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영지민 1-1
become

fan

feel

focusing

following

important

live

self

year

yourself



① A Letter from Your Future Self. ② Dear my 17-year-old self, I know you are now struggling with your new freshman year. ③ You sometimes feel stressed out because you wake up early every morning and take tough classes. ④ You may occasionally feel that you are not important. ⑤ However, everything will get better. ⑥ Here are some ways to live more positively through this year. ⑦ You will have realized by the time you are 27 that the following tips were really important to you. ⑧ I can remember you are a huge fan of some soccer players and singers. ⑨ Following their lives is okay if it helps you relax. ⑩ But you also need to become a fan of yourself. ⑪ It doesn't mean your favorite celebrities aren't important. ⑫ But someday you will suddenly feel that focusing on yourself is more important than focusing on them. ⑬ So I suggest that you keep a healthy life balance. ⑭ Become a bigger fan of yourself than people on TV or the Internet.


▫ freshman:① 신입생 ② 1학년 ▫ occasionally:① 가끔 ② 때때로 3.종종


미래의 너에게서 온 편지. 17세 나에게, 나는 지금 네가 신입생으로 고군분투하고 있다는 것을 알아. 너는 매일 아침 일찍 일어나야 하고, 어려운 수업을 받기 때문에 때때로 스트레스를 받아. 그리 고 가끔 네가 중요하지 않다고 느낄 거야. 그러나 모든 것이 좋아질 거야. 여기 네가 올해 더 긍정적으로 살 방법이 몇 가지 있어. 너는 다음 조언들이 너에게 정말 중요했음을 네가 27 살일 때쯤이면 깨닫게 될 거야. 나는 네가 어떤 축구 선수들과 가수들의 열렬한 팬이라는 걸 기억해. 그것이 너를 편하게 해 준 다면 그들의 삶을 좇는 것도 괜찮아. 하지만 너는 또한 네 자신의 팬이 될 필요가 있어. 네가 가장 좋아하는 연예인들이 중요하지 않다는 걸 의미하지는 않아. 하지만, 언젠가 너는 갑자기 네 자신에게 집중하는 것이 그들에게 집중하는 것보다 더 중요하다는 걸 느끼게 될 거야. 그래서 나는 네가 건강한 생활의 균형을 유지할 것을 제안해. TV나 인터넷에 나오는 다른 사람들보다 네 자신의 더 열렬한 팬이 되렴.





영지민 1-2
care

friend

help

time

true



① Yesterday, I recommended that your brother not care too much about how many friends he has. ② Not having many friends doesn't mean anything is wrong. ③ Friends are about quality, not quantity. ④ Do not care about the number of your friends or SNS friends. ⑤ If you care too much about that, you will end up wasting time with negative friendships. ⑥ True friends help you understand and love yourself. ⑦ They focus on your strengths and try to help you with your problems. ⑧ I know it's hard to believe, but not all your friends at 17 will be your friends at 27. ⑨ Thankfully, your "true" friends will still be with you. ⑩ So spend more time with them and be the best friend you can be to them.


▫ recommended:① 추천하다 ② …을 권하다 3.…을 마음에 들게 하다


어제, 나는 남동생에게 친구가 몇 명인지에 너무 많이 신경 쓰지 말라고 했어. 친구들이 많지 않다는 것이 무언가가 잘못된 것을 의미하지는 않아. 친구들은 양이 아니라 질에 관한 거야. 친구들이나 SNS 친구들의 수에 대해 신경 쓰지 마. 네가 그것에 대해 너무 많이 신경을 쓴다면 너는 결국 부정적인 우정으로 시간을 낭비하게 될 거야. 진정한 친구들은 네가 너 자신을 이해하고 사랑하도록 도와줘. 그들은 네 장점에 초점을 맞추고, 네가 네 문제를 도우려고 노력해. 믿기 힘들 거라는 걸 알지만 17살 때의 네 친구들 모두가 27살 때의 친구들은 아닐 거야. 고맙게도 네 '진정한' 친구들은 여전히 너와 함께 있을 거야. 그러니 그들과 더 많은 시간을 보내고, 네가 그들에게 될 수 있는 최고의 친구가 돼.





영지민 1-3
action

future

goal

know

look

need

present

thinking

want



① There's something else. ② Stop thinking so much about the future! ③ In your classes, you have trouble focusing, don't you? ④ Your mind is in the future, worrying about the next exam or your future job. ⑤ Thinking about the future is important, but you also need to focus on the present moment. ⑥ You are wasting your precious present time! ⑦ A Chinese proverb says, "If you want to know your past, look into your present conditions, and if you want to know your future, look into your present actions." ⑧ To achieve your goals, you need to do more than just dream about them. ⑨ So take action now, and in ten years you will have achieved your goals.





또 다른 말할 것이 있어. 미래에 대해 너무 많이 생각하는 것을 그만해! 수업 중에 너는 집중하는 데에 어려움이 있지, 그렇지 않니? 네 마음은 다음 시험이나 미래 직업에 대해 걱정하면서 미래 속에 있어. 미래에 대해 생각하는 것은 중요하지만 너는 또한 현재에 집중하는 것이 필요해. 너는 너의 귀중한 현재를 낭비하고 있어! 중국 속담에 이런 말이 있어, 네가 너의 과거를 알고 싶다면 네 현재 상황을 들여다봐라, 그리고 네가 네 미래를 알고 싶다면 네 현재 행동들을 들여다봐라. 네 목표를 이루기 위해 너는 그것들에 대해 단지 꿈꾸기보다 더 많은 걸 해야 할 필요가 있어. 그러니 지금 행동에 옮겨, 그러면 10 년 후에 너는 네 목표를 이룰 거야.





영지민 1-4
attitude

go

love

tell

time



① Lastly, don't just go through your high school days with a negative attitude. ② Stay positive. ③ Having a good attitude will help you keep your spirits up when things don't go your way in life. ④ Live and enjoy every moment. ⑤ I can tell you that right now is not only a very challenging time for you, but it is also a very fun time. ⑥ Thank you and I look forward to writing you another letter when you are 27. ⑦ P.S. ⑧ Please tell your family you love them. ⑨ And don't forget that your parents' advice comes from their love for you.


▫ attitude:① 태도 ② 자세


마지막으로 너의 고등학교 시절을 부정적인 태도로 보내지 마. 긍정적이어야 해. 좋은 태도를 가지는 것은 살면서 어떤 일이 뜻대로 되지 않을 때 네 기운을 북돋우게 도와줄 거야. 매 순간을 즐기며 살아. 나는 바로 지금이 너에게 매우 도전적인 시간이지만, 또한 매우 재미있는 시간이라고 말해 줄 수 있어. 네게 고맙고, 네가 27살일 때 너에게 또 다른 편지를 쓰기를 기대할게. P.S. 가족들에게 네가 그들을 사랑한다고 말해. 그리고 네 부모님의 충고는 너를 위한 그들의 사랑에서 나온다는 것을 잊지 마.





영지민 2-1
color

fact



① Fascinating Facts About Colors. ② Colors are everywhere: from our favorite shoes and clothes to the wonders of nature and outer space. ③ Colors have existed ever since the universe began, and they play an important part in daily life. ④ But how much do you really know about colors? ⑤ Here are some interesting facts about colors and how they affect our lives.


▫ affect:① 영향을 주다 ② 작용하다 ▫ existed:① 존재하다 ② 존속하다 ▫ fascinating:① 멋진 ② 매혹적인


색에 관한 매력적인 사실들. 색은 어디에나 있다: 우리가 좋아하는 신발과 옷에서부터 자연과 외계의 경이로운 것들까지. 색은 우주가 시작된 이래로 존재했고, 그것들은 우리 일상생활에서 중요한 역할을 담당한다. 그러나 여러분은 색에 대해 진정으로 알고 있는 것이 얼마나 될까? 여기 색과 그것들이 우리 삶에 어떻게 영향을 주고 있는지에 관한 흥미로운 몇몇 사실들이 있다.





영지민 2-2
chromosome

color

gene

men

only

orange

perceive

red

see

variation

women



① Do men and women see colors differently? ② It's said that women have a more advanced ability to see red and orange colors than men. ③ This means that women are good at identifying the many variations of the color red, while men may only see light red and dark red. ④ ere is a natural reason why men can't see what is so obvious to women. ⑤ It is generally known that there is a gene that allows people to perceive the color red. ⑥ Interestingly, the gene is found only in the X chromosome and maintains a lot more variations than other genes. ⑦ Because women have two X chromosomes, they can perceive more variations in the red-orange color spectrum than men, who have only one X chromosome. ⑧ Give yourself a little test. ⑨ How many shades of red do you see in the image below?


▫ chromosome:염색체 ▫ identifying:① 감별 ② 확인 ▫ perceive:① 인지하다 ② 인식하다 3.…로 생각하다 ▫ spectrum:① 스펙트럼 ② 범위 3.잔상 ▫ variations:변분법


남자와 여자가 색을 다르게 보는가? 여자는 남자보다 빨간색과 주 황색을 보는 더 진보된 능력을 가지고 있다. 이것은 여자가 빨간색의 많은 변형색을 인지하는 데에 능숙하고 반면에 남자들은 밝은 빨간색과 어두운 빨간색만을 볼 수 있을지도 모른다는 것을 의미한다. 여자에 게 매우 명확한 것을 남자가 볼 수 없는 자연스러운 이유가 있다. 사람들이 빨간색을 인지하게 하는 유전자가 있다는 것은 일반적으로 알려져 있다. 흥미롭게도, 이 유전자는 X 염색체에서만 발견되고 다른 유전자에 비해 더 많은 변형을 보존한다. 여자가 두 개의 X 염색체를 가지기 때문에, 그들은 한 개의 X 염색체를 가진 남자보다 빨간색과 주황색 색 스펙트럼에서 더 많은 변형을 인지할 수 있다. 간단한 테스트를 해 보라. 아래 이미지에서 얼마나 많은 빨간색의 색조 차이를 볼 수 있는가?





영지민 2-3
appetite

blue

color

food

help

lose

plate

spaghetti

time

try

weight



① Do colors help you lose weight? ② Have a seat and try some delicious spaghetti! ③ You are free to choose either the spaghetti on the blue plate or the spaghetti on the red plate. ④ Which one would you like to try? ⑤ You may be surprised to know that the color blue can help you lose weight. ⑥ It sounds like nonsense, but time and time again it's been demonstrated that the color blue naturally suppresses your appetite. ⑦ Blue food is actually highly unusual in nature. ⑧ There are no leafy blue vegetables or blue meats. ⑨ That may be why we don't have an automatic appetite response to blue. ⑩ Another interesting fact is that in the past, blue (together with purple and black) was a "color warning sign" of potentially poisonous food. ⑪ Thus, almost by instinct, we tend to avoid food that is blue.


▫ appetite:① 식욕 ② 관심 ▫ automatic:① 자동의 ② 자연적으로 ▫ demonstrated:① ~을 논증하다 ② ~을 명시하다 ▫ instinct:① 본능 ② 직감 ▫ leafy:① 잎이 많은 ② 잎으로 된 ▫ poisonous:① 독성의 ② 독 3.유해한 ▫ suppresses:① 억압하다 ② 공표하지 않다


색이 몸무게를 줄이는 데에 도움을 주는가? 자리에 앉아서 맛있는 스파게티를 좀 맛보라. 당신은 파란 색 접시에 담긴 스파게티와 빨간색 접시에 담긴 스파게티 중 하나를 자유롭게 고를 수 있다. 당신은 어느 것을 먹고 싶은가? 당신은 파란색이 당신이 몸무게를 줄이는 것을 돕는다는 것을 알면 놀랄지도 모른다. 터무니없는 말처럼 들리겠지만 파란색이 자연스럽게 당신의 식욕을 억제한다는 것은 누차 증명되었다. 파란색 음식은 실제로 자연에서 매우 드물다. 파란색 잎 식물이나 파란색 고기는 없다. 그것이 우리가 파란색에 자동적으로 식욕이 당기지 않는 이유일는지 모른다. 또다른 흥미로운 사실은 과거에 파란색(보라색 과 검정색과 함께)이 독이 들어 있을 가능성이 있다는 '경고 색'이었다는 것이다. 그래서 거의 본능적으로 우리는 파란색인 음식을 피하는 경향이 있다.





영지민 2-4
blue

boy

color

girl

pink

think



① Why is pink for girls? ② What color do you think looks better for girls, pink or blue? ③ Many of you would answer pink almost automatically. ④ But did you know that this was not the case a long time ago? ⑤ During the early 20th century, it was generally accepted that pink was for boys and blue for girls. ⑥ People thought that pink was a more decisive and stronger color and more suitable for boys, while blue was more delicate and prettier, thus more proper for girls. ⑦ It was when the women's liberation movement arrived that mothers began thinking differently. ⑧ They wanted their daughters to have more options and feel freer to take an active part in society. ⑨ So they started dressing their girls in pink. ⑩ What would life be like without colors? ⑪ Don't you think it would become emotionless and lifeless? ⑫ Truly, colors are everywhere and they affect the way we live and think.


▫ affect:① 영향을 주다 ② 작용하다 ▫ automatically:① 자동적으로 ② 자연히 ▫ decisive:① 결정적인 ② 단호한 ▫ delicate:① 섬세한 ② 민감한 ▫ emotionless:① 감정이 없는 ② 감정이 나타나지 않는 ▫ liberation:① 해방 ② 광복 ▫ lifeless:① 죽은 ② 기운이 없는


여자아이에게 왜 분홍색일까? 분홍색과 파란색 중에서 여자아이에게 더 잘 어울리는 것이 무슨 색이라고 생각하는가? 여러분 중 다수는 거의 자동적으로 분홍색이라고 답할 것이다. 그러나 이것이 옛날에는 사실이 아니었음을 알고 있는가? 20세기 초 경에 분홍색은 남자아이들을 위한 색이었고 파란색은 여자아이들을 위한 색이라는 인식이 일반적으로 받아들여졌다. 사람들은 분홍색이 더 단호하고 강한 색이어서 남자아이들에게 더 적합하고, 반면에 파란색은 더 섬세하고 예쁘고 그래서 여자아이들에게 더 적합한 색이라고 생각했다. 어머니들이 다르게 생각하기 시작한 것은 여성 해방 운동이 일어난 때부터이다. 그들은 그들의 딸들이 더 선택권을 가지고 사회에서 더 자유롭게 활동적인 역할을 수행할 수 있기를 원했다. 그래서 그들은 그들의 딸에게 분홍색을 입히기 시작했다. 색이 없는 삶은 어떨까? 감성이 없거나 활기가 없게 될 것이라고 생각하지 않는가? 확실히, 색은 어디에나 있고 그것들은 우리가 살고 생각하는 방식에 영향을 준다.





비김 1-1
brian

brother

earphone

effectively

expres

lost

starting

talk



① Speak your Mind Effectively! ② Welcome to "All about Teens." ③ I'm Dr Carter. ④ Today, we're going to talk about using good communication skills to express ourselves more effectively. ⑤ Let's start with our first clip about Brian. ⑥ When he tries to talk to his brother, he always ends up arguing with his brother. ⑦ Let's find out the reason why he has this problem. ⑧ You lost my earphones again. ⑨ Why are you so careless? ⑩ Brian is starting a sentence with "you" to express his feelings. ⑪ Instead, he should use the "I-message." ⑫ Starting with "I" can help him focus on what he feels or thinks rather than point the finger at his brother. ⑬ I’m really upset because my favorite earphones are lost.


▫ arguing:① ~을 논하다 ② 설득하여 하게 하다 ▫ careless:① 부주의한 ② 조심성 없는 ▫ clip:① 동영상 ② 클립 3.속도


당신의 마음을 효과적으로 말하라! '십 대들의 모든 것'에 오신 걸 환영합니다. 저는 Carter 박사입니다. 오늘 우리는 자신을 더 효과적으로 표현하기 위해 적절한 의사소통 기술을 사용하는 것에 대해 이야기해 보겠습니다. Brian에 대한 첫 번째 동영상으로 시작해 보죠. Brian이 남동생과 이야기하려고 할때, 그는 결국 동생과 항상 말다툼을 하게 돼요. 그에게 이런 문제가 있는 이유를 알아봅시다. "너 또 내 이어폰 잃어버렸지. 너는 왜 그렇게 조심성이 없니?" Brian은 그의 감정을 표현하기 위해 '너'로 문장을 시작하고 있군요. 대신에 그는 '나 메시지'를 써야 해요. '나'로 시작하는 것은 그가 남동생을 비난하기보다는 자신이 느끼거나 생각하는 것에 집중하도록 도울 수있답니다. "내가 가장 좋아하는 이어폰이 없어져서 난 정말 속상해."





비김 1-2
calli

listen

mom

talk

time



① Next is Calli. ② She is trying to talk to her mother, but she is busy preparing to go to work. ③ Let's have a look. ④ Hey, Mom. ⑤ Could I talk to you about something? ⑥ Calli needs to find the right time to talk to her mom. ⑦ Maybe Calli's mom wanted to listen to what Calli was going to say. ⑧ But she didn't have enough time to talk with her daughter. ⑨ Calli should pick a time when her mom is ready to listen. ⑩ Hey, Mom. ⑪ Could I talk to you about something? ⑫ Sure.





다음은 Calli입니다. 그녀는 어머니와 이야기하려고 하지만, 어머니는 출근 준비로 바쁘시군요. 한번 보시죠. "저기, 엄마. 엄마랑 뭔가에 대해 이야기 좀 할 수 있을까요?" Calli는 어머니와 이야기를 나눌 적절한 때를 찾아야 해요. Calli의 어머니도 아마 Calli가 말하려고 했던 것을 듣고 싶어 하셨을 거예요. 그러나 어머니에게는 딸과 이야기할 시간이 충분하지 않았어요. Calli는 어머니가 들으실 준비가 된 때를 골라야해요. "저기, 엄마. 엄마랑 뭔가에 대해 이야기좀 할 수 있을까요?" "물론이지."





비김 1-3
anna

bag

clip

demand

desk

julie

put

word



① Now, let's take a look at our last clip. ② Anna and Julie are best friends, but Anna often hurts Julie's feelings. ③ Don’t put your bag on my desk! ④ Julie probably felt uncomfortable because Anna made a demand using the word "don't." ⑤ People simply don't like taking orders. ⑥ Anna should try to use words such as "can," "could," or "please." ⑦ Then, what she says will sound like a request rather than a demand. ⑧ Could you put your bag on your desk? ⑨ As we saw in the video clips, a small change in the way we express ourselves can solve or even prevent communication problems. ⑩ Let’s keep these tips in mind!


▫ clip:① 동영상 ② 클립 3.속도 ▫ demand:① 요구하다 ② 수요


이제 마지막 동영상을 봅시다. Anna와 Julie는 가장 친한 친구 사이이지만, Anna가 종종 Julie의 마음을 상하게 합니다. "네 가방을 내 책상에 놓지 마!" Anna가 don't라는 단어를 써서 요구했기 때문에 Julie는 아마 불편하게 느꼈을 거예요. 사람들은 명령 받는 것을 전혀 좋아하지 않아요. Anna는 can이나 could, please와 같은 말을 사용하도록 노력해야 해요. 그러면 그녀가 하는 말이 요구보다는 요청처럼 들릴 거예요. "네 가방은 네 책상에 놔 두겠니?" 우리가 동영상에서 본 것처럼, 우리 자신을 표현하는 방식을 조금만 바꾸어도 의사소통의 문제를 해결하거나 심지어 막을 수도 있답니다. 이 조언들을 명심합시다!





비김 2-1
animal

forest

live

madagascar

nature

spiky

stone



① The World Through My Eyes The beauty of nature inspires us all. ② Let's find out how people from different fields of work get inspired by nature. ③ Lin Wang, Ecologist Tsingy, the Stone Forest of Madagascar I've been visiting the stone forest of Madagascar to study plants and animals for over 20 years. ④ The spiky stones of this place are true miracles of nature. ⑤ This amazing shape has been created by rainfall. ⑥ Rain has cut down the stones and made them sharp and spiky over a long period of time. ⑦ The environment is harsh for animals to live in, but they have found ways to survive. ⑧ For example, lemurs, which only live in Madagascar, have frog-like legs that help them jump from one stone tower to another. ⑨ For me, the stone forest is like a jack-in-the-box. ⑩ It always surprises me and keeps me on my toes!


▫ ecologist:① 생태학자 ② 환경 보호론자 3.사회 생태학자 ▫ harsh:① 가혹한 ② 거친 ▫ inspires:① 분발하게 하다 ② 불어넣다 ▫ rainfall:① 강우량 ② 강수량 ▫ spiky:① 끝이 뾰족한 ② 못투성이의 3.대못이 있는


내 눈에 비친 세계 자연의 아름다움은 우리 모두에게 영감을 준다. 서로 다른 직업 분야의 사람들이 자연에 의해 어떻게 영감을 받는지 알아보자. Lin Wang, 생태학자 Tsingy, 마다가스카르의 석림 나는 20년 이상 동안 식물과 동물을 연구하기 위해서 마다가스카르의 석림을 방문하고 있다. 이 지역의 뾰족한 돌들은 진정한 자연의 놀라움이다. 이 놀라운 모양은 비에 의해서 만들어졌다. 비가 오랜 기간 동안 돌을 침식해서 날카롭고 뾰족하게 만들었다. 이런 환경은 동물들이 살기에 험난하지만, 동물들은 생존할 방법들을 찾아냈다. 예를 들어, 마다가스카르에서만 사는 여우원숭이는 한 개의 돌탑에서 다른 돌탑으로 뛸 수 있도록 도와주는 개구리와 같은 다리를 가지고 있다. 나에게 석림은 '잭 인더박스(열면 인형이 튀어나오는 상자)'와 같다. 그것은 늘 나를 놀라게 하고 정신을 바짝 차리게 한다!





비김 2-2
caño

color

cristale

make

river

world



① Amber Smith, Fashion Colorist Caño Cristales, the River of Five Colors of Colombia The world is filled with millions of different colors. ② It is my job to mix, develop, and create colors for clothing. ③ Over the years, I've been gaining insights from the beautiful colors of Caño Cristales. ④ You cannot see the wonderful mixed colors of this river anywhere else in the world. ⑤ The combination of colorful plants under the water and sunlight makes the colors more alive and bright. ⑥ Whenever I visit the Caño Cristales, it makes me think that maybe there are still countless colors that are waiting to be created.


▫ countless:① 많은 ② 셀 수 없는 ▫ insights:① 통찰 ② 명찰


Amber Smith, 패션 색채 전문가 Caño Cristales, 콜롬비아의 다섯 색깔의 강 세계는 수백만의 다양한 색깔로 가득 차 있다. 의류를 위해서 색을 섞고, 발전시키고, 만들어 내는 것이 나의 일이다. 수년 동안, 나는 카뇨 크리스탈레스의 아름다운 색으로부터 영감을 얻어 오고 있다. 이 강의 아름답게 혼합된 색깔은 세상 어느 다른 곳에서도 볼 수 없다. 물속의 화려한 식물들과 햇빛의 결합은 그 색깔을 더 생생하고 밝게 만든다. 내가 카뇨 크리스탈레스를 방문할 때마다 그 강은 나로 하여금 아마도 여전히 만들어지기를 기다리고 있는 셀 수 없이 많은 색깔이 있음을 생각하게 한다.





