to move around quickly and [decisive / decisively].


 

영시한 8-3


326. As the series of eight tasks became progressively more difficult, HUBO's performance on the tasks reflected the [growing / grown] difficulty.



327. Generally speaking, it was difficult [of / for] a robot to hold a drill in the right position and simultaneously press an on/off button.



328. Generally speaking, it was difficult for a robot to hold a drill in the right position and [simultaneous / simultaneously] press an on/off button.



329. Generally speaking, it was difficult for a robot to hold a drill in the right position and simultaneously [press / pressing] an on/off button.



330. It takes a human less than 10 seconds [performing / to perform] the task, but it took HUBO 13 minutes and 30 seconds.



331. It was able to drive a vehicle fast and when it encountered a barrier, [it / which] was able to turn the vehicle smoothly to avoid it.



332. It was able to drive a vehicle fast and when it encountered a barrier, it was able to turn the vehicle [smooth / smoothly] to avoid it.



333. Next, it was able to get out of the car in less than four minutes [and / X], once out of the vehicle, got on its knees and sped away.



334. Next, it was able to get out of the car in less than four minutes and, once out of the vehicle, got on its knees and [sping / sped] away.



335. On the fifth task, [for them / for which] it had to use a drill to cut through a wall, HUBO failed on its first attempt.



336. The task [that / what] took the longest time for HUBO was the sixth one, pulling a plug out of a wall socket and putting it back into another.



337. The task that took the longest time for HUBO was the sixth one, [pulled / pulling] a plug out of a wall socket and putting it back into another.



338. [General speaking / Generally speaking], it was difficult for a robot to hold a drill in the right position and simultaneously press an on/off button.


 

영시한 8-4


339. After scanning the stairs, the robot set [to / off] to climb to the top, completing the task effortlessly.



340. After scanning the stairs, the robot set off to climb to the top, [completed / completing] the task effortlessly.



341. For the final task, [climb / climbing] stairs, it was important that the robot be able to see its feet.



342. For the final task, [climbed / climbing] stairs, it was important that the robot be able to see its feet.



343. For the final task, climbing stairs, [it / which] was important that the robot be able to see its feet.



344. For the final task, climbing stairs, it was important that the robot [be / is] able to see its feet.



345. Other robots had difficulty [done / doing] this because they had to bend their bodies forward to see over their knees to scan the stairs.



346. That way, the robot's knees did not block the camera's view of either the feet [or / nor] the floor.


 

영시한 8-5


347. The KAIST team [have / had] already built four HUBOs and had been improving them for years.



348. The KAIST team had already built four HUBOs and [had been improved / had been improving] them for years.



349. The KAIST team had already built four HUBOs and [having / had] been improving them for years.



350. They will be [calling / called] upon to perform complicated tasks that will be too dangerous for humans.



351. They will be called upon to perform [complicated / complicating] tasks that will be too dangerous for humans.



352. This [amazing / amazed] robot was not made in a day.


 

영시한 SP1-1


353. "I could turn around now," I said to [me / myself].



354. I'd never traveled anywhere so different [before / to], and I had no idea what to expect.



355. Little [I know / did I know] that the next six weeks would change my life forever.



356. Not because I was afraid of flying, but because I was afraid of [how / what] awaited me at my destination.


 

영시한 SP1-2


357. By volunteering, I became part of the lives of local families — sharing meals, [played / playing] with their kids, and visiting their homes.



358. By volunteering, I became part of the lives of local families — sharing meals, playing with their kids, and [visit / visiting] their homes.



359. I learned to cook ugali, milk a cow, and [wear / wears] a kanga –.



360. If I [have / had] not volunteered, I would never have got an inside look at their way of life.



361. If I [have not volunteered / had not volunteered], I would never have got an inside look at their way of life.



362. These experiences were [eye-opening / eye-opened], educational, and inspiring:.



363. These experiences were eye-opening, educational, and [inspir / inspiring]:.



364. Though we did many other [exciting / excited] things like going on safari and climbing Mt Kilimanjaro, it was our volunteering time that stuck with me.



365. Though we did many other exciting things like going on safari and climbing Mt Kilimanjaro, [it / which] was our volunteering time that stuck with me.



