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수완6  Since 2005 | 위스마트(WS) | WAYNE.TISTORY.COM | +821033383436 | iHeeJae | 제작일 20180728


[6-out]
 
#123,842 빅데이터 연구결과 #'분석'하라!' 
뽑아내지말고 우선순위대로 지워라


긴동사/긴준동사
ㅇㄱㄹㅇ being/been

Edmonia Lewis was America's first black woman artist and also the first of her race and [gender to be recognized as] a sculptor.

명→형→부→5V보어

America's first black woman artist and also the first of her race and gender [to] be recognized as a sculptor.
Chippewa woman and a free black man. From 1859 [to] 1863 she was educated at Oberlin College, the first American college [to] admit women into an integrated environment.
After college, Lewis moved [to] Boston, where she studied with Edmund Brackett and did a bust of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, the commander of the first black regiment organized in the state of Massachusetts during the Civil War.
In 1865 she moved [to] Rome, where she soon became a prominent artist. Returning [to] the United States in 1874, she fulfilled many commissions, including a bust of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow that was executed for the Harvard College Library.

Ving
동→명→형→부

Returning to the United States in 1874, she fulfilled many commissions, [includ+ing] a bust of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow that was executed for the Harvard College Library.

피피
동→형→부

From 1859 to 1863 she was [educated] at Oberlin College, the first American college to admit women into an [integrated] environment.
After college, Lewis [moved] to Boston, where she studied with Edmund Brackett and did a bust of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, the commander of the first black regiment [organized] in the state of Massachusetts during the Civil War.

수동
이거레알! 수동+투/명/형

Edmonia Lewis was America's first black woman artist and also the first of her race and gender to [be recognized] + {as} a sculptor.
Albany, New York, she was the daughter of a Chippewa woman and a free black man. From 1859 to 1863 she [was educated] + {at} Oberlin College, the first American college to admit women into an integrated environment.
Returning to the United States in 1874, she fulfilled many commissions, including a bust of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow that [was executed] + {for} the Harvard College Library.

관계사
계속적주의!

Oberlin College, the first American college to admit women into an integrated environment. After college, Lewis moved to Boston, [where] she studied with Edmund Brackett and did a bust of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, the commander of the first black regiment organized in the state of Massachusetts during the Civil War.
In 1865 she moved to Rome, [where] she soon became a prominent artist.

접속사
댓=접관동부

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow [that] was executed for the Harvard College Library.
Her works are fine examples of the neoclassical sculpture [that] was fashionable during her lifetime.

연결
예/역/첨/인

Edmonia Lewis was America's first black woman artist and [also] the first of her race and gender to be recognized as a sculptor.



[6-1]
 
#123,842 빅데이터 연구결과 #'분석'하라!' 
뽑아내지말고 우선순위대로 지워라

명→형→부→5V보어

The babaco is a very hardy plant. It is very easy [to] grow and grows on the mountains as well as close [to] the sea where there is salt in the air and strong storms.
In Australia and New Zealand the babaco is grown commercially. The fruit is up [to] 30 cm long and weighs about 1 kg.
It's also called the fruit with champagne taste. To taste really good, the fruit has [to] be absolutely ripe.
Full ripeness on the tree is not easy [to] obtain as the birds like the fruit as well.
The heavy fruits fall from the tree. A bird's net is therefore necessary in order [to] protect the fruit.
The leaves of the babaco look similar [to] the leaves of the papaya but are smaller and have only three major fingers.

피피
동→형→부

The fruit is up to 30 cm long and weighs about 1 kg. The babaco is sometimes [called] the "Fruit-Salad Tree" because the fruit tastes like a mixture of strawberry, pineapple and papaya.
It's also [called] the fruit with champagne taste.

대명→가주어/가목적어→강조

[It] is very easy to grow and grows on the mountains as well as close to the sea where there is salt in the air and strong storms.
They will sit on [it] and pick the juicy fruit flesh.

수동
이거레알! 수동+투/명/형

The babaco can also survive slight frosts. In Australia and New Zealand the babaco [is grown] + {commercially.}

제주명요
제주명요 S (should) RV!!!

is therefore necessary in [order] to protect the fruit.

연결
예/역/첨/인

The babaco can [also] survive slight frosts.
Fruit-Salad Tree" because the fruit tastes like a mixture of strawberry, pineapple and papaya. It's [also] called the fruit with champagne taste.
The heavy fruits fall from the tree. A bird's net is [therefore] necessary in order to protect the fruit.



[6-2]
 
#123,842 빅데이터 연구결과 #'분석'하라!' 
뽑아내지말고 우선순위대로 지워라

명→형→부→5V보어

His comic talents first surfaced while he was serving in the Air Force. Sent overseas [to] the Pacific, Wilson entertained his buddies with preposterous routines.
Miami businessman sponsored him for one year at $50 a week, thus enabling Wilson [to] concentrate on the evolution of his routine.

Ving
동→명→형→부

Flip Wilson was an American comedian and actor. His comic talents first surfaced while he was [serv+ing] in the Air Force.
Miami businessman sponsored him for one year at $50 a week, thus [enabl+ing] Wilson to concentrate on the evolution of his routine.