비김 2-3
beauty

iceland

location

movie

national

park

place

scout

vatnajökull



① Danny Mehta, Location Scout Vatnajökull National Park, Frozen Beauty of Iceland I'm a location scout and my job is finding perfect places to shoot movies. ② Iceland is the best place for many location scouts to visit due to its unusual beauty. ③ My personal favorite is the Vatnajökull National Park. ④ The sharp cliffs, blue glacier caves, and long mountain ranges can stand in for any place in the world or the universe. ⑤ In fact, the recent sci-fi movie we shot here was produced without using computer graphics! ⑥ Iceland can help make our wildest dreams come true on the movie screen.


▫ glacier:빙하 ▫ scout:① 스카우트 ② 정찰 ▫ wildest:① 빗나가게 ② 황야 3.난폭하게 공격하다


Danny Mehta, 장소 섭외가 Vatnajökull 국립 공원, 아이슬란드의 얼음으로 덮인 아름다움 나는 장소 섭외가이고 나의 일은 영화를 찍기에 완벽한 장소를 찾는 것이다. 아이슬란드는 비범한 아름다움 때문에 많은 장소 섭외가들이 방문하기에 최고의 장소이다. 내가 개인적으로 가장 선호하는 곳은 바트나이외쿠틀 국립 공원이다. 가파른 절벽, 푸른 빙하 동굴, 그리고 긴 산맥들은 세계나 혹은 우주의 어느 장소도 대신할 수 있다. 사실상, 우리가 여기서 찍은 최근의 공상 과학 영화는 컴퓨터 그래픽 없이 만들어졌다! 아이슬란드는 우리의 가장 무모한 꿈을 영화 스크린에서 실현할 수 있게 해준다.





능김 1-1
language

learn

new

student



① Why Do People Learn Foreign Languages? ② Many students learn new languages because of school requirements. ③ Many others learn them for fun. ④ In any case, students everywhere have found interesting ways to study new languages. ⑤ Let's meet these students and listen to their ideas.


▫ requirements:① 요구되는 일 ② 필요한 것 3.필요 조건


사람들은 왜 외국어를 배울까? 많은 학생들이 학교 필수 수업 때문에 새로운 언어를 배운다. 다른 많은 이들은 재미로 그것을 배운다. 어떤 경우가 되었건, 도처에 있는 학생들은 새로운 언어를 공부하는 재미있는 방법들을 찾아냈다. 이 학생들을 만나서 그들의 생각을 들어 보자.





능김 1-2
help

improve

language

learn

movie

soccer

spanish

try

used

watching

writing



① I Love Soccer! ② I'm a big fan of a Spanish soccer team. ③ I want to understand interviews with my favorite players. ④ However, it's not easy because I don't know Spanish that well. ⑤ How can I improve my Spanish? ⑥ The best way to learn a new language is to practice it every day. ⑦ I have changed the language of my phone to Spanish, and I have been writing my shopping lists in Spanish! ⑧ What's most important is to become familiar with the language first. ⑨ I suggest watching Spanish movies often. ⑩ It will help you get used to the sound of the language. ⑪ If the people talk too fast, try watching Spanish children's movies first. ⑫ Some words are used only in soccer, not in everyday life. ⑬ Learn some soccer vocabulary and memorize it. ⑭ Also, why don't you try writing a review of a match in Spanish? ⑮ It will help you improve your writing skills.


▫ memorize:① 암기하다 ② …을 기억하다 3.학습하다 ▫ vocabulary:① 어휘 ② 단어


저는 축구를 사랑해요! 저는 스페인 축구팀의 열렬한 팬입니다. 저는 제가 정말 좋아하는 선수들과의 인터뷰를 이해하고 싶어요. 하지만 스페인어를 그렇게 잘 알지 못하기 때문에 그게 쉽지가 않아요. 어떻게 하면 제 스페인어 실력을 늘릴 수 있을까요? 새로운 언어를 배우는 가장 좋은 방법은 그 언어를 매일 연습하는 것이랍니다. 저는 제 휴대 전화의 설정을 스페인어로 바꿨고, 구입할 물건 목록을 스페인어로 적어 오고 있어요! 가장 중요한 것은 우선 그 언어에 친숙해지는 거예요. 전 스페인 영화를 자주 볼 것을 제안하는데요. 그것은 당신이 그 언어의 소리에 익숙해지는 데 도움이 될 거예요. 만약 사람들이 너무 빨리 말한다면, 어린이를 위한 스페인 영화들을 먼저 봐 보세요. 어떤 단어들은 일상생활에서가 아닌, 오직 축구에서만 사용됩니다. 몇몇 축구 어휘들을 배우고 암기하세요. 또한, 스페인어로 경기에 대 한 후기를 써 보는 건 어때요? 그것은 당신이 작문 실력을 향상하는 데 도움이 될 거예요.





능김 1-3
club

drama

dream

korean

message

post

song

subtitle

understand

watching



① No More Subtitles! ② DREAM4 is back! ③ I'm so excited to see my favorite Korean boy band perform. ④ Their singing and their dancing are just perfect. ⑤ I want to understand their songs without subtitles or translations though. ⑥ Any tips? ⑦ You should find friends who are interested in DREAM4 and start a club. ⑧ In my club, we motivate one another. ⑨ We translate songs and sing together. ⑩ Doing these things is fun and really improves our Korean! ⑪ Follow DREAM4 on social media. ⑫ They often post short messages in Korean about how they are doing. ⑬ They also post pictures with the messages, so you can understand the posts more easily. ⑭ I recommend watching Korean dramas. ⑮ I've been watching Korean dramas for a year, and they're really interesting! ⑯ You can use Korean subtitles for help with listening. ⑰ It's also a good idea to print out the subtitles and read them first.


▫ motivate:① 동기 부여 ② 의욕 3.목적의식 ▫ translate:① 번역하다 ② 옮기다 3.해석하다 ▫ translations:① 번역 ② 해석


더는 자막 없이! DREAM4가 돌아왔어요! 저는 제가 정말 좋아하는 한국의 보이 밴드가 공연하는 것을 보게 되어 너무 신이 나요. 그들의 노래와 춤은 정 말 완벽하답니다. 그렇지만 저는 자막이나 번역 없이 그들의 노래를 이해하고 싶어요. 어떤 조언들이 있을까요? 당신은 DREAM4에 관심이 있는 친구들을 찾아 동아리를 시작해야 해요. 우리 동아리에서 우리는 서로 동기를 부여한답니다. 우리는 함께 노래를 번역하고 노래를 불러요. 이런 것들을 하는 것은 재미있고 정말로 우리의 한국어 실력을 향상해요! 소셜 미디어를 통해 DREAM4를 팔로하세요. 그들은 자신들이 어떻게 지내고 있는지에 대해 한국어로 짧은 메시지를 자주 올려요. 그들은 또한 메시지와 함께 사진을 올리기 때문에, 당신은 게시물을 더 쉽게 이해할 수 있어요. 저는 한국 드라마를 볼 것을 추천해요. 저는 1년 동안 한국 드라마를 시청해 왔고, 그것들은 정말 재미있어요! 듣기에 도움이 되도록 한국 어 자막을 사용할 수 있고요. 자막을 출력해서 먼저 읽는 것도 좋은 생각이랍니다.





능김 1-4
language

learning



① What Works for You? ② There are hundreds of good tips out there, but everyone has their own way of learning. ③ Find what keeps you motivated; then you will enjoy learning more. ④ Remember, every language is hard at first, but a new language can make your world much bigger!





무엇이 당신에게 도움이 될까? 세상에는 수백 가지의 좋은 조언이 있지만, 모든 사람들은 자신만의 학습 방법을 가지고 있다. 당신에게 계속 동기를 부여해 주는 것을 찾아 라, 그러면 당신은 학습을 더 즐기게 될 것이다. 기억해라, 모든 언어는 처음에는 어렵지만, 새로운 언어가 당신의 세상을 훨씬 더 넓혀 줄 수 있다!





능김 2-1
body

food

good

look

part



① We all know that a diet containing a variety of foods keeps our bodies healthy. ② But sometimes we are not sure which foods are good for which body parts. ③ Nature, however, gives us a big clue. ④ Look at the following examples. ⑤ Each of these foods not only looks like a certain body part but is also good for that body part.


▫ diet:① 식단 ② 다이어트


우리는 다양한 음식을 포함하는 식사가 우리의 몸을 건강하게 유지해준다는 것을 알고 있다. 그러나 때때로 우리는 어떤 음식이 어떤 신체 부위에 좋은지 잘 모를 때가 있다. 하지만 자연은 우리에게 확실한 단서를 제시해 준다. 다음의 예들을 살펴보자. 각각의 이 음식들은 우리 신체의 특정 부분과 비슷해 보일 뿐만 아니라 그 신체 부위에도 좋다.





능김 2-2
brain

disease

good

heart

human

look

red

shape

similar

tomatoe

walnut



① Slice open a tomato and compare it with the human heart. ② You will see that they look similar. ③ They both have multiple hollow spaces and are red. ④ Researchers say that the chemicals that make tomatoes red are good for your heart and blood. ⑤ In addition, eating tomatoes can lower your risk of heart disease. ⑥ Look at the shape of a walnut. ⑦ Do you notice anything? ⑧ Yes, it's very similar to the shape of the human brain! ⑨ A walnut is divided into two parts, just like the brain. ⑩ Walnuts also have wrinkles, which the brain has too. ⑪ Studies show that walnuts help our brains stay healthy and active. ⑫ They are also good for preventing Alzheimer's disease.


▫ hollow:① 공허한 ② 우묵해지다 ▫ multiple:① 다_ ② 다수의 3.여러 ▫ walnut:① 호두 ② 호두나무 목재 ▫ wrinkles:① …에 주름을 잡다 ② 주름이 지다 3.…을 주름지게 하다


토마토 한 개를 갈라서 그것을 사람의 심장과 비교해 보자. 당신은 그 둘이 비슷해 보인다는 것을 알게 될 것이다. 둘 다 여러 개의 빈 공간이 있고 붉은 색이다. 연구원들은 토마토를 붉게 만드는 화학 물질이 사람의 심장과 피에 유익하다고 한다. 이 외에도, 토마토를 먹는 것이 심장병에 걸릴 위험성을 낮출 수 있다. 호두의 모양을 살펴보자. 뭔가를 알아차릴 수 있는가? 그렇다, 호두의 모양은 인간의 뇌 형태와 매우 유사하다! 호두는 마치 인간의 뇌처럼 두 부분으로 나뉜다. 호두에는 또한 주름이 있는데, 이는 인간의 뇌에도 있는 것이다. 연구 결과는 호두가 사람의 뇌가 건강하고 활동적인 상태를 유지하는 데 도움을 준다는 것을 보여준다. 호두는 또한 알츠하이머병을 예방하는데도 좋다.





능김 2-3
carrot

cell

eye

healthy

help

human

look

onion

vitamin



① A slice of carrot looks like the human eye. ② Carrots have some chemicals that can make vitamin A, which improves your vision. ③ It helps your eyes process light and send a clear image to the brain. ④ So if you want healthy eyes, eat carrots. ⑤ Cutting onions is not fun because it makes you cry. ⑥ But try slicing one anyway. ⑦ You can see that the inside looks a little like a human cell. ⑧ Scientists say that onions contain vitamin B, which helps make new, healthy cells.





썰어 놓은 당근의 모양은 사람의 눈과 비슷해 보인다. 당근에는 비타민 A를 만들 수 있는 화학 성분이 있는데, 그것이 시력을 개선한다. 비타민 A는 눈이 빛을 처리하여 뇌에 선명한 이미지를 보낼 수 있도록 돕는다. 그러므로 건강한 눈을 원한다면, 당근을 먹어라. 양파를 써는 것은 즐겁지 않은데 왜냐하면 그것이 당신을 울게 만들기 때문이다. 그렇지만 어쨌든 하나를 잘라 보아라. 당신은 양파의 내부가 약간 인간의 세포처럼 보인다는 것을 알 수 있다. 과학자들은 양파가 비타민B를 함유하는데, 이 비타민 B가 새롭고 건강한 세포를 만들어 낸다고 주장한다.





능김 2-4
body

come

food

ginger

good

part

stomach



① Now, let's move on to ginger. ② What body part comes to mind when you see it? ③ Doesn't it look like a stomach? ④ You may not like ginger's strong taste or smell, but these come from a special chemical that prevents you from feeling sick and throwing up. ⑤ For this reason, ginger can be good for your stomach. ⑥ Isn't it amazing that some foods mirror the body parts that they are good for? ⑦ Interestingly, there are many other such foods. ⑧ Find as many as you can and try to eat a variety of them.


▫ chemical:① 화학적인 ② 화학물질


이제 생강으로 넘어가 보자. 생강을 보면 몸의 어떤 부위가 생각나는가? 생강이 마치 위장처럼 생기지 않았는가? 당신은 어쩌면 생강의 강한 맛과 냄새를 좋아하지 않을지도 모르지만, 이러한 맛과 냄새는 복통과 구토를 예방하는 생강의 특별한 성분에서 나온다. 이러한 이유로 생강은 당신의 위장에 좋을 수 있다. 어떤 음식이 그 음식이 유익한 신체 부위의 생김새를 반영하고 있다는 점이 놀랍지 않은가? 흥미롭게도 그러한 음식은 상당히 많다. 가능한 한 그러한 음식을 많이 찾아서 다양한 음식을 먹도록 하라.





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1803H1 | Since 2005 위스마트, 임희재 | WAYNE.TISTORY.COM | +821033383436 | 제작일 181015 14:32:26



1803H1 | Since 2005 위스마트, 임희재 | WAYNE.TISTORY.COM | +821033383436 | 제작일 181015 14:32:26


 🎤 단어의 의미 


Administration
 
Consider
 
Developing
 
Endeavor
 
Environmental
 
Follow
 
Grand
 
Honesty
 
Merchandisers
 
Pasteur
 
Prizewinning
 
Stationery
 
Storyteller
 
Suppose
 
Though
 
Underwater
 
Unexpectedly
 
ability
 
accordance
 
achieved
 
advantage
 
advise
 
agreement
 
allow
 
analyzing
 
ankle
 
anticipate
 
appealing
 
appreciate
 
argues
 
arrangement
 
assistance
 
astronaut
 
attached
 
attempted
 
attraction
 
audience
 
available
 
average
 
avoid
 
awe
 
ballerina
 
barriers
 
base
 
behave
 
beneath
 
bin
 
biologist
 
brainstorming
 
broad
 
busily
 
cabin
 
calculus
 
calmly
 
campers
 
capable
 
carries
 
categorize
 
caught
 
celebration
 
cell
 
chemical
 
clarify
 
comment
 
compared
 
conflict
 
consequence
 
context
 
cooperative
 
curiosity
 
currently
 
customer
 
dairy
 
decoration
 
definitive
 
degree
 
depths
 
develop
 
direct
 
disappears
 
discover
 
down
 
dramatic
 
drowning
 
edge
 
effort
 
elevator
 
enables
 
encourage
 
enroll
 
environment
 
escape
 
exception
 
exchange
 
experience
 
exploring
 
exposure
 
extended
 
facilities
 
failures
 
fairy
 
fallen
 
flexible
 
follows
 
freely
 
frequently
 
fruitless
 
fundamental
 
genres
 
grabbed
 
grateful
 
gravy
 
happily
 
hatching
 
headaches
 
heroine
 
historic
 
honest
 
horror
 
hypotheses
 
ideal
 
impact
 
improve
 
inconvenient
 
indicates
 
inexpensive
 
influence
 
inspiration
 
intelligence
 
involve
 
issues
 
lack
 
lanes
 
layout
 
lie
 
likely
 
location
 
lowered
 
magnet
 
manipulate
 
marriage
 
mashed
 
material
 
mathematician
 
maximum
 
measurable
 
memorization
 
metaphor
 
miserable
 
mission
 
motivated
 
mysterious
 
nail
 
negative
 
neighborhoods
 
newest
 
nodded
 
off
 
opinion
 
organizations
 
package
 
painful
 
participants
 
passion
 
peck
 
performances
 
permanently
 
personal
 
philosopher
 
photographer
 
physical
 
pirouette
 
planning
 
playhouse
 
poison
 
policy
 
positive
 
potential
 
practicing
 
presentation
 
prevent
 
product
 
project
 
proof
 
prove
 
purchase
 
purifies
 
quality
 
ratings
 
reach
 
reality
 
rear
 
received
 
recommendations
 
regularly
 
rejoined
 
relates
 
releases
 
rely
 
remarkably
 
rental
 
repeatedly
 
reputation
 
require
 
resolved
 
reviews
 
rewards
 
roadways
 
ruined
 
safe
 
salespeople
 
seawater
 
segregation
 
shameful
 
sharpens
 
shots
 
shuttle
 
sidewalks
 
situation
 
social
 
specialist
 
sprained
 
stairwells
 
standard
 
storytellers
 
strategies
 
subject
 
succeed
 
sudden
 
superior
 
surface
 
surroundings
 
surveyed
 
taken
 
techniques
 
term
 
threatens
 
thrilled
 
throughout
 
traditional
 
transportation
 
trapped
 
truth
 
unable
 
unanswered
 
uncomfortable
 
underwater
 
unhappiness
 
unimaginable
 
unless
 
unsafe
 
variable
 
vehicles
 
wandered
 
waterproofed
 
whereas
 
worthwhile
 
would
 
yelled


 🎟 글의 주제 


[1803H1-18]
 What is the topic sentence? 🚡

(1) We are excited to announce the opening of the newest Sunshine Stationery Store in Raleigh, North Carolina! (2) As you know, the Sunshine Stationery Store has long been the industry standard for quality creative paper products of all kinds, and we couldn't have picked a better location for our next branch than the warm and inviting city of Raleigh. (3) We are thrilled to welcome you to the Grand Opening of the Raleigh store on March 15, 2018. (4) The opening celebration will be from 9 a.m. to 9 p.m. ― a full 12 hours of fun! (5) We would love to show you all the Raleigh store has to offer and hope to see you there on the 15th! 

[1803H1-19]
 What is the topic sentence? 🏯

(1) One day I caught a taxi to work. (2) When I got into the back seat, I saw a brand new cell phone sitting right next to me. (3) I asked the driver, "Where did you drop the last person off␦" and showed him the phone. (4) He pointed at a girl walking up the street. (5) We drove up to her and I rolled down the window yelling out to her. (6) She was very thankful and by the look on her face I could tell how grateful she was. (7) Her smile made me smile and feel really good inside. (8) After she got the phone back, I heard someone walking past her say, "Today's your lucky day!" 

[1803H1-20]
 What is the topic sentence? 🏯

(1) Serene tried to do a pirouette in front of her mother but fell to the floor. (2) Serene's mother helped her off the floor. (3) She told her that she had to keep trying if she wanted to succeed. (4) However, Serene was almost in tears. (5) She had been practicing very hard the past week but she did not seem to improve. (6) Serene's mother said that she herself had tried many times before succeeding at Serene's age. (7) She had fallen so often that she sprained her ankle and had to rest for three months before she was allowed to dance again. (8) Serene was surprised. (9) Her mother was a famous ballerina and to Serene, her mother had never fallen or made a mistake in any of her performances. (10) Listening to her mother made her realize that she had to put in more effort than what she had been doing so far. 

[1803H1-21]
 What is the topic sentence? 🚏

(1) Many people think of what might happen in the future based on past failures and get trapped by them. (2) For example, if you have failed in a certain area before, when faced with the same situation, you anticipate what might happen in the future, and thus fear traps you in yesterday. (3) Do not base your decision on what yesterday was. (4) Your future is not your past and you have a better future. (5) You must decide to forget and let go of your past. (6) Your past experiences are the thief of today's dreams only when you allow them to control you. 

[1803H1-22]
 What is the topic sentence? 🚖

(1) Storyteller Syd Lieberman suggests that it is the story in history that provides the nail to hang facts on. (2) Students remember historical facts when they are tied to a story. (3) According to a report, a high school in Boulder, Colorado, is currently experimenting with a study of presentation of historical material. (4) Storytellers present material in dramatic context to the students, and group discussion follows. (5) Students are encouraged to read further. (6) In contrast, another group of students is involved in traditional research/report techniques. (7) The study indicates that the material presented by the storytellers has much more interest and personal impact than that gained via the traditional method. 

[1803H1-23]
 What is the topic sentence? 

(1) Experts advise people to "take the stairs instead of the elevator" or "walk or bike to work." (2) These are good strategies: climbing stairs provides a good workout, and people who walk or ride a bicycle for transportation most often meet their needs for physical activity. (3) Many people, however, face barriers in their environment that prevent such choices. (4) Few people would choose to walk or bike on roadways that lack safe sidewalks or marked bicycle lanes, where vehicles speed by, or where the air is polluted. (5) Few would choose to walk up stairs in inconvenient and unsafe stairwells in modern buildings. (6) In contrast, people living in neighborhoods with safe biking and walking lanes, public parks, and freely available exercise facilities use them often — their surroundings encourage physical activity. 

[1803H1-24]
 What is the topic sentence? 🎡

(1) How can we teach our children to memorize a broad range of information? (2) Let me prove to you that all people are potential geniuses, with brains designed to store, control, and remember large amounts of information through memorization by repetition. (3) Imagine the grocery store where you shop the most. (4) If I asked you to tell me where the eggs are, would you be able to do so? (5) Of course you could. (6) The average grocery store carries over 10,000 items, yet you can quickly tell me where to find most of them. (7) Why? (8) The store is organized by category, and you have shopped in the store repeatedly. (9) In other words, you've seen those organized items over and over again, and the arrangement by category makes it easy for you to memorize the store's layout. (10) You can categorize 10,000 items from just one store. 

[1803H1-28]
 What is the topic sentence? 

(1) Mae C. Jemison was named the first black woman astronaut in 1987. (2) On September 12, 1992, she boarded the space shuttle Endeavor as a science mission specialist on the historic eight-day flight. (3) Jemison left the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) in 1993. (4) She was a professor of Environmental Studies at Dartmouth College from 1995 to 2002. (5) Jemison was born in Decatur, Alabama, and moved to Chicago with her family when she was three years old. (6) She graduated from Stanford University in 1977 with a degree in chemical engineering and Afro-American studies. (7) Jemison received her medical degree from Cornell Medical School in 1981. 

[1803H1-29]
 What is the topic sentence? 🏯

(1) The first underwater photographs were taken by an Englishman named William Thompson. (2) In 1856, he waterproofed a simple box camera, attached it to a pole, and lowered it beneath the waves off the coast of southern England. (3) During the 10minute exposure, the camera slowly flooded with seawater, but the picture survived. (4) Underwater photography was born. (5) Near the surface, where the water is clear and there is enough light, it is quite possible for an amateur photographer to take great shots with an inexpensive underwater camera. (6) At greater depths — it is dark and cold there — photography is the principal way of exploring a mysterious deep-sea world, 95 percent of which has never been seen before. 

[1803H1-30]
 What is the topic sentence? 🗼

(1) Honesty is a fundamental part of every strong relationship. (2) Use it to your advantage by being open with what you feel and giving a truthful opinion when asked. (3) This approach can help you escape uncomfortable social situations and make friends with honest people. (4) Follow this simple policy in life — never lie. (5) When you develop a reputation for always telling the truth, you will enjoy strong relationships based on trust. (6) It will also be more difficult to manipulate you. (7) People who lie get into trouble when someone threatens to uncover their lie. (8) By living true to yourself, you'll avoid a lot of headaches. (9) Your relationships will also be free from the poison of lies and secrets. (10) Don't be afraid to be honest with your friends, no matter how painful the truth is. (11) In the long term, lies with good intentions hurt people much more than telling the truth. 