366. Volunteering abroad taught me so much about the world and about [me / myself].



367. Volunteering allowed me to [tru / truly] connect with the people in Tanzania.



368. We spent several weeks [volunteering / to volunteer] at a community center and an orphanage.



369. What Volunteering in Tanzania Was Like I [traveled / traveled to]Tanzania as part of a university program the summer after my freshman year.



370. [Volunteer / Volunteering] abroad taught me so much about the world and about myself.



371. [Volunteer / Volunteering] allowed me to truly connect with the people in Tanzania.



372. [inspir / inspiring] to witness their close family ties and endless positivity.



373. – [eye-opening / eye-opened] to see how few possessions they had, yet how much love and personal strength they had –.


 

영시한 SP1-3


374. Gratitude for [how / what] I have When I returned home, I literally hugged my toilet, and I cried during my first hot shower.



375. Gratitude for [that / what] I have When I returned home, I literally hugged my toilet, and I cried during my first hot shower.



376. Growing up in rural New York State, I had never before [experiencing / experienced] people so different from me.



377. Growing up in rural New York State, I had never before [experiencing / experienced] people so different from me.



378. Volunteering gave me deep gratitude for the comforts and opportunities I used to take for [granting / granted].



379. [Volunteer / Volunteering] abroad taught me the beauty of diversity.



380. [Volunteer / Volunteering] gave me deep gratitude for the comforts and opportunities I used to take for granted.


 

영시한 SP1-4


381. After [experiencing / experienced] this in Tanzania, I decided to help people wherever and whenever I could for them and for myself.



382. After experiencing this in Tanzania, I decided to help people [wher / wherever] and whenever I could for them and for myself.



383. After experiencing this in Tanzania, I decided to help people wherever and whenever I could for them and for [me / myself].



384. Commitment to [help / helping] people I will be honest: Volunteering feels good.



385. Giving back to others and seeing the smiles on their faces [is / are] a feeling unmatched by anything else.



386. I knew I wanted to continue exploring, meeting people from different backgrounds, [tried / trying] new foods, and discovering unique landscapes.



387. I knew I wanted to continue exploring, meeting people from different backgrounds, trying new foods, and [discover / discovering] unique landscapes.



388. [Giv / Giving] back to others and seeing the smiles on their faces is a feeling unmatched by anything else.


 

영시한 SP1-5


389. I [graduated / graduated from] college in 2008, and ever since, I have been working and traveling around the world.



390. I graduated from college in 2008, and ever [since / X], I have been working and traveling around the world.



391. I graduated from college in 2008, and ever since, I [have been worked / have been working] and traveling around the world.



392. I have volunteered everywhere from Korea to France to Nicaragua [for / to] North Carolina.



393. I practice gratitude daily and am always trying to meet new people and [learn / learns] about different ways of life.



394. It has now been 10 years since I [traveled / traveled to] Tanzania, and these principles still guide me.



395. Sometimes I wonder what my life would be like if I [have / had] not got on that plane to East Africa.



396. Would I [be / is] the person I am today?



397. Would I have ever tasted ugali, [dancing / danced] with the Masai, or bathed an elephant?



398. Would I have ever tasted ugali, danced with the Masai, or [bathing / bathed] an elephant?


 

영시한 SP1-6


399. And so we learn early: It is better to give than [receive / to receive].



400. Helping others may just [be / is] the secret to living a life that is not only happier but also healthier, wealthier, more productive, and meaningful.



401. Helping others may just be the secret to [liv / living] a life that is not only happier but also healthier, wealthier, more productive, and meaningful.



402. Helping others may just be the secret to living a life that is not only happier [but / so] also healthier, wealthier, more productive, and meaningful.



403. If you want happiness for a year, [inherit / inheriting] a fortune.



404. If you want happiness for the rest of your life, [help / helping]somebody."



405. Researchers have found that the areas in our brains that feel pleasure become [activating / activated] when we give —meaning that besides doing good, donating our money or time actually makes us feel good.



406. Researchers have found that the areas in our brains that feel pleasure become activated when we give —meaning that [beside / besides] doing good, donating our money or time actually makes us feel good.