[1803H1-31]
 What is the topic sentence? 🎡

(1) Since a great deal of day-to-day academic work is boring and repetitive, you need to be well motivated to keep doing it. (2) A mathematician sharpens her pencils, works on a proof, tries a few approaches, gets nowhere, and finishes for the day. (3) A writer sits down at his desk, produces a few hundred words, decides they are no good, throws them in the bin, and hopes for better inspiration tomorrow. (4) To produce something worthwhile — if it ever happens — may require years of such fruitless labor. (5) The Nobel Prizewinning biologist Peter Medawar said that about four-fifths of his time in science was wasted, adding sadly that "nearly all scientific research leads nowhere." (6) What kept all of these people going when things were going badly was their passion for their subject. (7) Without such passion, they would have achieved nothing. 

[1803H1-32]
 What is the topic sentence? 🎡

(1) Within a store, the wall marks the back of the store, but not the end of the marketing. (2) Merchandisers often use the back wall as a magnet, because it means that people have to walk through the whole store. (3) This is a good thing because distance traveled relates more directly to sales per entering customer than any other measurable consumer variable. (4) Sometimes, the wall's attraction is simply appealing to the senses, a wall decoration that catches the eye or a sound that catches the ear. (5) Sometimes the attraction is specific goods. (6) In supermarkets, the dairy is often at the back, because people frequently come just for milk. (7) At video rental shops, it's the new releases. 

[1803H1-33]
 What is the topic sentence? 

(1) The good news is, where you end up ten years from now is up to you. (2) You are free to choose what you want to make of your life. (3) It's called free will and it's your basic right. (4) What's more, you can turn it on instantly! (5) At any moment, you can choose to start showing more respect for yourself or stop hanging out with friends who bring you down. (6) After all, you choose to be happy or miserable. (7) The reality is that although you are free to choose, you can't choose the consequences of your choices. (8) It's a package deal. (9) As the old saying goes, "If you pick up one end of the stick, you pick up the other." (10) Choice and consequence go together like mashed potatoes and gravy. 

[1803H1-34]
 What is the topic sentence? 🛳

(1) Just think for a moment of all the people upon whom your participation in your class depends. (2) Clearly, the class requires a teacher to teach it and students to take it. (3) However, it also depends on many other people and organizations. (4) Someone had to decide when the class would be held and in what room, communicate that information to you, and enroll you in that class. (5) Someone also had to write a textbook, and with the assistance of many other people — printers, editors, salespeople, and bookstore employees — it has arrived in your hands. (6) Thus, a class that seems to involve just you, your fellow students, and your teacher is in fact the product of the efforts of hundreds of people. 

[1803H1-35]
 What is the topic sentence? 🏯

(1) Suppose that you are busy working on a project one day and you have no time to buy lunch. (2) All of a sudden your best friend shows up with your favorite sandwich. (3) He tells you that he knows you are busy and he wants to help you out by buying you the sandwich. (4) In this case, you are very likely to appreciate your friend's help. (5) However, if a stranger shows up with the same sandwich and offers it to you, you won't appreciate it. (6) Instead, you would be confused. (7) You would likely think "Who are you, and how do you know what kind of sandwich I like to eat?" (8) The key difference between these two cases is the level of trust. (9) You trust your best friend so much that you won't worry about him knowing you too well, but you certainly would not give the same level of trust to a stranger. 

[1803H1-36]
 What is the topic sentence? 🚔

(1) If you start collecting and analyzing data without first clarifying the question you are trying to answer, you're probably doing yourself more harm than good. (2) You'll end up drowning in a flood of information and realize only later that most of that research was a waste of time. (3) To avoid this problem, you should develop a problem-solving design plan before you start collecting information. (4) In the design plan, you clarify the issues you are trying to solve, state your hypotheses, and list what is required to prove those hypotheses. (5) Developing this plan before you start researching will greatly increase your problem-solving productivity. (6) In addition, putting your plan down on paper will not only clarify your thoughts. (7) If you're working in a group, this plan will also help your team focus on what to do and provide the starting point for your group brainstorming. 

[1803H1-37]
 What is the topic sentence? 

(1) The philosopher GA Cohen provides an example of a camping trip as a metaphor for the ideal society. (2) On a camping trip, he argues, it is unimaginable that someone would say something like, "I cooked the dinner and therefore you can't eat it unless you pay me for my superior cooking skills." (3) Rather, one person cooks dinner, another sets up the tent, another purifies the water, and so on, each in accordance with his or her abilities. (4) All these goods are shared and a spirit of community makes all participants happier. (5) A camping trip where each person attempted to gain the maximum rewards from the other campers in exchange for the use of his or her talents would quickly end in disaster and unhappiness. (6) Moreover, the experience would be ruined if people were to behave in such a way. (7) So, we would have a better life in a more equal and cooperative society. 

[1803H1-38]
 What is the topic sentence? 🗼

(1) In the classical fairy tale the conflict is often permanently resolved. (2) Without exception, the hero and heroine live happily ever after. (3) By contrast, many present-day stories have a less definitive ending. (4) Often the conflict in those stories is only partly resolved, or a new conflict appears making the audience think further. (5) This is particularly true of thriller and horror genres, where audiences are kept on the edge of their seats throughout. (6) Consider Henrik Ibsen's play, A Doll's House, where, in the end, Nora leaves her family and marriage. (7) Nora disappears out of the front door and we are left with many unanswered questions such as "Where did Nora go␦" and "What will happen to her?" (8) An open ending is a powerful tool, providing food for thought that forces the audience to think about what might happen next. 

[1803H1-39]
 What is the topic sentence? 🎠

(1) In 2006, 81% of surveyed American shoppers said that they considered online customer ratings and reviews important when planning a purchase. (2) Though an online comment — positive or negative — is not as powerful as a direct interpersonal exchange, it can be very important for a business. (3) Many people depend on online recommendations. (4) And young people rely heavily on them and are very likely to be influenced by the Internet when deciding what movie to see or what album to purchase. (5) These individuals often have wide-reaching social networks and communicate regularly with dozens of others — with the potential to reach thousands. (6) It has been reported that young people aged six to 24 influence about 50% of all spending in the US. 

[1803H1-40]
 What is the topic sentence? 🏕

(1) Crows are a remarkably clever family of birds. (2) They are capable of solving many more complex problems compared to other birds, such as chickens. (3) After hatching, chickens peck busily for their own food much faster than crows, which rely on the parent bird to bring them food in the nest. (4) However, as adults, chickens have very limited hunting skills whereas crows are much more flexible in hunting for food. (5) Crows also end up with bigger and more complex brains. (6) Their extended period between hatching and flight from the nest enables them to develop intelligence. 

[1803H1-4142]
 What is the topic sentence? 🚍

(1) Think of the most famous scientists you know — Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, Albert Einstein, Thomas Edison, Pierre and Marie Curie, Stephen Hawking, and so on. (2) What do all these people have in common? (3) Well, for one thing, they're all very smart. (4) In some cases they even taught themselves most of what they knew about their particular subject. (5) In fact, Sir Isaac Newton had to invent a new branch of mathematics (calculus) just to solve the problems he was trying to do in physics. (6) There is something else they all had in common that set them apart from the other smart people of their time — their ability to ask questions. (7) Just having a good brain isn't always enough. (8) To be a great scientist, you need to be able to look at a problem that hundreds, maybe even thousands, of people have already looked at and have been unable to solve, and ask the question in a new way. (9) Then you take that question and come up with a new way to answer it. (10) That is what made Newton and the others so famous. (11) They coupled intelligence with a curiosity that said, "I want to know the answer to this." (12) After coming up with the right questions, they discovered ways of answering those questions and became famous for their discoveries. 

[1803H1-4345]
 What is the topic sentence? 🏟

(1) When Patsy McLeod took freshly washed clothes to her former master Ben Wilson's house, her nine-year-old daughter Mary went along. (2) When they arrived at the big house, the McLeods walked to the rear entrance used for blacks. (3) In 1884 there was sharp segregation between the races in Mayesville, South Carolina. (4) While her mother went inside the house, Mary wandered over to a children's playhouse and looked inside. (5) Two white girls about her age sat among a lot of dolls. (6) Hello, Mary! (7) Do you want to come in? (8) One of them called out. (9) Mary happily went into the playhouse. (10) The white child handed a doll to the black girl, saying "You can watch the baby while I have tea with my friend." (11) While Mary walked the doll around the room, her eyes fell upon a book; she picked it up in awe. (12) Her parents had a Bible in their cabin, but no one could read it. (13) Unexpectedly the white girl grabbed the book. (14) Put that down, she yelled. (15) You don't know how to read. (16) Feeling shameful, Mary handed the doll back to the white child and rejoined her mother. (17) On the walk back to their farm, she wondered why white people had all kinds of nice things and why, above all, they could read while black people couldn't. (18) She decided to learn to read. (19) At home the little girl asked her father to let her go to school, but he told her calmly, "There isn't any school." (20) One day, however, a black woman in city clothes changed that. (21) Emma Wilson came to the McLeod cabin, explaining that she would open a new school in Mayesville for black children. (22) The school will begin after the cotton-picking season, she said. (23) Mary's parents nodded in agreement. (24) Mrs. McLeod also nodded toward her daughter. (25) Young Mary was very excited. (26) I'm gonna read? (27) Miss Wilson? (28) She smiled at Mary. 


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Word&Context


accent


Why doesn't the modern American accent sound similar to a British accent?

The accent that we identify as British today was developed around the time of the American Revolution by people of low birth rank who had become wealthy during the Industrial Revolution.

In the 19th century, this distinctive accent was standardized as Received Pronunciation and taught widely by pronunciation tutors to people who wanted to learn to speak fashionably.

accomplish


It's hard enough to stick with goals you want to accomplish, but sometimes we make goals we're not even thrilled about in the first place.

achievement


He went to his father and shared his achievement.

actions


It is easy to judge people based on their actions.

We are often taught to put more value in actions than words, and for good reason.

The actions of others often speak volumes louder than their words.

adulthood


Natural consequences prepare children for adulthood by helping them think about the potential consequences of their choices.

advisor


So they are imagination engines," explains Jack Horner, a technical advisor for the Jurassic Park films.

anthropologist


About fifty years ago, a Pygmy named Kenge took his first trip out of the forests of Africa and onto the open plains with an anthropologist.

Finally, he turned to the anthropologist and asked what kind of insects they were.

"The anthropologist wasn't stupid, and he hadn't lied.

appear


Furthermore, the longer the close friends had known each other, the less steep the hill appeared to the participants involved in the study.

This shrinking exposes the parts of the nails and hair that were once under the skin, causing them to appear longer than before.

Buffalo appeared in the distance, and the Pygmy watched them curiously.

arousing


We remember the arousing aspects of an episode and forget the boring bits.

arrival


It took about a minute to get from the arrival gate to baggage claim, so the passengers spent seven more minutes waiting for their bags.

The solution was to move the arrival gates away from the baggage claim so it took passengers about seven minutes to walk there.

aspects


We remember the arousing aspects of an episode and forget the boring bits.

atmosphere


Static electricity is also found in the atmosphere.

attempting


The researchers at the U.S. Army conducted a study of motorcycle accidents, attempting to correlate the number of accidents with other variables such as socioeconomic level and age.

awkward


When done by a beginner, both are awkward, frustrating, and slow.

baggage


Houston Airport executives faced plenty of complaints regarding baggage claim time, so they increased the number of baggage handlers.

It took about a minute to get from the arrival gate to baggage claim, so the passengers spent seven more minutes waiting for their bags.

The solution was to move the arrival gates away from the baggage claim so it took passengers about seven minutes to walk there.

base


Social psychologists at the University of Virginia asked college students to stand at the base of a hill while carrying a weighted backpack and estimate the steepness of the hill.

We set resolutions based on what we're supposed to do, or what others think we're supposed to do, rather than what really matters to us.

Instead, make goals based on your own values.

Some people, however, found the traditional religious explanations inadequate, and they began to search for answers based on reason.

It is easy to judge people based on their actions.

You may find a great co-worker or best friend in someone, so don't eliminate a person from your life based on a brief observation.

basis


The following example will illustrate why it is difficult to make causal statements on the basis of correlational observation.

behavior


But neither behavior could be directly causing the other even though there is a relationship.

However, when someone exhibits some difficult behavior, you might want to reserve judgement for later.

People are not always defined by their behavior.

It is common to think, "He is so bossy," or "She is so mean," after observing less-than-desirable behavior in someone.

belief


"At that moment, the cameras outside took over and out there in the yard there was a scene of joy almost beyond belief.

biased


Having extremely vivid memories of past emotional experiences and only weak memories of past everyday events means we maintain a biased perception of the past.

brief


You may find a great co-worker or best friend in someone, so don't eliminate a person from your life based on a brief observation.

casual


The short answer is no, though it may not seem that way to the casual observer.

causal


The following example will illustrate why it is difficult to make causal statements on the basis of correlational observation.

chemistry


Her interest in chemistry started when she was just ten years old.

Her work on vitamin B12 was published in 1954, which led to her being awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964.

claim


Houston Airport executives faced plenty of complaints regarding baggage claim time, so they increased the number of baggage handlers.

It took about a minute to get from the arrival gate to baggage claim, so the passengers spent seven more minutes waiting for their bags.

The solution was to move the arrival gates away from the baggage claim so it took passengers about seven minutes to walk there.

cling


You will find that the bits of paper or chalk dust cling to the pen.

colleagues


In 1949, she worked on the structure of penicillin with her colleagues.

collection


Even if you end up spending money making things yourself, you're at least building a skill rather than a collection of stuff that's quickly decreasing in value.

commoners


To distinguish themselves from other commoners, these people developed new ways of speaking to set themselves apart and demonstrate their new, elevated social status.

complaints


Houston Airport executives faced plenty of complaints regarding baggage claim time, so they increased the number of baggage handlers.

Although it reduced the average wait time to eight minutes, complaints didn't stop.

It resulted in complaints reducing to almost zero.

complex


That's because they are the people who know and understand the past and can explain its complex interrelationships with the present.

Moreover, a complex hormonal regulation directs the growth of hair and nails, none of which is possible once a person dies.

concern


The boy's parents were concerned about his bad temper.

Hodgkin showed great concern for social inequalities and resolving conflicts.

conclude


From a correlational observation, we conclude that one variable is related to a second variable.

It would be a ridiculous error to conclude that tattoos cause motorcycle accidents or that motorcycle accidents cause tattoos.

Rather than learning, "I should wear a jacket because it's cold outside," a child may conclude, "I have to wear a jacket because my mom makes me.

conducted


The researchers at the U.S. Army conducted a study of motorcycle accidents, attempting to correlate the number of accidents with other variables such as socioeconomic level and age.

conferences


As a result, she was president of the Pugwash Conferences from 1976 to 1988.

conflicts


Hodgkin showed great concern for social inequalities and resolving conflicts.

consequences


Overprotective parents spare kids from all natural consequences.

"Without an opportunity to experience real-world consequences, kids don't always understand why their parents make certain rules.

Natural consequences prepare children for adulthood by helping them think about the potential consequences of their choices.

considered


He passed on to his followers not only his answers but also the process of thinking rationally, together with an idea of what kind of explanations could be considered satisfactory.

correlate


The researchers at the U.S. Army conducted a study of motorcycle accidents, attempting to correlate the number of accidents with other variables such as socioeconomic level and age.

correlational


From a correlational observation, we conclude that one variable is related to a second variable.

The following example will illustrate why it is difficult to make causal statements on the basis of correlational observation.

cracked


The paths are cracked and littered with rocks and debris that make it impossible to roll her chair from place to place.

creative


Dinosaurs are studied in classrooms each year, not only for the science behind the topic, but also because of the creative thinking it seems to foster in students.

debris


The paths are cracked and littered with rocks and debris that make it impossible to roll her chair from place to place.

decreased


The number of nails the boy drove into the fence each day gradually decreased.

defined


People are not always defined by their behavior.

demonstrate


To distinguish themselves from other commoners, these people developed new ways of speaking to set themselves apart and demonstrate their new, elevated social status.

dense


Rather, because Kenge had lived his entire life in a dense jungle that offered no views of the horizon, he had failed to learn what most of us take for granted, namely, that things look different when they are far away.

devote


We hope you will devote resources to restoring the walking paths in Freer Park for all visitors.

directly


But neither behavior could be directly causing the other even though there is a relationship.

directs


Moreover, a complex hormonal regulation directs the growth of hair and nails, none of which is possible once a person dies.

discipline


Every political leader who had an impact on history practiced the discipline of being alone to think and plan.

I strongly encourage you to find a place to think and to discipline yourself to pause and use it because it has the potential to change your life.

discover


When the vote was announced, my brain just would not work out the right percentages to discover whether we had the necessary two-thirds majority.

distinguish


To distinguish themselves from other commoners, these people developed new ways of speaking to set themselves apart and demonstrate their new, elevated social status.

dust


Use a plastic pen and rub it on your hair about ten times and then hold the pen close to small pieces of tissue paper or chalk dust.

You will find that the bits of paper or chalk dust cling to the pen.

The accent that we identify as British today was developed around the time of the American Revolution by people of low birth rank who had become wealthy during the Industrial Revolution.

economist


If you want to know why something is happening in the present, you might ask a sociologist or an economist.

electrically


This kind of electricity is produced by friction, and the pen becomes electrically charged.

elevated


To distinguish themselves from other commoners, these people developed new ways of speaking to set themselves apart and demonstrate their new, elevated social status.

eliminate


You may find a great co-worker or best friend in someone, so don't eliminate a person from your life based on a brief observation.

emotional


Having extremely vivid memories of past emotional experiences and only weak memories of past everyday events means we maintain a biased perception of the past.

We tend to view the past as a concentrated time line of emotionally exciting events.

encourage


He used reason to inquire into the nature of the universe, and encouraged others to do likewise.

I strongly encourage you to find a place to think and to discipline yourself to pause and use it because it has the potential to change your life.

entire


Rather, because Kenge had lived his entire life in a dense jungle that offered no views of the horizon, he had failed to learn what most of us take for granted, namely, that things look different when they are far away.

episode


We remember the arousing aspects of an episode and forget the boring bits.

estimate


Social psychologists at the University of Virginia asked college students to stand at the base of a hill while carrying a weighted backpack and estimate the steepness of the hill.

The participants who stood with close friends gave significantly lower estimates of the steepness of the hill than those who stood alone, next to strangers, or next to newly formed friends.

As a result, when we estimate how our next summer vacation will make us feel, we overestimate the positive.

We should not "put the telescope backward" when we look into the past and underestimate the old and overestimate the new.

executives


Houston Airport executives faced plenty of complaints regarding baggage claim time, so they increased the number of baggage handlers.

experience


Learning to ski is one of the most embarrassing experiences an adult can undergo.

Having extremely vivid memories of past emotional experiences and only weak memories of past everyday events means we maintain a biased perception of the past.

"Without an opportunity to experience real-world consequences, kids don't always understand why their parents make certain rules.

Great artists spend countless hours in their studios or with their instruments not just doing, but exploring their ideas and experiences.

Time alone allows people to sort through their experiences, put them into perspective, and plan for the future.

explanations


Some people, however, found the traditional religious explanations inadequate, and they began to search for answers based on reason.

He passed on to his followers not only his answers but also the process of thinking rationally, together with an idea of what kind of explanations could be considered satisfactory.

exposes


This shrinking exposes the parts of the nails and hair that were once under the skin, causing them to appear longer than before.

extended


Now we are seniors, and my wife must use a wheelchair for extended walks.

extinct


Something about these extinct creatures from long ago seems to hold almost everyone's attention, young or old, boy or girl.

"I think the reason kids like dinosaurs so much is that dinosaurs were big, were different from anything alive today, and are extinct.

extremely


Having extremely vivid memories of past emotional experiences and only weak memories of past everyday events means we maintain a biased perception of the past.

fascinating


Though we don't know a lot about dinosaurs, what we do know is fascinating to children of all ages.

figure


The idea is to first consider what matters to you, then figure out what you need to do to get there.

It can help you to figure out what's really important and what isn't.

fingernails


Do hair and fingernails continue to grow after a person dies?

Typically, fingernails grow about 0.1 millimeters a day, but in order to grow, they need glucose—a simple sugar that helps to power the body.

followers


He passed on to his followers not only his answers but also the process of thinking rationally, together with an idea of what kind of explanations could be considered satisfactory.

following


The following example will illustrate why it is difficult to make causal statements on the basis of correlational observation.

friction


This kind of electricity is produced by friction, and the pen becomes electrically charged.

frustrating


When done by a beginner, both are awkward, frustrating, and slow.

furious


Nevertheless, he was so furious that during the very first day he drove in 37 nails.

gadget


Shopping for new gadgets, clothes, or just random junk can turn into a hobby in itself.

Buying a new gadget might give you a similar rush, but it's also probably more temporary.

glucose


Typically, fingernails grow about 0.1 millimeters a day, but in order to grow, they need glucose—a simple sugar that helps to power the body.

Once the body dies, there's no more glucose.

granted


Rather, because Kenge had lived his entire life in a dense jungle that offered no views of the horizon, he had failed to learn what most of us take for granted, namely, that things look different when they are far away.

growth


Moreover, a complex hormonal regulation directs the growth of hair and nails, none of which is possible once a person dies.

handlers


Houston Airport executives faced plenty of complaints regarding baggage claim time, so they increased the number of baggage handlers.

horizon


Rather, because Kenge had lived his entire life in a dense jungle that offered no views of the horizon, he had failed to learn what most of us take for granted, namely, that things look different when they are far away.

hormonal


Moreover, a complex hormonal regulation directs the growth of hair and nails, none of which is possible once a person dies.

humanity


But even more importantly, studying history helps us ask and answer humanity's Big Questions.

humiliating


Probably you have been reading for a long time, too, and starting to learn all over again would be humiliating.

hurtful


Often, he got angry and said hurtful things to people around him.

The same happens when you say hurtful things to people.

identify


The accent that we identify as British today was developed around the time of the American Revolution by people of low birth rank who had become wealthy during the Industrial Revolution.

illustrate


The following example will illustrate why it is difficult to make causal statements on the basis of correlational observation.

imagination


So they are imagination engines," explains Jack Horner, a technical advisor for the Jurassic Park films.

Since no one knows what colors dinosaurs actually were, a child can use what information he has―and his imagination―to draw a dinosaur as he sees it.

impassable


We find that the beautiful walking paths through the park are all but impassable to her.

importantly


But even more importantly, studying history helps us ask and answer humanity's Big Questions.

inadequate


Some people, however, found the traditional religious explanations inadequate, and they began to search for answers based on reason.

inconsistent


This is often inconsistent with the facts.

industrial


The accent that we identify as British today was developed around the time of the American Revolution by people of low birth rank who had become wealthy during the Industrial Revolution.

inequalities


Hodgkin showed great concern for social inequalities and resolving conflicts.

judge


It is easy to judge people based on their actions.

However, when someone exhibits some difficult behavior, you might want to reserve judgement for later.

laughter


"When I told Kenge that the insects were buffalo, he roared with laughter and told me not to tell such stupid lies.

least


Even if you end up spending money making things yourself, you're at least building a skill rather than a collection of stuff that's quickly decreasing in value.

lie


Experts believe that British residents and the colonists who settled America all sounded the same back in the 18th century, and they probably all sounded more like modern Americans than modern Brits.

"When I told Kenge that the insects were buffalo, he roared with laughter and told me not to tell such stupid lies.

"The anthropologist wasn't stupid, and he hadn't lied.

"At that moment, the cameras outside took over and out there in the yard there was a scene of joy almost beyond belief.

littered


The paths are cracked and littered with rocks and debris that make it impossible to roll her chair from place to place.

louder


The actions of others often speak volumes louder than their words.

maintain


Having extremely vivid memories of past emotional experiences and only weak memories of past everyday events means we maintain a biased perception of the past.

majority


When the vote was announced, my brain just would not work out the right percentages to discover whether we had the necessary two-thirds majority.

nails


He called his son and gave him a hammer and a bag of nails.

Nevertheless, he was so furious that during the very first day he drove in 37 nails.

The number of nails the boy drove into the fence each day gradually decreased.

Eventually, the boy started to understand that holding his temper was easier than driving nails into the fence.

He didn't need the hammer and nails anymore when he learned to hold his temper.

At last, the boy was proud of himself as all the nails were gone.

Together, they went to the fence, and he said, "You did a good job, my son, but pay attention to the holes left from the nails.

Do hair and fingernails continue to grow after a person dies?

This shrinking exposes the parts of the nails and hair that were once under the skin, causing them to appear longer than before.

Typically, fingernails grow about 0.1 millimeters a day, but in order to grow, they need glucose—a simple sugar that helps to power the body.

Moreover, a complex hormonal regulation directs the growth of hair and nails, none of which is possible once a person dies.

namely


Rather, because Kenge had lived his entire life in a dense jungle that offered no views of the horizon, he had failed to learn what most of us take for granted, namely, that things look different when they are far away.

observation


From a correlational observation, we conclude that one variable is related to a second variable.

The following example will illustrate why it is difficult to make causal statements on the basis of correlational observation.

You may find a great co-worker or best friend in someone, so don't eliminate a person from your life based on a brief observation.

observer


The short answer is no, though it may not seem that way to the casual observer.

obviously


Obviously, a third variable is related to both—perhaps preference for risk.

occupied


Research shows occupied time feels shorter than unoccupied time.

People usually exaggerate about the time they waited, and what they find most bothersome is time spent unoccupied.

opportunity


"Without an opportunity to experience real-world consequences, kids don't always understand why their parents make certain rules.

overestimate


As a result, when we estimate how our next summer vacation will make us feel, we overestimate the positive.

We should not "put the telescope backward" when we look into the past and underestimate the old and overestimate the new.

overprotective


Overprotective parents spare kids from all natural consequences.

participants


Some participants stood next to close friends whom they had known a long time, some stood next to friends they had not known for long, some stood next to strangers, and the others stood alone during the exercise.

The participants who stood with close friends gave significantly lower estimates of the steepness of the hill than those who stood alone, next to strangers, or next to newly formed friends.

Furthermore, the longer the close friends had known each other, the less steep the hill appeared to the participants involved in the study.

passengers


It took about a minute to get from the arrival gate to baggage claim, so the passengers spent seven more minutes waiting for their bags.

The solution was to move the arrival gates away from the baggage claim so it took passengers about seven minutes to walk there.

Thus, occupying the passengers' time by making them walk longer gave them the idea they didn't have to wait as long.

pause


I strongly encourage you to find a place to think and to discipline yourself to pause and use it because it has the potential to change your life.

perceiving


In perceiving changes, we tend to regard the most recent ones as the most revolutionary.

percentages


When the vote was announced, my brain just would not work out the right percentages to discover whether we had the necessary two-thirds majority.

perception


Having extremely vivid memories of past emotional experiences and only weak memories of past everyday events means we maintain a biased perception of the past.

philosophy


This shift marked the birth of philosophy, and the first of the great thinkers that we know of was Thales of Miletus.

plains


So they are imagination engines," explains Jack Horner, a technical advisor for the Jurassic Park films.

About fifty years ago, a Pygmy named Kenge took his first trip out of the forests of Africa and onto the open plains with an anthropologist.

plenty


Houston Airport executives faced plenty of complaints regarding baggage claim time, so they increased the number of baggage handlers.

positive


As a result, when we estimate how our next summer vacation will make us feel, we overestimate the positive.

potential


Natural consequences prepare children for adulthood by helping them think about the potential consequences of their choices.

I strongly encourage you to find a place to think and to discipline yourself to pause and use it because it has the potential to change your life.

preference


Obviously, a third variable is related to both—perhaps preference for risk.

process


He passed on to his followers not only his answers but also the process of thinking rationally, together with an idea of what kind of explanations could be considered satisfactory.

psychologists


Social psychologists at the University of Virginia asked college students to stand at the base of a hill while carrying a weighted backpack and estimate the steepness of the hill.

published


Her work on vitamin B12 was published in 1954, which led to her being awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964.

rank


The accent that we identify as British today was developed around the time of the American Revolution by people of low birth rank who had become wealthy during the Industrial Revolution.

rationally


He passed on to his followers not only his answers but also the process of thinking rationally, together with an idea of what kind of explanations could be considered satisfactory.

receive


In the 19th century, this distinctive accent was standardized as Received Pronunciation and taught widely by pronunciation tutors to people who wanted to learn to speak fashionably.

She also became the first woman to receive the Copley Medal and was a winner of the Lenin Peace Prize.

regard


Houston Airport executives faced plenty of complaints regarding baggage claim time, so they increased the number of baggage handlers.

In perceiving changes, we tend to regard the most recent ones as the most revolutionary.

regulation


Moreover, a complex hormonal regulation directs the growth of hair and nails, none of which is possible once a person dies.

related


From a correlational observation, we conclude that one variable is related to a second variable.

Obviously, a third variable is related to both—perhaps preference for risk.

relationship


That's because they are the people who know and understand the past and can explain its complex interrelationships with the present.

But neither behavior could be directly causing the other even though there is a relationship.

religion


For early societies, the answers to the most basic questions were found in religion.

religious


Some people, however, found the traditional religious explanations inadequate, and they began to search for answers based on reason.

resolving


Hodgkin showed great concern for social inequalities and resolving conflicts.

resources


We hope you will devote resources to restoring the walking paths in Freer Park for all visitors.

restoring


We hope you will devote resources to restoring the walking paths in Freer Park for all visitors.

revolution


The accent that we identify as British today was developed around the time of the American Revolution by people of low birth rank who had become wealthy during the Industrial Revolution.

In perceiving changes, we tend to regard the most recent ones as the most revolutionary.

Recent progress in telecommunications technologies is not more revolutionary than what happened in the late nineteenth century in relative terms.

Moreover, in terms of the consequent economic and social changes, the Internet revolution has not been as important as the washing machine and other household appliances.

revolutionary


In perceiving changes, we tend to regard the most recent ones as the most revolutionary.

Recent progress in telecommunications technologies is not more revolutionary than what happened in the late nineteenth century in relative terms.

ridiculous


It would be a ridiculous error to conclude that tattoos cause motorcycle accidents or that motorcycle accidents cause tattoos.

risk


Obviously, a third variable is related to both—perhaps preference for risk.

A person who is willing to take risks likes to be tattooed and also takes more chances on a motorcycle.

roared


"When I told Kenge that the insects were buffalo, he roared with laughter and told me not to tell such stupid lies.

satisfaction


We get the same kind of satisfaction from making things that we do from buying things.

satisfactory


He passed on to his followers not only his answers but also the process of thinking rationally, together with an idea of what kind of explanations could be considered satisfactory.

scars


Your words leave scars in their hearts like those holes in the fence."

seniors


Now we are seniors, and my wife must use a wheelchair for extended walks.

shift


This shift marked the birth of philosophy, and the first of the great thinkers that we know of was Thales of Miletus.

shrinking


This shrinking exposes the parts of the nails and hair that were once under the skin, causing them to appear longer than before.

similar


Why doesn't the modern American accent sound similar to a British accent?

Buying a new gadget might give you a similar rush, but it's also probably more temporary.

skill


Even if you end up spending money making things yourself, you're at least building a skill rather than a collection of stuff that's quickly decreasing in value.

smart


He was smart, talented, and handsome.

social


Social psychologists at the University of Virginia asked college students to stand at the base of a hill while carrying a weighted backpack and estimate the steepness of the hill.

To distinguish themselves from other commoners, these people developed new ways of speaking to set themselves apart and demonstrate their new, elevated social status.

Moreover, in terms of the consequent economic and social changes, the Internet revolution has not been as important as the washing machine and other household appliances.

Hodgkin showed great concern for social inequalities and resolving conflicts.

societies


For early societies, the answers to the most basic questions were found in religion.

socioeconomic


The researchers at the U.S. Army conducted a study of motorcycle accidents, attempting to correlate the number of accidents with other variables such as socioeconomic level and age.

sociologist


If you want to know why something is happening in the present, you might ask a sociologist or an economist.

spare


Overprotective parents spare kids from all natural consequences.

statements


The following example will illustrate why it is difficult to make causal statements on the basis of correlational observation.

static


What you have done there is to create a form of electricity called static electricity.

Static electricity is also found in the atmosphere.

status


To distinguish themselves from other commoners, these people developed new ways of speaking to set themselves apart and demonstrate their new, elevated social status.

steepness


Social psychologists at the University of Virginia asked college students to stand at the base of a hill while carrying a weighted backpack and estimate the steepness of the hill.

The participants who stood with close friends gave significantly lower estimates of the steepness of the hill than those who stood alone, next to strangers, or next to newly formed friends.

structure


In 1949, she worked on the structure of penicillin with her colleagues.

stuff


Even if you end up spending money making things yourself, you're at least building a skill rather than a collection of stuff that's quickly decreasing in value.

supposed


We set resolutions based on what we're supposed to do, or what others think we're supposed to do, rather than what really matters to us.

For example, reading more is a good habit, but if you're only doing it because you feel like that's what you're supposed to do, not because you actually want to learn more, you're going to have a hard time reaching the goal.

tattooed


A person who is willing to take risks likes to be tattooed and also takes more chances on a motorcycle.

technical


So they are imagination engines," explains Jack Horner, a technical advisor for the Jurassic Park films.

technicians


Then one of the technicians turned to me with a big smile on his face and said, "You've got it!

temporary


Buying a new gadget might give you a similar rush, but it's also probably more temporary.

thinkers


This shift marked the birth of philosophy, and the first of the great thinkers that we know of was Thales of Miletus.

thrilled


It's hard enough to stick with goals you want to accomplish, but sometimes we make goals we're not even thrilled about in the first place.

thunderstorm


During a thunderstorm, clouds may become charged as they rub against each other.

tissue


Use a plastic pen and rub it on your hair about ten times and then hold the pen close to small pieces of tissue paper or chalk dust.

topic


Without a doubt, dinosaurs are a popular topic for kids across the planet.

Dinosaurs are studied in classrooms each year, not only for the science behind the topic, but also because of the creative thinking it seems to foster in students.

"I think it's the mystery of dinosaurs―the fact that there are still so many things we don't know―that inspires them to use that topic in their journals.

tough


"The fence was very tough, and the hammer was heavy.

traditional


Some people, however, found the traditional religious explanations inadequate, and they began to search for answers based on reason.

typically


Typically, fingernails grow about 0.1 millimeters a day, but in order to grow, they need glucose—a simple sugar that helps to power the body.

unoccupied


Research shows occupied time feels shorter than unoccupied time.

People usually exaggerate about the time they waited, and what they find most bothersome is time spent unoccupied.

value


Instead, make goals based on your own values.

Even if you end up spending money making things yourself, you're at least building a skill rather than a collection of stuff that's quickly decreasing in value.

We are often taught to put more value in actions than words, and for good reason.

variable


From a correlational observation, we conclude that one variable is related to a second variable.

The researchers at the U.S. Army conducted a study of motorcycle accidents, attempting to correlate the number of accidents with other variables such as socioeconomic level and age.

Obviously, a third variable is related to both—perhaps preference for risk.

vivid


Having extremely vivid memories of past emotional experiences and only weak memories of past everyday events means we maintain a biased perception of the past.

volumes


The actions of others often speak volumes louder than their words.

vote


When the vote was announced, my brain just would not work out the right percentages to discover whether we had the necessary two-thirds majority.

We hope you will devote resources to restoring the walking paths in Freer Park for all visitors.

wealthy


The accent that we identify as British today was developed around the time of the American Revolution by people of low birth rank who had become wealthy during the Industrial Revolution.

Comment +1

  • 생생정보통 2018.09.05 12:12

    나만 알고 있기에는 너무 좋은 곳이라서 알려드릴게요
    쿠팡.위메프.티몬 같은곳 보다 더 저렴한 곳인데요
    초대장 주소 알려드릴테니
    한번 가보슈~
    어려운 경제에 한푼이라도 아껴야지요 ^^
    https://bit.ly/2q69oFl
    (주소복사해서 들어가야됨)

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👺 절대 제발 읽지좀 마세요.


많은 사람은 과거의 실패에 근거하여 미래에 일어날 수 있는 일들에 대해 생각하고 그것에 사로잡힌다. 예를 들어, 만약 여러분이 전에 특정 분야에서 실패한 적이 있다면, 같은 상황에 직면할 때, 여러분은 미래에 무슨 일이 일어날지 예상하게 되고, 그래서 두려움이 여러분을 과거에 가두어 버린다. 과거가 어땠는지에 근거하여 결정을 내리지 말라. 여러분의 미래는 여러분의 과거가 아니고 여러분에게는 더 나은 미래가 있다. 여러분은 과거를 잊고 놓아주기로 결심해야 한다. 과거의 경험이 여러분을 지배하게 할 때만 그것이 현재의 꿈을 앗아 간다.
Many people think of what might happen in the future based on past failures and get trapped by them. For example, if you have failed in a certain area before, when faced with the same situation, you anticipate what might happen in the future, and thus fear traps you in yesterday. Do not base your decision on what yesterday was. Your future is not your past and you have a better future. You must decide to forget and let go of your past. Your past experiences are the thief of today's dreams only when you allow them to control you.



절대 네버 해석하지 마세요. 1등급 되니까요~❤️


 ♕ Many people think of what might happen in the future based on past failures and get trapped by them.
  
Need_Help?

▷many
많은/여러 
▷people
사람들/국민 
▷think
생각하다 
▷might
...지도 모른다/ ...할 수 있다 
▷happen
일어나다/벌어지다 
▷future
미래/앞의 
▷based
기반/기초 
▷past
과거의/지난 
▷failures
실패/실수 
▷get
받다/얻다 
▷by
안녕/잘가요  them.
많은 사람은 과거의 실패에 근거하여 미래에 일어날 수 있는 일들에 대해 생각하고 그것에 사로잡힌다.
문법분석: Many people *1형식동사⌈think of⌋ what might *1형식동사⌈happen in⌋ the future *분사구_수동⌈based on⌋ past failures and get trapped by them.


 ♕ For example, if you have failed in a certain area before, when faced with the same situation, you anticipate what might happen in the future, and thus fear traps you in yesterday.
  
Need_Help?

▷for
앞부분의/이물에 
▷example
예/본보기 
▷have
가지다/5V.하게하다 
▷failed
~하지 못하다/쇠약해지다 
▷certain
특정한/어떤 
▷area
면적/지역 
▷before
전/이전에 
▷faced
얼굴/직면하다 
▷same
같은/똑같은 
▷situation
상황/사태 
▷anticipate
~을 예상하다 
▷might
...지도 모른다/ ...할 수 있다 
▷happen
일어나다/벌어지다 
▷future
미래/앞의 
▷thus
따라서/그렇게 
▷fear
두려움/공포 
▷traps
가두다/덫 
▷yesterday
어제/최근 .
예를 들어, 만약 여러분이 전에 특정 분야에서 실패한 적이 있다면, 같은 상황에 직면할 때, 여러분은 미래에 무슨 일이 일어날지 예상하게 되고, 그래서 두려움이 여러분을 과거에 가두어 버린다.
문법분석: For example, if you have failed in a certain area before, *부사절축약⌈when faced⌋ with the same situation *댓생략 you anticipate what might *1형식동사⌈happen in⌋ the future, and thus fear traps you in yesterday.


 ♕ Do not base your decision on what yesterday was.
  
Need_Help?

▷do
암컷/Department of Energy(에너지부) 
▷not
유명/지폐 
▷base
기반/기초 
▷decision
결정/판결 
▷yesterday
어제/최근  was.
과거가 어땠는지에 근거하여 결정을 내리지 말라.
문법분석: Do not base your decision on what yesterday was.


 ♕ Your future is not your past and you have a better future.
  
Need_Help?
your
▷future
미래/앞의 
▷not
유명/지폐 
▷past
과거의/지난 
▷have
가지다/5V.하게하다 
▷better
개선하다 
▷future
미래/앞의 .
여러분의 미래는 여러분의 과거가 아니고 여러분에게는 더 나은 미래가 있다.
문법분석: Your future is not your past and you have a better future.


 ♕ You must decide to forget and let go of your past.
  
Need_Help?
you
▷must
...일 것이다/반드시 ...하다 
▷decide
결정하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷forget
잊다/망각하다 
▷let
...하게 해주다/ ...하도록 두다 
▷past
과거의/지난 .
여러분은 과거를 잊고 놓아주기로 결심해야 한다.
문법분석: You must decide to forget and let go of your past.


 ♕ Your past experiences are the thief of today's dreams only when you allow them to control you.
  
Need_Help?
your
▷past
과거의/지난 
▷experiences
경험/체험 
▷thief
도둑/절도 
▷today
오늘날/오늘 
▷dreams
꿈/꿈꾸다 
▷only
뿐이다/유일하게 
▷allow
...할 수 있게 하다/허용하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷control
제어하다/통제하다  you.
과거의 경험이 여러분을 지배하게 할 때만 그것이 현재의 꿈을 앗아 간다.
문법분석: Your past experiences are the thief of today's dreams only when you 5형식동사[ allow them to ] control you.


2 요지


👺 절대 제발 읽지좀 마세요.


전문가들은 사람들에게 "승강기 대신 계단을 이용하거나 직장까지 걷거나 자전거를 타라"라고 조언한다. 그것들은 좋은 전략으로, 계단을 오르는 것은 좋은 운동이 되고, 이동 수단으로써 걷거나 자전거를 타는 사람들은 대개 신체적 활동에 대한 필요를 충족시킨다. 하지만 많은 사람은 자신의 환경에서 그러한 선택을 가로막는 장벽에 부딪힌다. 안전한 인도 혹은 표시된 자전거 차선이 없거나, 차량이 빠르게 지나가거나, 또는 공기가 오염된 도로에서 걷거나 자전거를 타는 것을 선택하는 사람은 거의 없을 것이다. 현대식 건물에서 불편하고 안전하지 않은, 계단이 포함된 건물의 수직 공간에서 계단을 오르는 것을 선택하는 사람은 거의 없을 것이다. 이와는 대조적으로, 안전한 자전거 도로와 산책로, 공원, 자유롭게 이용할 수 있는 운동 시설이 있는 동네에 사는 사람들은 자주 그것들을 사용하는데, 그들의 주변 환경이 신체 활동을 장려한다.
Experts advise people to "take the stairs instead of the elevator" or "walk or bike to work." These are good strategies : climbing stairs provides a good workout, and people who walk or ride a bicycle for transportation most often meet their needs for physical activity. Many people, however, face barriers in their environment that prevent such choices. Few people would choose to walk or bike on roadways that lack safe sidewalks or marked bicycle lanes, where vehicles speed by, or where the air is polluted. Few would choose to walk up stairs in inconvenient and unsafe stairwells in modern buildings. In contrast, people living in neighborhoods with safe biking and walking lanes, public parks, and freely available exercise facilities use them often—their surroundings encourage physical activity.



절대 네버 해석하지 마세요. 1등급 되니까요~❤️


 ♕ Experts advise people to "take the stairs instead of the elevator" or "walk or bike to work."
  
Need_Help?

▷experts
익숙한 사람/전문가 
▷advise
조언하다 
▷people
사람들/국민 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷stairs
계단 
▷instead
대신에/보다 
▷elevator
엘리베이터 
▷or
광석/원광 
▷walk
걷다/보행 
▷or
광석/원광 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷work
일하다 ."
전문가들은 사람들에게 "승강기 대신 계단을 이용하거나 직장까지 걷거나 자전거를 타라"라고 조언한다.
문법분석: Experts advise people to "take the stairs *표현주의⌈instead of⌋ the elevator" or "walk or bike to work."


 ♕ These are good strategies : climbing stairs provides a good workout, and people who walk or ride a bicycle for transportation most often meet their needs for physical activity.
  
Need_Help?
these are
▷good
상당한/이익/상품 
▷strategies
전략들 
▷climbing
오르다/등반하다 
▷stairs
계단 
▷provides
~을 주다/준비하다 
▷good
상당한/이익/상품 
▷people
사람들/국민 
▷who
누구 
▷walk
걷다/보행 
▷or
광석/원광 
▷ride
없애다/제거하다 
▷bicycle
자전거 
▷for
앞부분의/이물에 
▷transportation
교통/운송 
▷most
가장/대부분의 
▷often
종종/자주 
▷meet
만나다 
▷needs
필요/해야 한다 
▷for
앞부분의/이물에 
▷physical
물리적인/육체의 
▷activity
활동 .
그것들은 좋은 전략으로, 계단을 오르는 것은 좋은 운동이 되고, 이동 수단으로써 걷거나 자전거를 타는 사람들은 대개 신체적 활동에 대한 필요를 충족시킨다.
문법분석: These are good strategies : climbing stairs provides a good workout, and people who walk or ride a bicycle for transportation most often meet their needs for physical activity.


 ♕ Many people, however, face barriers in their environment that prevent such choices.
  
Need_Help?

▷many
많은/여러 
▷people
사람들/국민 
▷however
그러나/하지만 
▷face
얼굴/직면하다 
▷barriers
장벽/장애물 
▷environment
환경 
▷prevent
막다/방지하다 
▷such
...같은/그러한 
▷choices
고급의 .
하지만 많은 사람은 자신의 환경에서 그러한 선택을 가로막는 장벽에 부딪힌다.
문법분석: Many people, however, face barriers in their environment that prevent such choices.


 ♕ Few people would choose to walk or bike on roadways that lack safe sidewalks or marked bicycle lanes, where vehicles speed by, or where the air is polluted.
  
Need_Help?

▷few
거의 없는/몇몇의 
▷people
사람들/국민 
▷would
...할 것이다/ ...하려고 하다 
▷choose
선택하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷walk
걷다/보행 
▷or
광석/원광 
▷roadways
도로 부지/도로 
▷lack
-이 없이 부족하다 
▷safe
금고 
▷sidewalks
보도/인도 
▷or
광석/원광 
▷marked
마크/기념하다 
▷bicycle
자전거 
▷lanes
차선/차로 
▷where
어디/곳 
▷vehicles
자동차/차량탈 것 
▷speed
속도/스피드 
▷by
안녕/잘가요 
▷or
광석/원광 
▷where
어디/곳 
▷air
공기/대기 
▷polluted
오염시키다 .
안전한 인도 혹은 표시된 자전거 차선이 없거나, 차량이 빠르게 지나가거나, 또는 공기가 오염된 도로에서 걷거나 자전거를 타는 것을 선택하는 사람은 거의 없을 것이다.
문법분석: Few people would choose to walk or bike on roadways that lack safe sidewalks or marked bicycle lanes *관계사_계속적용법⌈, where vehicles speed by, or where the air *수동태⌈is polluted⌋.


 ♕ Few would choose to walk up stairs in inconvenient and unsafe stairwells in modern buildings.
  
Need_Help?

▷few
거의 없는/몇몇의 
▷would
...할 것이다/ ...하려고 하다 
▷choose
선택하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷walk
걷다/보행 
▷stairs
계단 
▷modern
현대의/근대의 
▷buildings
건물/건축 .
현대식 건물에서 불편하고 안전하지 않은, 계단이 포함된 건물의 수직 공간에서 계단을 오르는 것을 선택하는 사람은 거의 없을 것이다.
문법분석: Few would choose to walk up stairs in inconvenient and unsafe stairwells in modern buildings.