407. Researchers have found that the areas in our brains that feel pleasure become activated when we give —meaning that besides doing good, [donated / donating] our money or time actually makes us feel good.



408. Researchers have found that the areas in our brains that feel pleasure become activated when we give —meaning that besides doing good, donating our money or time actually makes us [feel / to feel] good.



409. Scientific research provides convincing data to support the evidence [that / which] giving is a powerful path to lasting happiness.



410. Scientific research provides convincing data to support the evidence that giving is a powerful path to [last / lasting] happiness.



411. The Secret to [Happinessing / Happiness].



412. [Help / Helping] others may just be the secret to living a life that is not only happier but also healthier, wealthier, more productive, and meaningful.


 

영시한 SP1-7


413. Teens for Jeans Started by a non-profit organization, [it / which] is a campaign in which teenagers in the U.S. collect pairs of jeans and give them to local homeless youth.



414. Teens for Jeans Started by a non-profit organization, it is a campaign [in them / in which] teenagers in the U.S. collect pairs of jeans and give them to local homeless youth.



415. Teens for Jeans Started by a non-profit organization, it is a campaign in which teenagers in the U.S. collect pairs [for / of] jeans and give them to local homeless youth.



416. Volunteers gather for the clean-up and [is / are] provided with cleaning tools such as plastic gloves and bags.



417. Volunteers record [that / what] they pick up and the data is used to find out the sources of trash, and to study how to reduce trash.



418. Volunteers record what they pick up and the data is [using / used] to find out the sources of trash, and to study how to reduce trash.



419. Volunteers record what they pick up and the data is used to find out the sources of trash, and [to / X] study how to reduce trash.



420. With the [collecting / collected] money, meals for people in need are served.


 

영시한 SP2-1


421. "I hope you shoot only tin cans in the garden, but I know you'll want to hunt birds," he says to his children, [whose / who] are learning how to shoot a gun.



422. "Shoot as many bluejays as you want, but [remember / remembers]that it's a sin to kill a mockingbird.



423. That's [why / because] it's a sin to kill a mockingbird."



424. They don't eat up people's gardens or [steal / steals] their food.



425. To Kill a Mockingbird In the early part of the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, the heroine and her brother are told [what / that] by their father never to kill a mockingbird.



426. [Killing / to Kill] a Mockingbird In the early part of the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, the heroine and her brother are told by their father never to kill a mockingbird.


 

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427. At the same time, she also shows how [important / importantly] it is to remain just, fair, and understanding in such a society.



428. At the same time, she also shows how important it is to remain just, fair, and [understand / understanding] in such a society.



429. For this reason, To Kill a Mockingbird has long been a book loved not only by Americans [but / so] also by many people around the world.



430. In To Kill a Mockingbird, there are characters like mockingbirds, [whose / who] are innocent and harmless.



431. It has been [translating / translated] in 40 different languages, and more than 40 million copies have been sold.



432. It has been [translating / translated] in 40 different languages, and more than 40 million copies have been sold.



433. Lee wrote To Kill a Mockingbird [basing / based] on her own childhood experiences.



434. Through their stories, the author Harper Lee shows how an unfair society harms innocent people and [prevent / prevents] others from helping them.



435. [In To / To In] Kill a Mockingbird, there are characters like mockingbirds, who are innocent and harmless.


 

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436. Boo is known [to / as] a "Monster" for stabbing his father in his leg when he was a boy, but no one actually witnessed the accident.



437. Curious [to / about] what he looks like and why he remains hidden, the children share rumors about him and try to get him to come out of his house.



438. Curious about [how / what] he looks like and why he remains hidden, the children share rumors about him and try to get him to come out of his house.



439. Curious about [that / what] he looks like and why he remains hidden, the children share rumors about him and try to get him to come out of his house.



440. Curious about what he looks like and why he remains [hidden / hiddening], the children share rumors about him and try to get him to come out of his house.



441. Curious about what he looks like and why he remains hidden, the children share rumors about him and [try / tries] to get him to come out of his house.