 ♕ In contrast, people living in neighborhoods with safe biking and walking lanes, public parks, and freely available exercise facilities use them often—their surroundings encourage physical activity.
  
Need_Help?
in
▷contrast
대조/대비 
▷people
사람들/국민 
▷living
살다/생활하다 
▷neighborhoods
동네의/이웃 
▷safe
금고 
▷walking
걷다/보행 
▷lanes
차선/차로 
▷public
공공의/대중 
▷parks
박/공원 
▷freely
아낌없이/자유롭게 
▷available
가능한/이용할 수 있는 
▷exercise
운동(하다) 
▷facilities
시설 
▷use
사용하다 
▷often
종종/자주 
▷encourage
격려하다 
▷physical
물리적인/육체의 
▷activity
활동 .
이와는 대조적으로, 안전한 자전거 도로와 산책로, 공원, 자유롭게 이용할 수 있는 운동 시설이 있는 동네에 사는 사람들은 자주 그것들을 사용하는데, 그들의 주변 환경이 신체 활동을 장려한다.
문법분석: In contrast, people living in neighborhoods with safe biking *동명사S/분사구문⌈and walking⌋ lanes, public parks, and freely available exercise facilities use them often—their surroundings encourage physical activity.


3 제목


👺 절대 제발 읽지좀 마세요.


우리는 어떻게 우리 아이들이 광범위한 정보를 기억하도록 가르칠 수 있을까? 내가 여러분에게 모든 사람은 반복에 의한 암기를 통해 많은 양의 정보를 저장하고, 관리하고, 기억하도록 만들어진 두뇌를 갖고 있는 잠재적인 천재라는 것을 증명하겠다. 여러분이 가장 많이 쇼핑을 하는 식료품점을 상상해 보라. 내가 여러분에게 달걀이 어디 있는지 말해 달라고 한다면, 그렇게 할 수 있겠는가? 당연히 여러분은 할 수 있을 것이다. 보통의 식료품점에는 만 개가 넘는 품목을 취급하지만, 여러분은 그 물건 대부분을 어디에서 찾을지 빠르게 말할 수 있다. 왜 그럴까? 그 가게는 범주별로 정리되어 있으며, 여러분은 그 가게에서 반복적으로 쇼핑을 했다. 다시 말해서, 여러분은 그 정리된 물건을 계속 봤고, 범주에 의한 배열은 여러분이 그 가게의 배치를 기억하기 쉽게 해 준다. 여러분은 한 매장에서만 해도 만 가지 품목을 범주화할 수 있다.
How can we teach our children to memorize a broad range of information? Let me prove to you that all people are potential geniuses, with brains designed to store, control, and remember large amounts of information through memorization by repetition. Imagine the grocery store where you shop the most. If I asked you to tell me where the eggs are, would you be able to do so? Of course you could. The average grocery store carries over 10,000 items, yet you can quickly tell me where to find most of them. Why? The store is organized by category, and you have shopped in the store repeatedly. In other words, you've seen those organized items over and over again, and the arrangement by category makes it easy for you to memorize the store's layout. You can categorize 10,000 items from just one store.



절대 네버 해석하지 마세요. 1등급 되니까요~❤️


 ♕ How can we teach our children to memorize a broad range of information?
  
Need_Help?

▷how
어떻게/얼마나 
▷can
지팡이/설탕수수 
▷we
아주 이른/아주 조금 
▷teach
가르치다/알려주다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷memorize
기억하다 
▷broad
넓은/광 
▷range
범위/산맥 
▷information
정보/자료 ?
우리는 어떻게 우리 아이들이 광범위한 정보를 기억하도록 가르칠 수 있을까?
문법분석: How can we teach our children to memorize a broad range of information?


 ♕ Let me prove to you that all people are potential geniuses, with brains designed to store, control, and remember large amounts of information through memorization by repetition.
  
Need_Help?

▷let
...하게 해주다/ ...하도록 두다 
▷prove
증명하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷people
사람들/국민 
▷potential
잠재적인/가능성 있는 
▷geniuses
천재 
▷brains
뇌/두뇌 
▷designed
디자인/계획 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷store
가게/저장) 
▷control
제어하다/통제하다 
▷remember
기억하다 
▷large
큰/대규모의 
▷amounts
양/되다 
▷information
정보/자료 
▷through
통하여/ ...때문에 
▷by
안녕/잘가요 
▷repetition
반복/되풀이 .
내가 여러분에게 모든 사람은 반복에 의한 암기를 통해 많은 양의 정보를 저장하고, 관리하고, 기억하도록 만들어진 두뇌를 갖고 있는 잠재적인 천재라는 것을 증명하겠다.
문법분석: Let me prove to you that all people are potential geniuses, with brains designed to store, control, and remember large amounts of information through memorization by repetition.


 ♕ Imagine the grocery store where you shop the most.
  
Need_Help?

▷imagine
상상하다 
▷grocery
식료품/잡화류 
▷store
가게/저장) 
▷where
어디/곳 
▷shop
쇼핑하다 
▷most
가장/대부분의 .
여러분이 가장 많이 쇼핑을 하는 식료품점을 상상해 보라.
문법분석: Imagine the grocery store where you shop the most.


 ♕ If I asked you to tell me where the eggs are, would you be able to do so?
  
Need_Help?
if i
▷asked
묻다/요청하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷tell
말하다/구별하다 
▷where
어디/곳 
▷eggs
달걀/알 
▷would
...할 것이다/ ...하려고 하다 
▷be
벌 
▷able
...할 수 있는/유능한 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷do
암컷/Department of Energy(에너지부)  so?
내가 여러분에게 달걀이 어디 있는지 말해 달라고 한다면, 그렇게 할 수 있겠는가?
문법분석: If I 5형식동사[ asked you to ] tell me where the eggs are, would you be able to do so?


 ♕ Of course you could.
  
Need_Help?
of
▷course
과정/코스 
▷could
...할 수 있다/ ...할 수 있을 것이다 .
당연히 여러분은 할 수 있을 것이다.
문법분석: Of course you could.


 ♕ The average grocery store carries over 10,000 items, yet you can quickly tell me where to find most of them.
  
Need_Help?
the
▷average
평균(의) 
▷grocery
식료품/잡화류 
▷store
가게/저장) 
▷over
...이상/끝나서 
▷items
물품/품목 
▷yet
아직/그러나 
▷can
지팡이/설탕수수 
▷quickly
빨리/빠른 
▷tell
말하다/구별하다 
▷where
어디/곳 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷find
찾다/발견하다 
▷most
가장/대부분의  of them.
보통의 식료품점에는 만 개가 넘는 품목을 취급하지만, 여러분은 그 물건 대부분을 어디에서 찾을지 빠르게 말할 수 있다.
문법분석: The average grocery store carries over 10,000 items, yet you can quickly tell me where to find most of them.


 ♕ Why?
  
Need_Help?

▷why
왜/이유 ?
왜 그럴까?
문법분석: Why?


 ♕ The store is organized by category, and you have shopped in the store repeatedly.
  
Need_Help?
the
▷store
가게/저장) 
▷organized
조직하다 
▷by
안녕/잘가요 
▷category
범주 
▷have
가지다/5V.하게하다 
▷store
가게/저장) 
▷repeatedly
반복적으로/거듭해서 .
그 가게는 범주별로 정리되어 있으며, 여러분은 그 가게에서 반복적으로 쇼핑을 했다.
문법분석: The store *수동태⌈is organized⌋ by category, and you have shopped in the store repeatedly.


 ♕ In other words, you've seen those organized items over and over again, and the arrangement by category makes it easy for you to memorize the store's layout.
  
Need_Help?
in
▷other
다른/기타의 
▷words
단어/말 
▷seen
보이는/여겨진 
▷organized
조직하다 
▷items
물품/품목 
▷over
...이상/끝나서 
▷over
...이상/끝나서 
▷again
다시/또 
▷arrangement
준비/배열 
▷by
안녕/잘가요 
▷category
범주 
▷makes
...하게 하다/만들다 
▷easy
쉬운 
▷for
앞부분의/이물에 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷memorize
기억하다 
▷store
가게/저장) 's layout.
다시 말해서, 여러분은 그 정리된 물건을 계속 봤고, 범주에 의한 배열은 여러분이 그 가게의 배치를 기억하기 쉽게 해 준다.
문법분석: In other words, you've seen those organized items over and over again, and the arrangement by category 비타동사[ makes it easy for you to memorize ] the store's layout.


 ♕ You can categorize 10,000 items from just one store.
  
Need_Help?
you
▷can
지팡이/설탕수수 
▷items
물품/품목 
▷just
것만 / 그냥 
▷store
가게/저장) .
여러분은 한 매장에서만 해도 만 가지 품목을 범주화할 수 있다.
문법분석: You can categorize 10,000 items from just one store.


6 어휘


👺 절대 제발 읽지좀 마세요.


정직은 모든 굳건한 관계의 근본적인 부분이다. 자신이 느끼는 것에 대해 솔직하게 말하고, 질문을 받았을 때 정직한 의견을 줌으로써 그것을 여러분에게 유리하게 사용하라. 이 접근법은 여러분이 불편한 사회적 상황에서 벗어나고 정직한 사람들과 친구가 될 수 있도록 도와줄 수 있다. 삶에서 다음과 같은 분명한 방침을 따르라. 절대로 거짓말을 하지 말라. 항상 진실만을 말한다는 평판이 쌓이면, 여러분은 신뢰를 바탕으로 굳건한 관계를 누릴 것이다. (누군가가) 여러분을 조종하는 것도 더 어려워질 것이다. 거짓말을 하는 사람은 자신의 거짓말을 폭로하겠다고 누군가가 위협하면 곤경에 처하게 된다. 자신에게 진실하게 삶으로써, 여러분은 많은 골칫거리를 피할 것이다. 또한 여러분의 관계에는 거짓과 비밀이라는 해악이 없을 것이다. 진실이 아무리 고통스러울지라도 친구들에게 정직하게 대하는 것을 두려워하지 말라. 장기적으로 보면, 선의의 거짓말은 진실을 말하는 것보다 사람들에게 훨씬 더 많이 상처를준다.
Honesty is a fundamental part of every strong relationship. Use it to your advantage by being open with what you feel and giving a truthful opinion when asked. This approach can help you escape uncomfortable social situations and make friends with honest people. Follow this simple policy in life—never lie. When you develop a reputation for always telling the truth, you will enjoy strong relationships based on trust. It will also be more difficult to manipulate you. People who lie get into trouble when someone threatens to uncover their lie. By living true to yourself, you'll avoid a lot of headaches. Your relationships will also be free from the poison of lies and secrets. Don't be afraid to be honest with your friends, no matter how painful the truth is. In the long term, lies with good intentions hurt people much more than telling the truth.



절대 네버 해석하지 마세요. 1등급 되니까요~❤️


 ♕ Honesty is a fundamental part of every strong relationship.
  
Need_Help?

▷honesty
정직 
▷fundamental
근본적인 
▷part
부분/일부 
▷every
모든/마다 
▷strong
강한/강력히 
▷relationship
관계/연애관계 .
정직은 모든 굳건한 관계의 근본적인 부분이다.
문법분석: Honesty is a fundamental part of every strong relationship.


 ♕ Use it to your advantage by being open with what you feel and giving a truthful opinion when asked.
  
Need_Help?

▷use
사용하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷advantage
유리 이점 
▷by
안녕/잘가요 
▷being
벌 
▷open
열다/개방하다 
▷feel
느끼다/기분 
▷giving
주다/전하다 
▷truthful
정직한/진실인 
▷opinion
의견/생각 
▷asked
묻다/요청하다 .
자신이 느끼는 것에 대해 솔직하게 말하고, 질문을 받았을 때 정직한 의견을 줌으로써 그것을 여러분에게 유리하게 사용하라.
문법분석: Use it to your advantage by *표현주의⌈being⌋ open with what you feel *동명사S/분사구문⌈and giving⌋ a truthful opinion *부사절축약⌈when asked⌋.


 ♕ This approach can help you escape uncomfortable social situations and make friends with honest people.
  
Need_Help?
this
▷approach
접근하다 
▷can
지팡이/설탕수수 
▷help
도움/돕다 
▷escape
탈출하다 
▷uncomfortable
불편한/불쾌감을 주는 
▷social
사회의/소셜 
▷situations
상황/사태 
▷make
...하게 하다/만들다 
▷friends
친구/프랜드 
▷honest
솔직한/정직한 
▷people
사람들/국민 .
이 접근법은 여러분이 불편한 사회적 상황에서 벗어나고 정직한 사람들과 친구가 될 수 있도록 도와줄 수 있다.
문법분석: This approach can help you escape uncomfortable social situations and make friends with honest people.


 ♕ Follow this simple policy in life—never lie.
  
Need_Help?

▷follow
당연한 결과로서 ~이되다 
▷simple
간단한/단순한 
▷policy
정책 방침 
▷life
삶/인생생물 
▷lie
거짓말/눕다 .
삶에서 다음과 같은 분명한 방침을 따르라.
문법분석: Follow this simple policy in life—never lie.


 ♕ When you develop a reputation for always telling the truth, you will enjoy strong relationships based on trust.
  
Need_Help?
when you
▷develop
개발하다 
▷reputation
명성/평판 
▷for
앞부분의/이물에 
▷always
항상/언제나 
▷telling
말하다/구별하다 
▷truth
진실/사실 
▷enjoy
즐기다/누리다 
▷strong
강한/강력히 
▷relationships
관계/연애관계 
▷based
기반/기초 
▷trust
신뢰/믿음 .
절대로 거짓말을 하지 말라.
문법분석: When you develop a reputation for always telling the truth, you will enjoy strong relationships *분사구_수동⌈based on⌋ trust.


 ♕ It will also be more difficult to manipulate you.
  
Need_Help?
it will also
▷be
벌 
▷difficult
어려운/힘든 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷manipulate
조작하다/조종하다  you.
항상 진실만을 말한다는 평판이 쌓이면, 여러분은 신뢰를 바탕으로 굳건한 관계를 누릴 것이다.
문법분석: It will also be more difficult to manipulate you.


 ♕ People who lie get into trouble when someone threatens to uncover their lie.
  
Need_Help?

▷people
사람들/국민 
▷who
누구 
▷lie
거짓말/눕다 
▷get
받다/얻다 
▷into
들어가다/속으로 
▷trouble
문제/곤란 
▷someone
누군가/어떤 사람 
▷threatens
위협하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷uncover
발견하다 
▷lie
거짓말/눕다 .
(누군가가) 여러분을 조종하는 것도 더 어려워질 것이다.
문법분석: People who lie get into trouble when someone threatens to uncover their lie.


 ♕ By living true to yourself, you'll avoid a lot of headaches.
  
Need_Help?

▷by
안녕/잘가요 
▷living
살다/생활하다 
▷true
사실/진정한 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷yourself
당신 자신 
▷avoid
피하다 
▷lot
많은/매우 
▷headaches
두통/골칫거리 .
거짓말을 하는 사람은 자신의 거짓말을 폭로하겠다고 누군가가 위협하면 곤경에 처하게 된다.
문법분석: By living true to yourself, you'll avoid a lot of headaches.


 ♕ Your relationships will also be free from the poison of lies and secrets.
  
Need_Help?
your
▷relationships
관계/연애관계 
▷be
벌 
▷free
무료의/면세의 
▷poison
독(약)중독되다/독 
▷lies
거짓말/눕다 
▷secrets
produce and release substance 물질/본질  into an organism.
자신에게 진실하게 삶으로써, 여러분은 많은 골칫거리를 피할 것이다.
문법분석: Your relationships will also be free from the poison of lies and secrets.


 ♕ Don't be afraid to be honest with your friends, no matter how painful the truth is.
  
Need_Help?
don't
▷be
벌 
▷afraid
두려운/무서워하여 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷be
벌 
▷honest
솔직한/정직한 
▷friends
친구/프랜드 
▷matter
문제/중요하다 
▷how
어떻게/얼마나 
▷painful
고통스러운/아픈 
▷truth
진실/사실  is.
또한 여러분의 관계에는 거짓과 비밀이라는 해악이 없을 것이다.
문법분석: Don't be afraid to be honest with your friends, no matter how painful the truth is.


 ♕ In the long term, lies with good intentions hurt people much more than telling the truth.
  
Need_Help?
in the
▷long
긴/오래/ 
▷term
임기/용어 
▷lies
거짓말/눕다 
▷good
상당한/이익/상품 
▷intentions
의도/의사 
▷hurt
다치다/해치다 
▷people
사람들/국민 
▷much
많은/매우 
▷than
보다/다름아닌 
▷telling
말하다/구별하다 
▷truth
진실/사실 .
진실이 아무리 고통스러울지라도 친구들에게 정직하게 대하는 것을 두려워하지 말라.
문법분석: In the long term, *1형식동사⌈lies with⌋ good intentions hurt people much more than telling the truth.


7 어법


👺 절대 제발 읽지좀 마세요.


최초의 수중 사진은 William Thompson이라는 영국인에 의해 촬영되었다. 1856년에 그는 간단한 상자형 카메라를 방수 처리하고 막대에 부착하여 남부 England 연안의 바닷속으로 내려 보냈다. 10분간의 노출 동안 카메라에 서서히 바닷물이 차올랐지만 사진은 온전했다. 수중 사진술이 탄생한 것이다. 물이 맑고 충분한 빛이 있는 수면 근처에서는 아마추어 사진작가가 저렴한 수중 카메라로 멋진 사진을 찍을 가능성이 상당히 높다. 더 깊은 곳에서는-그곳은 어둡고 차갑다-사진술이 신비로운 심해의 세계를 탐험하는 주요한 방법이며, 그곳의 95%는 예전에는 전혀 볼 수 없었다. 8 Since a great deal of day­-to-­day academic work is boring and repetitive, you need to be well motivated to keep doing it. A mathematician sharpens her pencils, works on a proof, tries a few approaches, gets nowhere, and finishes for the day. A writer sits down at his desk, produces a few hundred words, decides they are no good, throws them in the bin, and hopes for better inspiration tomorrow. To produce something worthwhile—if it ever happens—may require years of such fruitless labor. The Nobel Prize­winning biologist Peter Medawar said that about four-­fifths of his time in science was wasted, adding sadly that "nearly all scientific research leads nowhere." What kept all of these people going when things were going badly was their passion for their subject. Without such passion, they would have achieved nothing.
The first underwater photographs were taken by an Englishman named William Thompson. In 1856, he waterproofed a simple box camera, attached it to a pole, and lowered it beneath the waves off the coast of southern England. During the 10­minute exposure, the camera slowly flooded with seawater, but the picture survived. Underwater photography was born. Near the surface, where the water is clear and there is enough light, it is quite possible for an amateur photographer to take great shots with an inexpensive underwater camera. At greater depths—it is dark and cold there—photography is the principal way of exploring a mysterious deep-­sea world, 95 percent of which has never been seen before.



절대 네버 해석하지 마세요. 1등급 되니까요~❤️


 ♕ The first underwater photographs were taken by an Englishman named William Thompson.
  
Need_Help?
the first underwater
▷photographs
사진 
▷taken
찍은/받은 
▷by
안녕/잘가요 
▷named
이름/명칭 
▷thompson
톰프슨/톰슨 .
최초의 수중 사진은 William Thompson이라는 영국인에 의해 촬영되었다.
문법분석: The first underwater photographs were taken by an Englishman named William Thompson.


 ♕ In 1856, he waterproofed a simple box camera, attached it to a pole, and lowered it beneath the waves off the coast of southern England.
  
Need_Help?
in 1856, he
▷waterproofed
방수의 
▷simple
간단한/단순한 
▷box
상자/박스 
▷camera
카메라/사진기 
▷attached
부착하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷pole
극/기둥 
▷lowered
낮추다/내리다 
▷beneath
아래에/밑에 
▷waves
파/파도 
▷off
없어져/떨어져 
▷coast
해안/연안 
▷southern
남부의/남쪽의  england.
1856년에 그는 간단한 상자형 카메라를 방수 처리하고 막대에 부착하여 남부 England 연안의 바닷속으로 내려 보냈다.
문법분석: In 1856, he waterproofed a simple box camera, attached it to a pole, and lowered it beneath the waves off the coast of southern England.


 ♕ During the 10­minute exposure, the camera slowly flooded with seawater, but the picture survived.
  
Need_Help?

▷during
...동안/ ...중에도 
▷exposure
노출/폭로 
▷camera
카메라/사진기 
▷slowly
천천히/느리게 
▷flooded
홍수/침수하다 
▷picture
사진/그림 
▷survived
살아남다 보다 오래살다 .
10분간의 노출 동안 카메라에 서서히 바닷물이 차올랐지만 사진은 온전했다.
문법분석: *동명사S/분사구문⌈During⌋ the 10­minute exposure, the camera slowly flooded with seawater, but the picture survived.


 ♕ Underwater photography was born.
  
Need_Help?
underwater
▷photography
사진 
▷born
태어난/~태생의 .
수중 사진술이 탄생한 것이다.
문법분석: Underwater photography was born.


 ♕ Near the surface, where the water is clear and there is enough light, it is quite possible for an amateur photographer to take great shots with an inexpensive underwater camera.
  
Need_Help?

▷near
근처/가깝게 
▷surface
표면 
▷where
어디/곳 
▷water
물/바다 
▷clear
분명해지다/분명한 
▷there
그곳/거기 
▷enough
충분한/충분히 
▷light
밝게하다 
▷quite
그만두다 
▷possible
가능한/할 수 있는 
▷for
앞부분의/이물에 
▷amateur
아마추어/비전문가 
▷photographer
사진사/사진찍는 사람 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷take
(시간)이 걸리다/가지다 
▷great
위대한/큰 
▷shots
발사/슛 
▷camera
카메라/사진기 .
물이 맑고 충분한 빛이 있는 수면 근처에서는 아마추어 사진작가가 저렴한 수중 카메라로 멋진 사진을 찍을 가능성이 상당히 높다.
문법분석: Near the surface *관계사_계속적용법⌈, where the water is clear and *Xvs구문⌈there is enough⌋ light, it is quite possible for an amateur photographer to take great shots with an inexpensive underwater camera.


 ♕ At greater depths—it is dark and cold there—photography is the principal way of exploring a mysterious deep-­sea world, 95 percent of which has never been seen before.
  
Need_Help?

▷at
먹었다 
▷greater
더/크다 
▷depths
깊이/깊음 
▷dark
어두운/지다 
▷cold
추운/차가워진 
▷there
그곳/거기 
▷photography
사진 
▷principal
교장/주요한 
▷way
방법/방식 
▷exploring
탐구하다/탐험하다 
▷mysterious
신비의/불가사의한 
▷deep
깊은/심 
▷sea
바다/바닷가 
▷world
세계/세상 
▷percent
%/퍼센트 
▷which
어떤/어느 
▷never
결코/절대 
▷seen
보이는/여겨진 
▷before
전/이전에 .
더 깊은 곳에서는-그곳은 어둡고 차갑다-사진술이 신비로운 심해의 세계를 탐험하는 주요한 방법이며, 그곳의 95%는 예전에는 전혀 볼 수 없었다.
문법분석: At greater depths—it is dark and cold there—photography is the principal way of exploring a mysterious deep-­sea world, 95 percent of which has never been seen before.


9 빈칸


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상점 안에서, 벽은 매장의 뒤쪽을 나타내지만, 마케팅의 끝을 나타내지는 않는다. 상품 판매업자는 종종 뒷벽을 자석[사람을 끄는 것]으로 사용하는데, 이것은 사람들이 매장 전체를 걸어야 한다는 것을 의미하기 때문이다. 이것은 좋은 일인데, 측정 가능한 다른 어떤 소비자 변수보다 이동 거리가 방문 고객당 판매량과 더 직접적으로 관련되어 있기 때문이다. 때로는 벽에서 사람의 관심을 끄는 것은 정말로 감각에 호소하는 것인데, 시선을 끄는 벽의 장식물이나 귀를 기울이게 하는 소리가 그것에 해당한다. 때로는 사람의 관심을 끄는 것이 특정 상품이기도 하다. 슈퍼마켓에서 유제품은 흔히 뒤편에 위치하는데, 사람들이 자주 우유만 사러 오기 때문이다. 비디오 대여점에서는 그것이 새로 출시된 비디오이다. 10. 빈칸추론
Within a store, the wall marks the back of the store, but not the end of the marketing. Merchandisers often use the back wall as a magnet, because it means that people have to walk through the whole store. This is a good thing because distance traveled relates more directly to sales per entering customer than any other measurable consumer variable. Sometimes, the wall's attraction is simply appealing to the senses, a wall decoration that catches the eye or a sound that catches the ear. Sometimes the attraction is specific goods. In supermarkets, the dairy is often at the back, because people frequently come just for milk. At video rental shops, it's the new releases.



절대 네버 해석하지 마세요. 1등급 되니까요~❤️


 ♕ Within a store, the wall marks the back of the store, but not the end of the marketing.
  
Need_Help?

▷within
...안에/ ...이내에 
▷store
가게/저장) 
▷wall
벽/벽면 
▷marks
마크/기념하다 
▷back
돌아가다/뒤 
▷store
가게/저장) 
▷not
유명/지폐 
▷end
목적/결말 
▷marketing
시장/마켓 .
상점 안에서, 벽은 매장의 뒤쪽을 나타내지만, 마케팅의 끝을 나타내지는 않는다.
문법분석: Within a store, the wall marks the back of the store, but not the end of the marketing.


 ♕ Merchandisers often use the back wall as a magnet, because it means that people have to walk through the whole store.
  
Need_Help?
merchandisers
▷often
종종/자주 
▷use
사용하다 
▷back
돌아가다/뒤 
▷wall
벽/벽면 
▷magnet
자석/ ...을 끄는 
▷because
...때문에/왜냐하면 
▷means
의미하다 
▷people
사람들/국민 
▷have
가지다/5V.하게하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷walk
걷다/보행 
▷through
통하여/ ...때문에 
▷whole
전체/모든 
▷store
가게/저장) .
상품 판매업자는 종종 뒷벽을 자석[사람을 끄는 것]으로 사용하는데, 이것은 사람들이 매장 전체를 걸어야 한다는 것을 의미하기 때문이다.
문법분석: Merchandisers often use the back wall as a magnet, because it means that people have to walk through the whole store.


 ♕ This is a good thing because distance traveled relates more directly to sales per entering customer than any other measurable consumer variable.
  
Need_Help?
this is a
▷good
상당한/이익/상품 
▷thing
것/일 
▷because
...때문에/왜냐하면 
▷distance
거리/먼 곳 
▷traveled
여행/이동 
▷relates
관계시키다 말하다 
▷directly
직접적으로/똑바로 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷sales
Salvation Army/salary 
▷per
당/일 
▷entering
들어가다/입장하다 
▷customer
고객/소비자 
▷than
보다/다름아닌 
▷any
어떤/전혀 
▷other
다른/기타의 
▷consumer
소비자/고객 
▷variable
변수/변화하는 .
이것은 좋은 일인데, 측정 가능한 다른 어떤 소비자 변수보다 이동 거리가 방문 고객당 판매량과 더 직접적으로 관련되어 있기 때문이다.
문법분석: This is a good thing because distance traveled relates more directly to sales per entering customer than any other measurable consumer variable.


 ♕ Sometimes, the wall's attraction is simply appealing to the senses, a wall decoration that catches the eye or a sound that catches the ear.
  
Need_Help?

▷sometimes
언제/조만간 
▷wall
벽/벽면 
▷attraction
명소/매력 
▷simply
단순히/간단히 
▷appealing
호소/매력 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷senses
감각/의미 
▷wall
벽/벽면 
▷decoration
장식/장식물 
▷catches
잡다/받다 
▷eye
눈/시선 
▷or
광석/원광 
▷sound
~하게 들리다/건전한 
▷catches
잡다/받다 
▷ear
귀/청력 .
때로는 벽에서 사람의 관심을 끄는 것은 정말로 감각에 호소하는 것인데, 시선을 끄는 벽의 장식물이나 귀를 기울이게 하는 소리가 그것에 해당한다.
문법분석: Sometimes, the wall's attraction is simply appealing to the senses, a wall decoration that catches the eye or a sound that catches the ear.


 ♕ Sometimes the attraction is specific goods.
  
Need_Help?

▷sometimes
언제/조만간 
▷attraction
명소/매력 
▷specific
특정한/구체적인 
▷goods
상당한/이익/상품 .
때로는 사람의 관심을 끄는 것이 특정 상품이기도 하다.
문법분석: Sometimes the attraction is specific goods.


 ♕ In supermarkets, the dairy is often at the back, because people frequently come just for milk.
  
Need_Help?
in supermarkets, the
▷dairy
유제품의/젖소 
▷often
종종/자주 
▷at
먹었다 
▷back
돌아가다/뒤 
▷because
...때문에/왜냐하면 
▷people
사람들/국민 
▷frequently
자주/종종 
▷come
오다/되다 
▷just
것만 / 그냥 
▷for
앞부분의/이물에 
▷milk
우유/모유 .
슈퍼마켓에서 유제품은 흔히 뒤편에 위치하는데, 사람들이 자주 우유만 사러 오기 때문이다.
문법분석: In supermarkets, the dairy is often at the back, because people frequently come just for milk.


 ♕ At video rental shops, it's the new releases.
  
Need_Help?

▷at
먹었다 
▷shops
쇼핑하다 
▷new
새로운/새 
▷releases
발표하다 .
비디오 대여점에서는 그것이 새로 출시된 비디오이다.
문법분석: At video rental shops, it's the new releases.


11 빈칸


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여러분의 수업 참여를 좌우하는 모든 사람들을 잠시만 생각해 보라. 분명히 그 수업은 가르칠 교사와 수업을 들을 학생을 필요로 한다. 하지만 그것은 또한 많은 다른 사람과 기관에 좌우된다. 누군가가 언제 그리고 어떤 방에서 그 수업이 열릴지 결정하고, 그 정보를 여러분에게 전달하고, 그 수업에 여러분을 등록해 주어야 했다. 또한 누군가가 교과서를 집필해야 했고, 많은 다른 사람들, 즉 인쇄업자, 편집자, 판매원, 서점 직원들의 도움으로 그것이 여러분의 손에 들어왔다. 따라서 여러분과 여러분의 학우들, 여러분의 선생님만 포함하는 것처럼 보이는 수업은 사실 수백명의 사람들의 노력의 결과이다.
Just think for a moment of all the people upon whom your participation in your class depends. Clearly, the class requires a teacher to teach it and students to take it. However, it also depends on many other people and organizations. Someone had to decide when the class would be held and in what room, communicate that information to you, and enroll you in that class. Someone also had to write a textbook, and with the assistance of many other people—printers, editors, salespeople, and bookstore employees—it has arrived in your hands. Thus, a class that seems to involve just you, your fellow students, and your teacher is in fact the product of the efforts of hundreds of people.



절대 네버 해석하지 마세요. 1등급 되니까요~❤️


 ♕ Just think for a moment of all the people upon whom your participation in your class depends.
  
Need_Help?

▷just
것만 / 그냥 
▷think
생각하다 
▷for
앞부분의/이물에 
▷moment
순간/지금 
▷people
사람들/국민 
▷upon
(격식) on 
▷whom
누구를 
▷participation
참여/참가 
▷class
수업/강의 
▷depends
~에 의지하다 .
여러분의 수업 참여를 좌우하는 모든 사람들을 잠시만 생각해 보라.
문법분석: Just *1형식동사⌈think for⌋ a moment of all the people upon whom your participation in your class depends.


 ♕ Clearly, the class requires a teacher to teach it and students to take it.
  
Need_Help?

▷clearly
분명하게/명확히 
▷class
수업/강의 
▷requires
필요로 하다 
▷teacher
교사/선생 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷teach
가르치다/알려주다 
▷students
학생/생도 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷take
(시간)이 걸리다/가지다  it.
분명히 그 수업은 가르칠 교사와 수업을 들을 학생을 필요로 한다.
문법분석: Clearly, the class requires a teacher to teach it and students to take it.


 ♕ However, it also depends on many other people and organizations.
  
Need_Help?

▷however
그러나/하지만 
▷depends
~에 의지하다 
▷many
많은/여러 
▷other
다른/기타의 
▷people
사람들/국민 
▷organizations
단체/기구조직 .
하지만 그것은 또한 많은 다른 사람과 기관에 좌우된다.
문법분석: However, it also depends on many other people and organizations.


 ♕ Someone had to decide when the class would be held and in what room, communicate that information to you, and enroll you in that class.
  
Need_Help?

▷someone
누군가/어떤 사람 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷decide
결정하다 
▷class
수업/강의 
▷would
...할 것이다/ ...하려고 하다 
▷be
벌 
▷held
열었던/했다 
▷room
방/공간 
▷communicate
의사소통하다 
▷information
정보/자료 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷enroll
등록시키다/입대시키다 
▷class
수업/강의 .
누군가가 언제 그리고 어떤 방에서 그 수업이 열릴지 결정하고, 그 정보를 여러분에게 전달하고, 그 수업에 여러분을 등록해 주어야 했다.
문법분석: Someone had to decide when the class would be held and in what room, communicate that information to you, and enroll you in that class.


 ♕ Someone also had to write a textbook, and with the assistance of many other people—printers, editors, salespeople, and bookstore employees—it has arrived in your hands.
  
Need_Help?

▷someone
누군가/어떤 사람 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷write
쓰다/적다 
▷textbook
교과서/교재 
▷assistance
지원/도움 
▷many
많은/여러 
▷other
다른/기타의 
▷people
사람들/국민 
▷editors
편집자/편집장 
▷employees
직원/직장인 
▷arrived
도착하다 
▷hands
손/주다 .
또한 누군가가 교과서를 집필해야 했고, 많은 다른 사람들, 즉 인쇄업자, 편집자, 판매원, 서점 직원들의 도움으로 그것이 여러분의 손에 들어왔다.
문법분석: Someone also had to write a textbook, and with the assistance of many other people—printers, editors, salespeople, and bookstore employees—it has arrived in your hands.


 ♕ Thus, a class that seems to involve just you, your fellow students, and your teacher is in fact the product of the efforts of hundreds of people.
  
Need_Help?

▷thus
따라서/그렇게 
▷class
수업/강의 
▷seems
...것 같다/ ...것처럼 보이다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷involve
관련되다/참여하다 
▷just
것만 / 그냥 
▷fellow
동료/사람 
▷students
학생/생도 
▷teacher
교사/선생 
▷fact
사실/일 
▷product
제품/상품 
▷efforts
노력 
▷hundreds
100/100달러 지폐 
▷people
사람들/국민 .
따라서 여러분과 여러분의 학우들, 여러분의 선생님만 포함하는 것처럼 보이는 수업은 사실 수백명의 사람들의 노력의 결과이다.
문법분석: Thus, a class that seems to involve just you, your fellow students, and your teacher is in fact the product of the efforts of hundreds of people.


12 순서


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여러분이 어느 날 프로젝트를 하느라 바빠서 점심 식사를 살 시간이 없다고 가정해 보자. 갑자기 가장 친한 친구가 여러분이 가장 좋아하는 샌드위치를 들고 나타난다. 그는 여러분이 바쁘다는 것을 알고 있으며, 샌드위치를 사 주는 것으로 돕고 싶다고 말한다. 이런 경우에, 여러분은 친구의 도움에 고마워할 가능성이 높다. 그러나 만약 낯선 사람이 같은 샌드위치를 들고 나타나 그것을 여러분에게 준다면, 여러분은 그것을 고마워하지 않을 것이다. 대신에, 혼란스러울 것이다. 여러분은 "당신은 누군데, 제가 어떤 종류의 샌드위치를 먹고 싶은지 어떻게 아세요?"라고 생각하기가 쉽다. 이 두 경우의 주요 차이점은 신뢰 수준이다. 여러분은 가장 친한 친구를 아주 많이 믿어서 그 친구가 여러분을 너무 잘 알고 있다는 것에 대해 걱정하지 않겠지만, 낯선 사람에게는 분명히 같은 수준의 신뢰를 주지 않을 것이다.
Suppose that you are busy working on a project one day and you have no time to buy lunch. All of a sudden your best friend shows up with your favorite sandwich. He tells you that he knows you are busy and he wants to help you out by buying you the sandwich. In this case, you are very likely to appreciate your friend's help. However, if a stranger shows up with the same sandwich and offers it to you, you won't appreciate it. Instead, you would be confused. You would likely think "Who are you, and how do you know what kind of sandwich I like to eat?" The key difference between these two cases is the level of trust. You trust your best friend so much that you won't worry about him knowing you too well, but you certainly would not give the same level of trust to a stranger.



절대 네버 해석하지 마세요. 1등급 되니까요~❤️


 ♕ Suppose that you are busy working on a project one day and you have no time to buy lunch.
  
Need_Help?

▷suppose
생각하다 
▷busy
바쁜/분주한 
▷working
일하다 
▷project
계획 
▷day
날/하루 
▷have
가지다/5V.하게하다 
▷time
시간/때 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷buy
사다/구입 
▷lunch
점심/도시락 .
여러분이 어느 날 프로젝트를 하느라 바빠서 점심 식사를 살 시간이 없다고 가정해 보자.
문법분석: Suppose that you are busy working on a project one day and you have no time to buy lunch.


 ♕ All of a sudden your best friend shows up with your favorite sandwich.
  
Need_Help?
all of a
▷sudden
갑작스러운/돌연한 
▷best
최고의/가장 ~한 
▷friend
친구/프랜드 
▷shows
보여주다/쇼 
▷favorite
좋아하는/마음에 드는 
▷sandwich
샌드위치 .
갑자기 가장 친한 친구가 여러분이 가장 좋아하는 샌드위치를 들고 나타난다.
문법분석: All of a sudden your best friend shows up with your favorite sandwich.


 ♕ He tells you that he knows you are busy and he wants to help you out by buying you the sandwich.
  
Need_Help?
he
▷tells
말하다/구별하다 
▷knows
알다/인식하다 
▷busy
바쁜/분주한 
▷wants
원하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷help
도움/돕다 
▷out
나가다/밖에 
▷by
안녕/잘가요 
▷buying
사다/구입 
▷sandwich
샌드위치 .
그는 여러분이 바쁘다는 것을 알고 있으며, 샌드위치를 사 주는 것으로 돕고 싶다고 말한다.
문법분석: He tells you that he knows you are busy and he wants to help you out by buying you the sandwich.


 ♕ In this case, you are very likely to appreciate your friend's help.
  
Need_Help?
in this
▷case
경우/환자 
▷very
매우/아주 
▷likely
가능성 있는/할 것 같은 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷appreciate
감사하다 
▷friend
친구/프랜드 
▷help
도움/돕다 .
이런 경우에, 여러분은 친구의 도움에 고마워할 가능성이 높다.
문법분석: In this case, you are very likely to appreciate your friend's help.


 ♕ However, if a stranger shows up with the same sandwich and offers it to you, you won't appreciate it.
  
Need_Help?

▷however
그러나/하지만 
▷stranger
낯선 사람/모르는 사람 
▷shows
보여주다/쇼 
▷same
같은/똑같은 
▷sandwich
샌드위치 
▷offers
제공하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷appreciate
감사하다  it.
그러나 만약 낯선 사람이 같은 샌드위치를 들고 나타나 그것을 여러분에게 준다면, 여러분은 그것을 고마워하지 않을 것이다.
문법분석: However, if a stranger shows up with the same sandwich and offers it to you, you won't appreciate it.


 ♕ Instead, you would be confused.
  
Need_Help?

▷instead
대신에/보다 
▷would
...할 것이다/ ...하려고 하다 
▷be
벌 
▷confused
혼란스럽다/혼동하다 .
대신에, 혼란스러울 것이다.
문법분석: Instead, you would be confused.


 ♕ You would likely think "Who are you, and how do you know what kind of sandwich I like to eat?"
  
Need_Help?
you
▷would
...할 것이다/ ...하려고 하다 
▷likely
가능성 있는/할 것 같은 
▷think
생각하다 
▷who
누구 
▷how
어떻게/얼마나 
▷do
암컷/Department of Energy(에너지부) 
▷know
알다/인식하다 
▷kind
종류/ ...가지 
▷sandwich
샌드위치 
▷like
...같은/좋아하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷eat
먹다/음식 ?"
여러분은 "당신은 누군데, 제가 어떤 종류의 샌드위치를 먹고 싶은지 어떻게 아세요?"라고 생각하기가 쉽다.
문법분석: You would likely think "Who are you, and how do you know what kind of sandwich I like to eat?"


 ♕ The key difference between these two cases is the level of trust.
  
Need_Help?
the
▷key
핵심/주요한 
▷difference
차이/차액 
▷between
사이에/ ...간의 
▷cases
경우/환자 
▷level
수준/정도 
▷trust
신뢰/믿음 .
이 두 경우의 주요 차이점은 신뢰 수준이다.
문법분석: The key difference between these two cases is the level of trust.


 ♕ You trust your best friend so much that you won't worry about him knowing you too well, but you certainly would not give the same level of trust to a stranger.
  
Need_Help?
you
▷trust
신뢰/믿음 
▷best
최고의/가장 ~한 
▷friend
친구/프랜드 
▷much
많은/매우 
▷worry
걱정하다 
▷knowing
알다/인식하다 
▷too
너무/또한 
▷well
건강/우물 
▷certainly
분명히/확실히 
▷would
...할 것이다/ ...하려고 하다 
▷not
유명/지폐 
▷give
주다/전하다 
▷same
같은/똑같은 
▷level
수준/정도 
▷trust
신뢰/믿음 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷stranger
낯선 사람/모르는 사람 .
여러분은 가장 친한 친구를 아주 많이 믿어서 그 친구가 여러분을 너무 잘 알고 있다는 것에 대해 걱정하지 않겠지만, 낯선 사람에게는 분명히 같은 수준의 신뢰를 주지 않을 것이다.
문법분석: You trust your best friend so much that you won't worry about him knowing you too well, but you certainly would not give the same level of trust to a stranger.


13 순서


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만약 여러분이 답하고자 하는 질문을 먼저 분명히 하지 않은 채 데이터를 수집하고 분석하기 시작한다면, 아마도 자신에게 득보다 실이 많은 일을 하고 있는 것이다. 여러분은 결국 정보의 홍수에 빠지게 될 것이고, 나중에야 비로소 그 조사의 대부분이 시간 낭비였다는 것을 깨닫게 될 것이다. 이러한 문제를 피하기 위해서, 여러분은 정보를 수집하기 전에 문제 해결 설계 계획을 세워야 한다. 그 설계 계획에서, 여러분은 해결하려는 문제를 분명히 하고, 여러분의 가설을 진술하고, 그 가설들을 증명하는 데 필요한 것을 열거한다. 조사를 시작하기 전에 이러한 계획을 세우는 것이 여러분의 문제 해결의 생산성을 크게 증가시킬 것이다. 게다가 여러분의 계획을 종이에 적는 것이 여러분의 생각을 분명하게 해 주는 것만은 아니다. 만약 여러분이 그룹을 이루어 일하는 경우, 이 계획은 또한 여러분의 팀이 해야 할 일에 집중하도록 도와주고, 그룹의 브레인스토밍 시작점을 제공할 것이다.
If you start collecting and analyzing data without first clarifying the question you are trying to answer, you're probably doing yourself more harm than good. You'll end up drowning in a flood of information and realize only later that most of that research was a waste of time. To avoid this problem, you should develop a problem­solving design plan before you start collecting information. In the design plan, you clarify the issues you are trying to solve, state your hypotheses, and list what is required to prove those hypotheses. Developing this plan before you start researching will greatly increase your problem­solving productivity. In addition, putting your plan down on paper will not only clarify your thoughts. If you're working in a group, this plan will also help your team focus on what to do and provide the starting point for your group brainstorming.



절대 네버 해석하지 마세요. 1등급 되니까요~❤️


 ♕ If you start collecting and analyzing data without first clarifying the question you are trying to answer, you're probably doing yourself more harm than good.
  
Need_Help?
if you
▷start
(놀라) 움찔하다 
▷collecting
모으다 수집하다 
▷analyzing
분석하다 
▷data
자료/데이터 
▷without
...없이/ ...하지 않고 
▷clarifying
명백히하다/분명해지다 
▷question
질문/문제 
▷trying
노력하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷answer
답하다 
▷probably
아마도/아마 
▷doing
암컷/Department of Energy(에너지부) 
▷yourself
당신 자신 
▷harm
해/해치다 
▷than
보다/다름아닌 
▷good
상당한/이익/상품 .
만약 여러분이 답하고자 하는 질문을 먼저 분명히 하지 않은 채 데이터를 수집하고 분석하기 시작한다면, 아마도 자신에게 득보다 실이 많은 일을 하고 있는 것이다.
문법분석: If you start collecting *동명사S/분사구문⌈and analyzing⌋ data without first clarifying the question *댓생략 you are trying to answer, you're probably doing yourself more harm than good.


 ♕ You'll end up drowning in a flood of information and realize only later that most of that research was a waste of time.
  
Need_Help?
you'll you will/you shall의 단축형
▷end
목적/결말 
▷drowning
익사하다 
▷flood
홍수/침수하다 
▷information
정보/자료 
▷realize
깨닫다/알다 
▷only
뿐이다/유일하게 
▷later
후에/나중에 
▷most
가장/대부분의 
▷research
연구(하다) 
▷waste
낭비하다 
▷time
시간/때 .
여러분은 결국 정보의 홍수에 빠지게 될 것이고, 나중에야 비로소 그 조사의 대부분이 시간 낭비였다는 것을 깨닫게 될 것이다.
문법분석: You'll *표현주의⌈end up drowning⌋ in a flood of information and realize only later that most of that research was a waste of time.


 ♕ To avoid this problem, you should develop a problem­solving design plan before you start collecting information.
  
Need_Help?

▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷avoid
피하다 
▷problem
문제 
▷should
...할 것이다/아마 ...일 것이다 
▷develop
개발하다 
▷problem
문제 
▷solving
해결하다 
▷design
디자인/계획 
▷plan
계획하다 
▷before
전/이전에 
▷start
(놀라) 움찔하다 
▷collecting
모으다 수집하다 
▷information
정보/자료 .
이러한 문제를 피하기 위해서, 여러분은 정보를 수집하기 전에 문제 해결 설계 계획을 세워야 한다.
문법분석: To avoid this problem, you should develop a problem­solving design plan before you start collecting information.


 ♕ In the design plan, you clarify the issues you are trying to solve, state your hypotheses, and list what is required to prove those hypotheses.
  
Need_Help?
in the
▷design
디자인/계획 
▷plan
계획하다 
▷clarify
명백히하다/분명해지다 
▷issues
논쟁(점 
▷trying
노력하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷solve
해결하다 
▷state
국가/상태 
▷list
목록/명단 
▷required
필요로 하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷prove
증명하다  those hypotheses.
그 설계 계획에서, 여러분은 해결하려는 문제를 분명히 하고, 여러분의 가설을 진술하고, 그 가설들을 증명하는 데 필요한 것을 열거한다.
문법분석: In the design plan, you clarify the issues you are trying to solve, state your hypotheses, and list what *수동태⌈is required⌋ to prove those hypotheses.