442. He has not been [seeing / seen] by anyone for many years, and the adults of Maycomb do not want to talk about him.



443. Here, the same families [have been done / have been doing] the same things for generation after generation, and Atticus is a lawyer just like his father was.



444. Scout, Jem, and their friend Dill are [fascinating / fascinated] by the haunted house in their neighborhood and the man who lives there, Arthur "Boo"Radley.



445. Scout, Jem, and their friend Dill are fascinated by the [haunting / haunted] house in their neighborhood and the man who lives there, Arthur "Boo"Radley.



446. While they are acting out the story of his life one day, Atticus stops them, [telled / telling] them to see things from other people's points of view.



447. [Killing / to Kill] a Mockingbird is the story of a young girl growing up in a southern town during the 1930s, when African-American people were facing severe discrimination.


 

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448. He leaves small gifts in a tree outside the Radley home, fixes and [return / returns] Jem's lost pants, and puts a blanket on Scout's shoulders, while she is out in the cold weather looking at a neighbor's house that is on fire.



449. However, he never shows [him / himself], so Scout grows more and more curious about him.



450. Jem and Scout are also bullied by other children [because of / because for] this.



451. Meanwhile, Atticus agrees to defend an African-American man named Tom Robinson, [whose / who] has been accused of attacking a young white woman, Mayella Ewell.



452. Meanwhile, Atticus agrees to defend an African-American man named Tom Robinson, who has been [accusing / accused] of attacking a young white woman, Mayella Ewell.



453. Meanwhile, Atticus agrees to defend an African-American man named Tom Robinson, who has been [accusing / accused] of attacking a young white woman, Mayella Ewell.



454. [Though / Despite] the children's playful actions, Boo shows signs of affection for them.


 

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455. Both Atticus and his children are [shocking / shocked] by the injustice of what has happened to Tom.



456. Both Atticus and his children are shocked by the injustice of [how / what] has happened to Tom.



457. Despite the fact [that / which] Tom has been convicted and is now dead, Bob Ewell feels that he has been insulted and tries to take his revenge.



458. Despite the fact that Tom has been [convicting / convicted] and is now dead, Bob Ewell feels that he has been insulted and tries to take his revenge.



459. Despite the fact that Tom has been [convicting / convicted] and is now dead, Bob Ewell feels that he has been insulted and tries to take his revenge.



460. Despite the fact that Tom has been convicted and [is / are] now dead, Bob Ewell feels that he has been insulted and tries to take his revenge.



461. One day during the trial, Atticus provides clear evidence [that / which]Tom never attacked Mayella and that she and her father, Bob Ewell, are lying.



462. One day during the trial, Atticus provides clear evidence that Tom never attacked Mayella and that she and her father, Bob Ewell, [is / are] lying.



463. She and the [wounding / wounded] Jem are brought back to their house by Boo.



464. Tom later tries to escape from prison and [is / are] shot to death, and Scout finds that most of her neighbors don't care about this.



465. Tom later tries to escape from prison and is shot [for / to] death, and Scout finds that most of her neighbors don't care about this.



466. [Though / Despite] the fact that Tom has been convicted and is now dead, Bob Ewell feels that he has been insulted and tries to take his revenge.


 

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467. He knows that any further investigation will harm Boo, and he doesn't want to do that because he knows that Boo has risked [him / himself] to save the children.



468. She imagines seeing [her / herself] and her brother from Boo's perspective and finally understands what her father meant when he told her to put herself in other people's places.



469. When Boo [disappears / disappears into] the house, never to be seen again, Scout thinks about all the things he has done for her and Jem and regrets that they have never given him anything in return.



470. When Boo disappears into the house, never [to be seen / being seen]again, Scout thinks about all the things he has done for her and Jem and regrets that they have never given him anything in return.



471. When Boo disappears into the house, never to be seen again, Scout thinks about all the things he has done for her and Jem and [regret / regrets]that they have never given him anything in return.



472. [Stand / Standing] on the porch of the Radley house, she sees the village as Boo has always seen it.


 

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473. "One time he said you never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and [walk / walks] around in them.



474. "One time he said you never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk [in around / around in] them.



475. However, they also taught her the importance of sympathy, [understanded / understanding], and a sense of justice.



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