 ♕ Developing this plan before you start researching will greatly increase your problem­solving productivity.
  
Need_Help?

▷developing
개발하다 
▷plan
계획하다 
▷before
전/이전에 
▷start
(놀라) 움찔하다 
▷researching
연구(하다) 
▷greatly
크게/몹시 
▷increase
증가 
▷problem
문제 
▷solving
해결하다  productivity.
조사를 시작하기 전에 이러한 계획을 세우는 것이 여러분의 문제 해결의 생산성을 크게 증가시킬 것이다.
문법분석: *동명사S/분사구문⌈Developing⌋ this plan before you start researching will greatly increase your problem­solving productivity.


 ♕ In addition, putting your plan down on paper will not only clarify your thoughts.
  
Need_Help?
in
▷addition
부가추가/덧셈 
▷putting
퍼팅/홀을 향해 볼을 치기(골프) 
▷plan
계획하다 
▷down
내리다/지다 
▷paper
논문/종이 
▷not
only 뿐이다/유일하게 
▷clarify
명백히하다/분명해지다 
▷thoughts
생각/예상 .
게다가 여러분의 계획을 종이에 적는 것이 여러분의 생각을 분명하게 해 주는 것만은 아니다.
문법분석: In addition *동명사S/분사구문⌈, putting⌋ your plan down on paper will not only clarify your thoughts.


 ♕ If you're working in a group, this plan will also help your team focus on what to do and provide the starting point for your group brainstorming.
  
Need_Help?
if you're
▷working
일하다 
▷group
그룹/단체 
▷plan
계획하다 
▷help
도움/돕다 
▷team
팀/부 
▷focus
중심/집중하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷do
암컷/Department of Energy(에너지부) 
▷provide
~을 주다/준비하다 
▷starting
(놀라) 움찔하다 
▷point
점/포인트 
▷for
앞부분의/이물에 
▷group
그룹/단체  brainstorming.
만약 여러분이 그룹을 이루어 일하는 경우, 이 계획은 또한 여러분의 팀이 해야 할 일에 집중하도록 도와주고, 그룹의 브레인스토밍 시작점을 제공할 것이다.
문법분석: If you're working in a group, this plan will also help your team focus on what to do and provide the starting point for your group brainstorming.


14 삽입


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철학자 G A Cohen은 이상적인 사회에 대한 비유로 캠핑 여행을 예로 제공한다. 캠핑 여행에서, 어떤 사람이 "내가 저녁 식사를 준비했으니 나의 뛰어난 요리 솜씨에 대해 네가 나에게 돈을 지불하지 않으면 저녁을 먹을 수 없어."라고 말하는 것은 상상할 수 없다고 그는 주장한다. 오히려, 한 사람은 저녁 식사를 준비하고, 다른 사람은 텐트를 치고, 또 다른 사람은 물을 정화하는 등, 각자 자신의 능력에 맞추어 일한다. 이 모든 재화들은 공유되며, 공동체 의식은 모든 참여자들을 더 행복하게 만든다. 각자 자신의 재능을 사용하는 대가로 캠핑하는 다른 사람들로부터 최대의 보상을 얻으려고 하는 캠핑여행은 곧 재앙과 불행으로 끝날 것이다. 게다가 사람들이 그런 식으로 행동한다면 캠핑 경험은 망쳐질 것이다. 그래서 더 평등하고 협력하는 사회에서 우리는 더 나은 삶을 살게 될 것이다.
The philosopher G A Cohen provides an example of a camping trip as a metaphor for the ideal society. On a camping trip, he argues, it is unimaginable that someone would say something like, "I cooked the dinner and therefore you can't eat it unless you pay me for my superior cooking skills." Rather, one person cooks dinner, another sets up the tent, another purifies the water, and so on, each in accordance with his or her abilities. All these goods are shared and a spirit of community makes all participants happier. A camping trip where each person attempted to gain the maximum rewards from the other campers in exchange for the use of his or her talents would quickly end in disaster and unhappiness. Moreover, the experience would be ruined if people were to behave in such a way. So, we would have a better life in a more equal and cooperative society.



절대 네버 해석하지 마세요. 1등급 되니까요~❤️


 ♕ The philosopher G A Cohen provides an example of a camping trip as a metaphor for the ideal society.
  
Need_Help?
the
▷philosopher
철학자 
▷provides
~을 주다/준비하다 
▷example
예/본보기 
▷camping
캠프/수용소 
▷trip
여행/방문하다 
▷metaphor
은유/암유은유 
▷for
앞부분의/이물에 
▷ideal
이상적인/이념적인 
▷society
사회/연구회) .
철학자 G A Cohen은 이상적인 사회에 대한 비유로 캠핑 여행을 예로 제공한다.
문법분석: The philosopher G A Cohen 숙어[ provides an example of a camping ] trip as a metaphor for the ideal society.


 ♕ On a camping trip, he argues, it is unimaginable that someone would say something like, "I cooked the dinner and therefore you can't eat it unless you pay me for my superior cooking skills."
  
Need_Help?
on a
▷camping
캠프/수용소 
▷trip
여행/방문하다 
▷argues
논하다 
▷someone
누군가/어떤 사람 
▷would
...할 것이다/ ...하려고 하다 
▷say
~라고 쓰여 있다 
▷something
무언가/어떤 것 
▷like
...같은/좋아하다 
▷cooked
요리사/요리하다 
▷dinner
저녁식사/저녁 
▷therefore
그것을 위해/그것에 대해 
▷can
지팡이/설탕수수 
▷eat
먹다/음식 
▷unless
...하지 않는다면/제외하면 
▷pay
지불하다 
▷for
앞부분의/이물에 
▷superior
우수한/상사 
▷cooking
요리사/요리하다 
▷skills
기술/실력 ."
캠핑 여행에서, 어떤 사람이 "내가 저녁 식사를 준비했으니 나의 뛰어난 요리 솜씨에 대해 네가 나에게 돈을 지불하지 않으면 저녁을 먹을 수 없어."라고 말하는 것은 상상할 수 없다고 그는 주장한다.
문법분석: On a camping trip, he argues, it is unimaginable that someone would say something like, "I cooked the dinner and therefore you can't eat it unless you pay me for my superior cooking skills."


 ♕ Rather, one person cooks dinner, another sets up the tent, another purifies the water, and so on, each in accordance with his or her abilities.
  
Need_Help?

▷rather
...보다는/오히려 
▷person
사람/개인 
▷cooks
요리사/요리하다 
▷dinner
저녁식사/저녁 
▷another
다른/또 
▷sets
세우다/정해진 
▷tent
텐트 
▷another
다른/또 
▷water
물/바다 
▷each
각.../ 각자 
▷accordance
~에 따라/일치 
▷his
서두르다/급히 가다 
▷or
광석/원광 
▷her
여기/이곳  abilities.
오히려, 한 사람은 저녁 식사를 준비하고, 다른 사람은 텐트를 치고, 또 다른 사람은 물을 정화하는 등, 각자 자신의 능력에 맞추어 일한다.
문법분석: Rather, one person cooks dinner, another sets up the tent, another purifies the water, and so on, each in accordance with his or her abilities.


 ♕ All these goods are shared and a spirit of community makes all participants happier.
  
Need_Help?
all these
▷goods
상당한/이익/상품 
▷shared
공유하다 
▷spirit
정신/원기 
▷community
사회 공동체 
▷makes
...하게 하다/만들다 
▷participants
참가자  happier.
이 모든 재화들은 공유되며, 공동체 의식은 모든 참여자들을 더 행복하게 만든다.
문법분석: All these goods *수동태⌈are shared⌋ and a spirit of community makes all participants happier.


 ♕ A camping trip where each person attempted to gain the maximum rewards from the other campers in exchange for the use of his or her talents would quickly end in disaster and unhappiness.
  
Need_Help?
a
▷camping
캠프/수용소 
▷trip
여행/방문하다 
▷where
어디/곳 
▷each
각.../ 각자 
▷person
사람/개인 
▷attempted
시도하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷gain
(시계가)빨리가다/이익 
▷maximum
최대/최고) 
▷rewards
보답/상/보답하다 
▷other
다른/기타의 
▷exchange
교환(하다 
▷for
앞부분의/이물에 
▷use
사용하다 
▷his
서두르다/급히 가다 
▷or
광석/원광 
▷her
여기/이곳 
▷talents
재능 
▷would
...할 것이다/ ...하려고 하다 
▷quickly
빨리/빠른 
▷end
목적/결말 
▷disaster
재난/재앙 
▷unhappiness
불운/불행 .
각자 자신의 재능을 사용하는 대가로 캠핑하는 다른 사람들로부터 최대의 보상을 얻으려고 하는 캠핑여행은 곧 재앙과 불행으로 끝날 것이다.
문법분석: A camping trip where each person attempted to gain the maximum rewards from the other campers in exchange for the use of his or her talents would quickly end in disaster and unhappiness.


 ♕ Moreover, the experience would be ruined if people were to behave in such a way.
  
Need_Help?

▷moreover
게다가/더욱이 
▷experience
경험/체험 
▷would
...할 것이다/ ...하려고 하다 
▷be
벌 
▷ruined
망치다/유적 
▷people
사람들/국민 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷behave
행동하다 
▷such
...같은/그러한 
▷way
방법/방식 .
게다가 사람들이 그런 식으로 행동한다면 캠핑 경험은 망쳐질 것이다.
문법분석: Moreover, the experience would be ruined if people *표현주의⌈were to behave⌋ in such a way.


 ♕ So, we would have a better life in a more equal and cooperative society.
  
Need_Help?
so,
▷we
아주 이른/아주 조금 
▷would
...할 것이다/ ...하려고 하다 
▷have
가지다/5V.하게하다 
▷better
개선하다 
▷life
삶/인생생물 
▷equal
감당할 수 있는 ~와 같다 
▷society
사회/연구회) .
그래서 더 평등하고 협력하는 사회에서 우리는 더 나은 삶을 살게 될 것이다.
문법분석: So, we would have a better life in a more equal and cooperative society.


15 삽입


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흔히 고전 동화에서 갈등은 영구적으로 해결된다. 예외 없이 남자 주인공과 여자 주인공은 영원히 행복하게 산다. 이와 대조적으로, 많은 오늘날의 이야기들은 덜 확정적인 결말을 가진다. 흔히 이러한 이야기 속의 갈등은 부분적으로만 해결되거나, 새로운 갈등이 등장하여 관객들을 더 생각하도록 이끈다. 이것은 특히 스릴러와 공포물 장르에 해당하는데, 이런 장르에서 관객들은 내내 (이야기에) 매료된다. Henrik Ibsen의 희곡 'A Doll's House'를 생각해 보라, 그 작품에서는 결국 Nora가 가정과 결혼 생활을 떠난다. Nora가 현관 밖으로 사라지고, "Nora는 어디로 갔을까", "그녀에게 무슨 일이 일어날까?"와 같이 답을 얻지 못한 많은 질문들이 우리에게 남는다. 열린 결말은 강력한 도구인데, 관객에게 다음에 무슨 일이 일어날지에 대해 생각하게 만드는 사고할 거리를 제공한다.
In the classical fairy tale the conflict is often permanently resolved. Without exception, the hero and heroine live happily ever after. By contrast, many present­-day stories have a less definitive ending. Often the conflict in those stories is only partly resolved, or a new conflict appears making the audience think further. This is particularly true of thriller and horror genres, where audiences are kept on the edge of their seats throughout. Consider Henrik Ibsen's play, A Doll's House, where, in the end, Nora leaves her family and marriage. Nora disappears out of the front door and we are left with many unanswered questions such as "Where did Nora go" and "What will happen to her?" An open ending is a powerful tool, providing food for thought that forces the audience to think about what might happen next.



절대 네버 해석하지 마세요. 1등급 되니까요~❤️


 ♕ In the classical fairy tale the conflict is often permanently resolved.
  
Need_Help?
in the
▷classical
클래식의/클래식 음악의 
▷fairy
요정/남자 동성애자 
▷tale
이야기/소설 
▷conflict
갈등/분쟁 
▷often
종종/자주 
▷permanently
영원히/영구적으로 
▷resolved
determination/firmness of purpose .
흔히 고전 동화에서 갈등은 영구적으로 해결된다.
문법분석: In the classical fairy tale the conflict is often permanently resolved.


 ♕ Without exception, the hero and heroine live happily ever after.
  
Need_Help?

▷without
...없이/ ...하지 않고 
▷exception
예외/이의 
▷hero
영웅/주인공 
▷heroine
여주인공/여장부 
▷live
살다/생활하다 
▷happily
행복하게/기꺼이 
▷ever
지금까지/이전에 
▷after
...후에/ ...뒤에 .
예외 없이 남자 주인공과 여자 주인공은 영원히 행복하게 산다.
문법분석: Without exception, the hero and heroine live happily ever after.


 ♕ By contrast, many present­-day stories have a less definitive ending.
  
Need_Help?

▷by
안녕/잘가요 
▷contrast
대조/대비 
▷many
많은/여러 
▷present
현재의/보여주다 
▷have
가지다/5V.하게하다 
▷less
덜한/적게 
▷definitive
가장신뢰할만한 
▷ending
목적/결말 .
이와 대조적으로, 많은 오늘날의 이야기들은 덜 확정적인 결말을 가진다.
문법분석: By contrast, many present­-day stories have a less definitive ending.


 ♕ Often the conflict in those stories is only partly resolved, or a new conflict appears making the audience think further.
  
Need_Help?

▷often
종종/자주 
▷conflict
갈등/분쟁 
▷only
뿐이다/유일하게 
▷partly
부분적으로/일부 
▷resolved
determination/firmness of purpose 
▷or
광석/원광 
▷new
새로운/새 
▷conflict
갈등/분쟁 
▷appears
~처럼 보이다/나타나다 
▷making
...하게 하다/만들다 
▷audience
관객/청중 
▷think
생각하다 
▷further
더/더 나아가 .
흔히 이러한 이야기 속의 갈등은 부분적으로만 해결되거나, 새로운 갈등이 등장하여 관객들을 더 생각하도록 이끈다.
문법분석: Often the conflict in those stories is only partly resolved, or a new conflict appears *사역동사⌈making the audience think⌋ further.


 ♕ This is particularly true of thriller and horror genres, where audiences are kept on the edge of their seats throughout.
  
Need_Help?
this is
▷particularly
특히/특별하게 
▷true
사실/진정한 
▷horror
공포 
▷genres
장르/유형 
▷where
어디/곳 
▷audiences
관객/청중 
▷kept
계속했다/유지했다 
▷edge
가장자리/끝 
▷seats
자리잡다/자리 
▷throughout
~내내/~동안 .
이것은 특히 스릴러와 공포물 장르에 해당하는데, 이런 장르에서 관객들은 내내 (이야기에) 매료된다.
문법분석: This is particularly true of thriller and horror genres *관계사_계속적용법⌈, where audiences are kept on the edge of their seats throughout.


 ♕ Consider Henrik Ibsen's play, A Doll's House, where, in the end, Nora leaves her family and marriage.
  
Need_Help?

▷consider
고려하다 
▷play
게임하다/역할을 하다 
▷doll
인형/차려 입다 
▷house
집/주택 
▷where
어디/곳 
▷end
목적/결말 
▷leaves
~하게 두다/휴가 
▷her
여기/이곳 
▷family
가족/가문 
▷marriage
결혼/부부 관계 .
Henrik Ibsen의 희곡 'A Doll's House'를 생각해 보라, 그 작품에서는 결국 Nora가 가정과 결혼 생활을 떠난다.
문법분석: Consider Henrik Ibsen's play, A Doll's House *관계사_계속적용법⌈, where, in the end, Nora leaves her family and marriage.


 ♕ Nora disappears out of the front door and we are left with many unanswered questions such as "Where did Nora go" and "What will happen to her?"
  
Need_Help?
nora
▷disappears
사라지다/없어지다 
▷out
나가다/밖에 
▷front
앞/전선 
▷door
문/도어 
▷we
아주 이른/아주 조금 
▷left
남았다/떠났다 
▷many
많은/여러 
▷questions
질문/문제 
▷such
as ~같은/그러한 
▷where
어디/곳 
▷happen
일어나다/벌어지다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷her
여기/이곳 ?"
Nora가 현관 밖으로 사라지고, "Nora는 어디로 갔을까", "그녀에게 무슨 일이 일어날까?"와 같이 답을 얻지 못한 많은 질문들이 우리에게 남는다.
문법분석: Nora disappears out of the front door and we are left with many unanswered questions such as "Where *대동사⌈did⌋ Nora go" and "What will *1형식동사⌈happen to⌋ her?"


 ♕ An open ending is a powerful tool, providing food for thought that forces the audience to think about what might happen next.
  
Need_Help?
an
▷open
열다/개방하다 
▷ending
목적/결말 
▷powerful
강력한/파워풀한 
▷tool
도구/수단 
▷providing
~을 주다/준비하다 
▷food
음식/식품 
▷for
앞부분의/이물에 
▷thought
생각/예상 
▷forces
강요하다/군대 
▷audience
관객/청중 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷think
생각하다 
▷might
...지도 모른다/ ...할 수 있다 
▷happen
일어나다/벌어지다 
▷next
다음의/이후의 .
열린 결말은 강력한 도구인데, 관객에게 다음에 무슨 일이 일어날지에 대해 생각하게 만드는 사고할 거리를 제공한다.
문법분석: An open ending is a powerful tool *동명사S/분사구문⌈, providing⌋ food for thought that forces the audience to think about what might happen next.


16 요약


👺 절대 제발 읽지좀 마세요.


까마귀는 놀랄 만큼 영리한 조류이다. 그들은 닭과 같은 다른 새들과 비교하여 더 복잡한 많은 문제들을 해결할 수 있다. 부화한 후에 닭은, 둥지로 자신들에게 먹이를 가져다 주는 어미새에게 의존하는 까마귀보다 훨씬 더 빨리 분주하게 자신의 먹이를 쪼아 먹는다. 하지만, 다 자랐을 때 닭은 매우 제한적인 먹이를 찾는 능력을 지닌 반면, 까마귀는 먹이를 찾는 데 있어서 훨씬 더 유연하다. 까마귀는 또한 (결국) 더 크고 더 복잡한 뇌를 가지게 된다. 그들은 부화와 둥지를 떠나는 것 사이에 연장된 기간을 가짐으로써 지능을 발달시킬 수 있게 된다.
Crows are a remarkably clever family of birds. They are capable of solving many more complex problems compared to other birds, such as chickens. After hatching, chickens peck busily for their own food much faster than crows, which rely on the parent bird to bring them food in the nest. However, as adults, chickens have very limited hunting skills whereas crows are much more flexible in hunting for food. Crows also end up with bigger and more complex brains. Their extended period between hatching and flight from the nest enables them to develop intelligence.



절대 네버 해석하지 마세요. 1등급 되니까요~❤️


 ♕ Crows are a remarkably clever family of birds.
  
Need_Help?

▷crows
까마귀/크로우 
▷remarkably
현저하게/두드러지게 
▷clever
영리한/똑똑한 
▷family
가족/가문 
▷birds
새/조류 .
까마귀는 놀랄 만큼 영리한 조류이다.
문법분석: Crows are a remarkably clever family of birds.


 ♕ They are capable of solving many more complex problems compared to other birds, such as chickens.
  
Need_Help?
they are
▷capable
~할 수 있는/유능한 
▷solving
해결하다 
▷many
많은/여러 
▷complex
복잡한 
▷problems
문제 
▷compared
비교하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷other
다른/기타의 
▷birds
새/조류 
▷such
as ~같은/그러한 
▷chickens
닭/치킨 .
그들은 닭과 같은 다른 새들과 비교하여 더 복잡한 많은 문제들을 해결할 수 있다.
문법분석: They are capable of solving many more complex problems *분사구_수동⌈compared to⌋ other birds, such as chickens.


 ♕ After hatching, chickens peck busily for their own food much faster than crows, which rely on the parent bird to bring them food in the nest.
  
Need_Help?

▷after
...후에/ ...뒤에 
▷hatching
부화하다 
▷chickens
닭/치킨 
▷peck
펙/~을 쪼다 
▷for
앞부분의/이물에 
▷own
소유하다 
▷food
음식/식품 
▷much
많은/매우 
▷faster
더 빨리 
▷than
보다/다름아닌 
▷crows
까마귀/크로우 
▷which
어떤/어느 
▷rely
on 의존하다 
▷parent
부모/학부모 
▷bird
새/조류 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷bring
가지고 다니다/일으키다 
▷food
음식/식품 
▷nest
둥지/보금자리 .
부화한 후에 닭은, 둥지로 자신들에게 먹이를 가져다 주는 어미새에게 의존하는 까마귀보다 훨씬 더 빨리 분주하게 자신의 먹이를 쪼아 먹는다.
문법분석: *부사절축약⌈After hatching⌋, chickens peck busily for their own food much faster than crows *관계사_계속적용법⌈, which⌋ rely on the parent bird to bring them food in the nest.


 ♕ However, as adults, chickens have very limited hunting skills whereas crows are much more flexible in hunting for food.
  
Need_Help?

▷however
그러나/하지만 
▷adults
성인/어른 
▷chickens
닭/치킨 
▷have
가지다/5V.하게하다 
▷very
매우/아주 
▷limited
제한/한계 
▷hunting
사냥하다 
▷skills
기술/실력 
▷whereas
...임에 비하여/ ...인데도 
▷crows
까마귀/크로우 
▷much
많은/매우 
▷flexible
구부리기 쉬운/융통성 있는유연한 
▷hunting
사냥하다 
▷for
앞부분의/이물에 
▷food
음식/식품 .
하지만, 다 자랐을 때 닭은 매우 제한적인 먹이를 찾는 능력을 지닌 반면, 까마귀는 먹이를 찾는 데 있어서 훨씬 더 유연하다.
문법분석: However, as adults, chickens have very limited hunting skills whereas crows are much more flexible in hunting for food.


 ♕ Crows also end up with bigger and more complex brains.
  
Need_Help?

▷crows
까마귀/크로우 
▷end
목적/결말 
▷complex
복잡한 
▷brains
뇌/두뇌 .
까마귀는 또한 (결국) 더 크고 더 복잡한 뇌를 가지게 된다.
문법분석: Crows also end up with bigger and more complex brains.


 ♕ Their extended period between hatching and flight from the nest enables them to develop intelligence.
  
Need_Help?
their
▷extended
넓히다/뻗치다연장하다 
▷period
기간/시대 
▷between
사이에/ ...간의 
▷hatching
부화하다 
▷flight
비행/비행기 
▷nest
둥지/보금자리 
▷enables
가능하게 하다 
▷to
발가락/발끝 
▷develop
개발하다 
▷intelligence
정보/지능 .
그들은 부화와 둥지를 떠나는 것 사이에 연장된 기간을 가짐으로써 지능을 발달시킬 수 있게 된다.
문법분석: Their extended period between hatching and flight from the nest 5형식동사[ enables them to ] develop intelligence.

👍❤🏿VOCAB. 여러번 쓰면서 연습하세요!!!
pole  
accord  일치
addition  추가;부가
advis  
amount  금액;양
analyz  분석하다
anticipat  
appeal  매력;호소력
appreciate  이해하다
approach  다가가다;접근하다
arrangement  배열;준비
attach  붙이다
attach  붙이다;첨부하다
attempt  시도하다
attract  마음을 끌다
attraction  매력
avail  
barrier  장벽
behav  
behave  행동하다
beneath  ~아래에
capable  능력 있는;유능한
categoriz  
category  범주
clarify  분명히 하다
conflict  갈등;논쟁
consequence  결과
control  통제
cooperative  협력적인
definit  
definitive  
depend  의존하다
differ  
disappear  사라지다
disaster  재난
drown  
edge  가장자리
elevat  올라가다
employ  사용하다(
enabl  
encourage  격려하다;하게하다
equal  같은;평등한
escape  탈출하다
exception  
exchange  교환하다
explor  탐구하다
expos  노출시키다
exposure  노출;접하게
extend  확대하다
extended  확대하다
failure  실패
fair  공정한;상당한
fellow  동료;연구원
flexible  유연한;유연성
flood  홍수;범람하다
force  강요하다
frequent  빈번한
frequently  빈번히;종종
fundamental  근본적인
fur  부드러운 털;모피
hang  매달다[
hatch  
headache  두통
held  주장하다
horror  공포;전율
hypothes  가설
ideal  이상적인
inexpensive  비싸지 않은
inspir  영감을주다
inspiration  영감
instantly  
intent  의지;의향
intention  
involv  포함하다
layout  
lie  ~에 있다;놓여있다
limited  제한된
manipulate  조종하다
matter  문제;중요하다
maximum  최고
means  수단
memorization  
metaphor  
miserable  비참한
mode  방식
moment  순간
motivat  동기부여하다
motivated  적극적인;동기를 동기부여하다
organ  오르간;장기
organiz  정리하다
organizations  
organized  정리하다
pack  짐을 싸다
painful  괴로운
participant  참가자
participation  참가
passion  열정
permanent  영구적인
permanently  
philosopher  철학가
photograph  사진
photographer  사진사
policy  정책;방책
poll  
potent  
potential  잠재력;가능성
principal  중요한;우두머리;교장
productivity  생산성
project  계획;계획하다
proof  증거;증명
prove  증명하다
quest  탐구
range  범위;영역
reality  현실
relate  관계시키다
relation  관계
release  ~을 배출하다;~을 석방하다
remark  말하다;언급하다
remarkably  눈에띄게;현저하게
rental  
repeatedly  반복해서
repetitive  
reputation  명성
require  요구하다;필요로
resolve  
ruin  망가뜨리다;파괴하다
shared  공유된 공유하다
sharp  명백한
specific  구체적인;특정한
spirit  영혼;정신
stick  막대기
strategies  전략
subject  대상;물체
superior  우수한
superior  우월한
surf  검색하다
surround  둘러싸다
surrounding  둘러싸고 있는 둘러싸다
survive  살아남다
threat  위협;협박
threaten  위협하다;협박하다
thrill  전율
transport  교통
transportation  교통
trust  신뢰;신용
truthful  정직한진실한
uncomfortable  불편한
uncover  발견하다
underwater  
variable  변하기 쉬운
vehicle  운송수단
workout  연습;운동
worth  
worthwhile  할보람 있는;훌륭한

# #010-3338-3436 #위스마트 #구리시 #인창동 #영어학원 #고등 #중등 #내신 #수능 #텝스 #TEPS #토플 #토익
2018 All Rights Reserved. Written by Wayne | Contact us: wayne36@daum.net | Web: wayne.tistory.com
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Comment +276

  • 이전 댓글 더보기
  • WeAreSmart 2021.10.24 19:49

    Do not base your decision on what yesterday was.

  • WeAreSmart 2021.10.24 19:49

    You must decide to forget and let go of your past.

  • WeAreSmart 2021.12.14 18:46

    Do not base your decision on what yesterday was.

  • WeAreSmart 2021.12.14 18:46

    Your future is not your past and you have a better future.

  • WeAreSmart 2021.12.14 18:46

    You must decide to forget and let go of your past.

  • WeAreSmart 2021.12.14 18:47

    Your past experiences are the thief of today's dreams only when you allow them to control you.

  • WeAreSmart 2022.01.28 16:33

    Many people think of what might happen in the future based on past failures and get trapped by them.

  • WeAreSmart 2022.03.27 15:04

    Many people think of what might happen in the future based on past failures and get trapped by them.

  • WeAreSmart 2022.03.27 15:04

    Many people think of what might happen in the future based on past failures and get trapped by them.

  • WeAreSmart 2022.04.07 21:07

    Many people think of what might happen in the future based on past failures and get trapped by them.

  • WeAreSmart 2022.04.13 21:08

    For example, if you have failed in a certain area before, when faced with the same situation, you anticipate what might happen in the future, and thus fear traps you in yesterday.

  • WeAreSmart 2022.05.23 10:52

    The philosopher G A Cohen provides an example of a camping trip as a metaphor for the ideal society.

  • WeAreSmart 2022.05.23 10:52

    The philosopher G A Cohen provides an example of a camping trip as a metaphor for the ideal society.

  • Favicon of https://wrr-mansion.tistory.com 2022.06.11 19:15 신고

    Many people think of what might happen in the future based on past failures and get trapped by them.

  • WeAreSmart 2022.07.12 09:45

    For example, if you have failed in a certain area before, when faced with the same situation, you anticipate what might happen in the future, and thus fear traps you in yesterday.

  • WeAreSmart 2022.07.12 09:46

    Many people think of what might happen in the future based on past failures and get trapped by them.

  • WeAreSmart 2022.07.29 12:57

    Just think for a moment of all the people upon whom your participation in your class depends.

  • WeAreSmart 2022.07.29 12:58

    However, it also depends on many other people and organizations.

  • WeAreSmart 2022.07.29 12:58

    Someone had to decide when the class would be held and in what room, communicate that information to you, and enroll you in that class.

  • WeAreSmart 2022.07.29 12:59

    Thus, a class that seems to involve just you, your fellow students, and your teacher is in fact the product of the efforts of hundreds of people.

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From 1706 고1 2018 All Rights Reserved. Written by Wayne | Contact us: wayne36@daum.net | Web: wayne.tistory.com


MUSIC_BOX

18 목적


👺 절대 제발 읽지좀 마세요.


아시는 바와 같이, 6년간 방과후 학교 수영코치였던 Sandy Brown이 지난달 코치직에서 은퇴했습니다. 그래서 Bredard Community College에서 수영 선수생활을 하며 전국 대회에서 수차례 입상한 Virginia Smith가 우리 학교의 새 수영 코치로 임명되었습니다. 이번이 코치로서의 첫 시작이고, 다음 주부터 근무를 시작합니다. 오후에 수업을 할 예정이며, 여름 프로그램도 계속할 예정입니다. 그녀는 수영의 건강상 이점을 증진시킴으로써 더 많은 학생들이 수업을 통해 건강해지기를 기대하고 있습니다.
As you know, Sandy Brown, our after-school swimming coach for six years, retired from coaching last month. So, Virginia Smith, who swam for Bredard Community College and has won several awards in national competitions, has been named the school's new swimming coach. This is her first job as a coach, and she is going to start working from next week. She will teach her class in the afternoons, and continue with our summer program. By promoting the health benefits of swimming, she hopes that more students will get healthy through her instruction.



절대 네버 해석하지 마세요. 1등급 되니까요~❤️


 ♕ As you know, Sandy Brown, our after-school swimming coach for six years, retired from coaching last month.
  
Need_Help?
as you
▷know
알다, 인식하다 
▷sandy
샌디, 모래의 
▷brown
브라운, 갈색 
▷after
…을 구하여, …을 본떠서, …뒤에 
▷school
학파, 학교 
▷swimming
수영 
▷coach
감독, 코치 
▷years
연도, 해 
▷coaching
감독, 코치 
▷last
가장 …할 것 같지 않은, 계속하다 
▷month
달, 개월 .
아시는 바와 같이, 6년간 방과후 학교 수영코치였던 Sandy Brown이 지난달 코치직에서 은퇴했습니다.
문법분석: As you know, Sandy Brown, our after-school swimming coach for six years, retired from coaching last month.


 ♕ So, Virginia Smith, who swam for Bredard Community College and has won several awards in national competitions, has been named the school's new swimming coach.
  
Need_Help?
so,
▷virginia
버지니아, 미국 대서양 연안의 주 
▷smith
금속 세공인 
▷swam
헤엄쳤다 
▷community
사회, 공동체 
▷college
대학, 연구소 
▷won
원, 얻었다 
▷several
몇, 여러 가지의 
▷awards
(심사하여) 주다, 수여하다 
▷national
국가의, 전국민의 
▷competitions
경쟁, 대회 
▷school
학파, 학교 
▷new
새로운, 새 
▷swimming
수영 
▷coach
감독, 코치 .
그래서 Bredard Community College에서 수영 선수생활을 하며 전국 대회에서 수차례 입상한 Virginia Smith가 우리 학교의 새 수영 코치로 임명되었습니다.
문법분석: So, Virginia Smith *관계사_계속적용법⌈, who⌋ swam for Bredard Community College and *병렬구조_수일치 ⌈has⌋ won several awards in national competitions, H.B.P_수동태[has been named] the school's new swimming coach.


 ♕ This is her first job as a coach, and she is going to start working from next week.
  
Need_Help?
this is her first
▷job
일, 직업 
▷coach
감독, 코치 
▷going
가기, 계속 
▷start
(놀라)움찔하다, 출발하다 
▷working
일, 효과가 있는 
▷next
다음의, 이후의 
▷week
주, 일주일 .
이번이 코치로서의 첫 시작이고, 다음 주부터 근무를 시작합니다.
문법분석: This is her first job as she *대동사⌈is⌋ going to start working from next week.


 ♕ She will teach her class in the afternoons, and continue with our summer program.
  
Need_Help?
she
▷will
의지, 유언장 
▷teach
가르치다, 알려주다 
▷class
수업, 계층 
▷afternoons
오후, 점심 
▷continue
계속하다, 지속시키다 
▷summer
여름, 하계 
▷program
프로그램, 계획 .
오후에 수업을 할 예정이며, 여름 프로그램도 계속할 예정입니다.
문법분석: She will teach her class in the afternoons, and continue with our summer program.


 ♕ By promoting the health benefits of swimming, she hopes that more students will get healthy through her instruction.
  
Need_Help?
by promoting the
▷health
건강, 보건 
▷benefits
이익, 은혜 
▷swimming
수영 
▷hopes
두 발로 뛰기, 뛰다 
▷students
학생, 생도 
▷will
의지, 유언장 
▷get
받다, 얻다 
▷healthy
건강한, 건강에 좋은 
▷through
통하여, ~때문에 
▷instruction
지시, 설명 .
그녀는 수영의 건강상 이점을 증진시킴으로써 더 많은 학생들이 수업을 통해 건강해지기를 기대하고 있습니다.
문법분석: By promoting the health benefits of swimming, she hopes that more students will get healthy through her instruction.


19 심경


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산악 대피소는 네 개의 벽면이 있었고 앞쪽 벽면에는 5피트 크기의 통로가 있었다. 나는 구석에 자리를 잡았다. 다른 등산객들이 도착하였고, 오늘 밤 대피소는 사람들로 가득찰 것 같았다. 7시가 되었고, 내 인생 최악의 밤 중 하나가 시작되었다. 침낭으로 기어 들어갈 때 그날의 힘든 등산으로 땀을 많이 흘린 이후 나의 속옷은 여전히 축축했고, 나의 다른 어떤 옷도 마른 상태가 아니었다. 나는 또 다른 불편함 역시 무시할 수 없었다. 공기의 움직임으로 인해 사람들의 체취와 젖은 침낭 냄새가 표면으로 올라왔다. 불쾌한 냄새에 둘러싸인 채, 붐비는 대피소의 구석 바닥에 누워 나는 잠들 수 없었다.
The mountain shelter had four walls, with an opening about five feet wide in the front wall. I picked a spot in a corner. Other hikers arrived; it would be a full house tonight. It was seven o'clock and the start of one of the worst nights of my life. When I crawled into my sleeping bag, my underwear was still moist after sweating so much on the difficult climbs of the day, and none of my other clothing was dry. I could not ignore another inconvenience, either: the air movement brought to the surface all the smells of bodies and wet sleeping bags. Lying on the floor in the corner of the crowded shelter, surrounded by bad smells, I could not fall asleep.



절대 네버 해석하지 마세요. 1등급 되니까요~❤️


 ♕ The mountain shelter had four walls, with an opening about five feet wide in the front wall.
  
Need_Help?
the
▷mountain
산, 거대한 
▷shelter
피난(처), 피난하다, 보호하다 
▷walls
벽, 장벽 
▷opening
개막, 여는 
▷feet
발, 피트 
▷front
앞, 전선 
▷wall
벽, 장벽 .
산악 대피소는 네 개의 벽면이 있었고 앞쪽 벽면에는 5피트 크기의 통로가 있었다.
문법분석: The mountain shelter had four walls, with an opening about five feet wide in the front wall.


 ♕ I picked a spot in a corner.
  
Need_Help?
i
▷picked
집었다, 뽑혔다 
▷spot
장소, 지점 
▷corner
모퉁이, 구석 .
나는 구석에 자리를 잡았다.
문법분석: I picked a spot in a corner.


 ♕ Other hikers arrived; it would be a full house tonight.
  
Need_Help?

▷other
다른, 기타의 
▷full
가득한, 완전한 
▷house
집, 주택 
▷tonight
오늘밤, 오늘 저녁 .
다른 등산객들이 도착하였고, 오늘 밤 대피소는 사람들로 가득찰 것 같았다.
문법분석: Other hikers arrived; it would be a full house tonight.


 ♕ It was seven o'clock and the start of one of the worst nights of my life.
  
Need_Help?
it was seven o' of의 단축형, 아일랜드계의 성에 붙임clock and the
▷start
(놀라)움찔하다, 출발하다 
▷worst
최악의, 가장 나쁜 
▷nights
밤마다, 밤에는 언제나 
▷life
생물, 실물 .
7시가 되었고, 내 인생 최악의 밤 중 하나가 시작되었다.
문법분석: It was seven o'clock and the start of one of the worst nights of my life.


 ♕ When I crawled into my sleeping bag, my underwear was still moist after sweating so much on the difficult climbs of the day, and none of my other clothing was dry.
  
Need_Help?
when i
▷crawled
기다, 기어가다 
▷sleeping
자는, 잠 
▷bag
가방, 봉지 
▷still
아직도, 여전히 
▷moist
촉촉한, 습한 
▷after
…을 구하여, …을 본떠서, …뒤에 
▷sweating
땀을 흘리다, 스웨트 
▷much
많은, 매우 
▷difficult
어려운, 힘든 
▷day
전성기, 승리 
▷none
아무도 ~않다, 조금도 ~없다 
▷other
다른, 기타의 
▷clothing
옷, 의류 
▷dry
마른, 말린 .
침낭으로 기어 들어갈 때 그날의 힘든 등산으로 땀을 많이 흘린 이후 나의 속옷은 여전히 축축했고, 나의 다른 어떤 옷도 마른 상태가 아니었다.
문법분석: When I crawled into my sleeping bag, my underwear was still moist *부사절축약⌈after sweating⌋ so much on the difficult climbs of the day, and none of my other clothing was dry.


 ♕ I could not ignore another inconvenience, either: the air movement brought to the surface all the smells of bodies and wet sleeping bags.
  
Need_Help?
i could not
▷ignore
무시하다, 모르는 체하다 
▷another
다른, 또 하나 
▷inconvenience
불편, 폐 
▷either
또한, 어느 쪽 
▷air
공기, 항공의 
▷movement
운동, 움직임 
▷brought
가져왔다, 데려왔다 
▷surface
표면, 겉으로 드러나다 
▷smells
냄새, 냄새를 맡다 
▷wet
젖은, 습한 
▷sleeping
자는, 잠 
▷bags
가방, 봉지  다량, 다수.
나는 또 다른 불편함 역시 무시할 수 없었다.
문법분석: I could not ignore another inconvenience, either: the air movement brought to the surface all the smells of bodies and wet sleeping bags.


 ♕ Lying on the floor in the corner of the crowded shelter, surrounded by bad smells, I could not fall asleep.
  
Need_Help?

▷lying
lie의 현재 분사형, 거짓말하는 
▷floor
의원, 층 
▷corner
모퉁이, 구석 
▷crowded
붐비는, 혼잡한 
▷shelter
피난(처), 피난하다, 보호하다 
▷surrounded
둘러싸다, 주변 
▷bad
나쁜, 좋지 않은 
▷smells
냄새, 냄새를 맡다 
▷fall
해당하다, 가을 
▷asleep
잠들어, 조는 .
공기의 움직임으로 인해 사람들의 체취와 젖은 침낭 냄새가 표면으로 올라왔다.
문법분석: *동명사S/분사구문⌈Lying⌋ on the floor in the corner of the crowded shelter, surrounded by bad smells, I could not fall asleep.


20 주장


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언어 놀이는 아이들의 언어 학습과 발달에 유익하다. 따라서 우리는 아이들의 언어 놀이를 적극적으로 장려하고 심지어 그것에 동참해야 한다. 하지만 언어 놀이는 아이들의 것이어야 한다. 만약 언어 놀이가 결과를 만들어내기 위해 어른들이 사용하는 또 다른 교육적 수단이 된다면, 그것은 본질을 잃게 된다. 아이들은 창의적이고 즉각적인 언어 놀이에서 즐거움을 찾고, 실없는 말을 해놓고 웃기도 하고, 언어 놀이의 속도, 타이밍, 방향, 흐름에 대한 주도권을 가질 수 있을 필요가 있다. 아이들이 자신의 언어 놀이를 발전시키도록 허용할 때, 광범위한 이점이 생긴다.
Language play is good for children's language learning and development, and therefore we should strongly encourage, and even join in their language play. However, the play must be owned by the children. If it becomes another educational tool for adults to use to produce outcomes, it loses its very essence. Children need to be able to delight in creative and immediate language play, to say silly things and make themselves laugh, and to have control over the pace, timing, direction, and flow. When children are allowed to develop their language play, a range of benefits result from it.



절대 네버 해석하지 마세요. 1등급 되니까요~❤️


 ♕ Language play is good for children's language learning and development, and therefore we should strongly encourage, and even join in their language play.
  
Need_Help?

▷language
언어, ~어 
▷play
연주하다, 역할을 하다 
▷good
상당한, 친절한 
▷language
언어, ~어 
▷learning
배우다, 공부하다 
▷development
개발, 발전 
▷therefore
그것을 위해, 그것에 대해 
▷strongly
강력히, 강하게 
▷encourage
격려하다, 장려하다 
▷join
참여하다, 가입하다 
▷language
언어, ~어 
▷play
연주하다, 역할을 하다 .
언어 놀이는 아이들의 언어 학습과 발달에 유익하다.
문법분석: Language play is good for *병렬구조_수일치 ⌈children's⌋ language learning and development, and therefore we should strongly encourage, and even join in their language play.


 ♕ However, the play must be owned by the children.
  
Need_Help?

▷however
그러나, 하지만 
▷play
연주하다, 역할을 하다 
▷owned
~의 소유인, ~이 소유하는  by the children.
따라서 우리는 아이들의 언어 놀이를 적극적으로 장려하고 심지어 그것에 동참해야 한다.
문법분석: However, the play must be owned by the children.


 ♕ If it becomes another educational tool for adults to use to produce outcomes, it loses its very essence.
  
Need_Help?
if it
▷becomes
어울리다, …이 되다 
▷another
다른, 또 하나 
▷educational
교육의 
▷tool
도구, 연장 
▷adults
성인용의, 성인 
▷use
사용하다, 이용하다 
▷produce
~을 생산하다, 만들다 
▷outcomes
결과, 성과 
▷loses
지다, (시계가)늦게 가다, 잃다 
▷very
바로 그, …조차도, 매우 
▷essence
본질, 정수 .
하지만 언어 놀이는 아이들의 것이어야 한다.
문법분석: If it becomes another educational tool for *병렬구조_수일치 ⌈adults⌋ to use to produce outcomes, it loses its very essence.


 ♕ Children need to be able to delight in creative and immediate language play, to say silly things and make themselves laugh, and to have control over the pace, timing, direction, and flow.
  
Need_Help?
children
▷need
필요, 해야 한다 
▷able
~할 수 있는, 유능한 
▷delight
기쁘게 하다, 즐겁게 하다 
▷creative
창의적인, 창조적인 
▷immediate
즉각적인, 당장 
▷language
언어, ~어 
▷play
연주하다, 역할을 하다 
▷say
말하자면, 글쎄요 
▷silly
어리석은, 바보 
▷things
것, 일 
▷make
~하게 하다, 만들다 
▷themselves
그들 자신 
▷laugh
웃다, 웃음 
▷control
통제하다, 지배하다 
▷over
…이상, …하면서, …위에, 끝나고 
▷pace
속도, 페이스 
▷direction
방향, 지도 
▷flow
흐르다, 흐름 .
만약 언어 놀이가 결과를 만들어내기 위해 어른들이 사용하는 또 다른 교육적 수단이 된다면, 그것은 본질을 잃게 된다.
문법분석: Children need to be able to *1형식동사⌈delight in⌋ creative and immediate language play, to say silly things and make themselves laugh, and to have control over the pace *동명사S/분사구문⌈, timing⌋, direction, and flow.


 ♕ When children are allowed to develop their language play, a range of benefits result from it.
  
Need_Help?
when children are
▷allowed
~할 수 있게 하다, 허용하다 
▷develop
개발하다, 발전하다 
▷language
언어, ~어 
▷play
연주하다, 역할을 하다 
▷range
ring의 과거형 
▷benefits
이익, 은혜 
▷result
결국, 결과  from it.
아이들은 창의적이고 즉각적인 언어 놀이에서 즐거움을 찾고, 실없는 말을 해놓고 웃기도 하고, 언어 놀이의 속도, 타이밍, 방향, 흐름에 대한 주도권을 가질 수 있을 필요가 있다.
문법분석: When children *수동태⌈are allowed⌋ to develop their language play, a range of benefits result from it.


21 요지


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만약 당신이 갓 구운 빵 냄새가 나는 방으로 걸어 들어간다면, 꽤나 기분 좋은 그 냄새를 금방 알아차리게 된다. 하지만, 몇 분 동안 방에 머무르면 그 냄새는 사라지는 것 같다. 사실, 냄새를 다시 일깨우는 유일한 방법은 방을 나간 후 다시 들어오는 것이다. 정확히 똑같은 개념이 행복을 포함한 우리 삶의 많은 방면에 적용된다. 모든 사람에게는 행복을 느끼는 무언가가 있다. 아마도 사람들은 소중한 동반자, 건강, 만족스러운 직업, 보금자리, 충분한 음식을 갖고 있을 것이다. 그러나 시간이 지남에 따라, 사람들은 그들이 가진 것에 익숙해지고, 마치 갓 구운 빵 냄새처럼 이런 소중한 것들은 의식 속에서 사라진다. 속담에서 말하듯이 사람들은 우물이 마른 후에야 물의 소중함을 알게 된다.
If you walk into a room that smells of freshly baked bread, you quickly detect the rather pleasant smell. However, stay in the room for a few minutes, and the smell will seem to disappear. In fact, the only way to reawaken it is to walk out of the room and come back in again. The exact same concept applies to many areas of our lives, including happiness. Everyone has something to be happy about. Perhaps they have a loving partner, good health, a satisfying job, a roof over their heads, or enough food to eat. As time passes, however, they get used to what they have and, just like the smell of fresh bread, these wonderful assets disappear from their consciousness. As the old proverb goes, you never miss the water till the well runs dry.