피피
동→형→부

Flip Wilson was an American comedian and actor. His comic talents first [surfaced] while he was serving in the Air Force.
Sent overseas to the Pacific, Wilson [entertained] his buddies with preposterous routines.
Back in civilian life, he [worked] as a bellboy and part-time showman. Opportunity [struck] in 1959 when a Miami businessman [sponsored] him for one year at $50 a week, thus enabling Wilson to concentrate on the evolution of his routine.
For the next five years or so, Wilson [appeared] regularly at the Apollo Theater in Harlem.
In 1965 he began a series of nationwide appearances on The Tonight Show. Long-term contracts and several hit records [followed] in quick sequence, and Wilson became firmly [established] as one of the truly innovative talents in the comedy profession.
He [reached] the pinnacle of the entertainment world with a series of original routines and ethnic characters [rivaled] only by those of Bill Cosby.
His hilarious monologues, seen on a number of network television shows, [made] him the most visible black comedian of the early 1970s.

1V
1형식동사는 수동이 안된다.

For the next five years or so, Wilson [appeared] regularly at the Apollo Theater in Harlem.

연결
예/역/첨/인

Miami businessman sponsored him for one year at $50 a week, [thus] enabling Wilson to concentrate on the evolution of his routine.



[6-3]
 
#123,842 빅데이터 연구결과 #'분석'하라!' 
뽑아내지말고 우선순위대로 지워라


긴동사/긴준동사
ㅇㄱㄹㅇ being/been

First Salmon Rite in the spring and the Acorn Feast in the fall, both [foods being major] components in their diet.
The Acorn Feast gained added significance [as being one] of the few ceremonies among Native Americans of the Northwest that were overseen and led by women.
When the ritual was completed, the acorns would be offered to the group for consumption. The ritual appears to [have been abandoned] through much of the 20th century, as the Hupa people adopted Christianity and acorn flour became less important in their diet; but in 1989, for the first time in more than 50 years, it was again revived.

명→형→부→5V보어

The Acorn Feast would begin as the nuts began [to] drop from the local oak trees each fall.
When the ritual was completed, the acorns would be offered [to] the group for consumption.
The ritual appears [to] have been abandoned through much of the 20th century, as the Hupa people adopted Christianity and acorn flour became less important in their diet; but in 1989, for the first time in more than 50 years, it was again revived.

피피
동→형→부

Rite in the spring and the Acorn Feast in the fall, both foods being major components in their diet. The Acorn Feast [gained] [added] significance as being one of the few ceremonies among Native Americans of the Northwest that were overseen and led by women.
The ritual appears to have been [abandoned] through much of the 20th century, as the Hupa people [adopted] Christianity and acorn flour became less important in their diet; but in 1989, for the first time in more than 50 years, it was again [revived].

대명→가주어/가목적어→강조

[It] is now seen as part of their cultural heritage.

수동
이거레알! 수동+투/명/형

When the ritual was completed, the acorns would [be offered] + {to} the group for consumption.

접속사
댓=접관동부

Native Americans of the Northwest [that] were overseen and led by women.

1V
1형식동사는 수동이 안된다.

The ritual [appears] to have been abandoned through much of the 20th century, as the Hupa people adopted Christianity and acorn flour became less important in their diet; but in 1989, for the first time in more than 50 years, it was again revived.



[6-4]
 
#123,842 빅데이터 연구결과 #'분석'하라!' 
뽑아내지말고 우선순위대로 지워라

명→형→부→5V보어

Renaissance. Born in Padua in 1508, ten years before Tintoretto, he owes his nickname, Palladio, [to] an angel in an epic poem ("Italy liberated from the Goths!
Gian Giorgio Trissino. He made several trips [to] Rome between 1541 and 1554 and was impressed by the ancient ruins which inspired him throughout his career.

Ving
동→명→형→부

He designed numerous villas in the Venetian countryside, always [seek+ing] the ideal proportions, symmetry and visual order.
Palladio appears almost as an anti-Tintoretto. He died in 1580 after [design+ing] two magnificent churches in Venice, the San Giorgio Maggiore and the Chiesa del Santissimo Redentore, urban monuments that place him at the pinnacle of the religious architecture of the sixteenth century.

피피
동→형→부

Tintoretto, he owes his nickname, Palladio, to an angel in an epic poem ("Italy [liberated] from the Goths!") [written] by his mentor Gian Giorgio Trissino.
He [made] several trips to Rome between 1541 and 1554 and was [impressed] by the ancient ruins which [inspired] him throughout his career.
Venetian countryside, always seeking the ideal proportions, symmetry and visual order. In his Four Books of Architecture he [detailed] his theories and [presented] his projects (including for the Rialto Bridge).

수동
이거레알! 수동+투/명/형

Goths!") written by his mentor Gian Giorgio Trissino. He made several trips to Rome between 1541 and 1554 and [was impressed] + {by} the ancient ruins which inspired him throughout his career.

주비
부접 + (주비생략) + ving/pp/adj

[after designing] two magnificent churches in Venice, the San Giorgio Maggiore and the Chiesa del Santissimo Redentore, urban monuments that place him at the pinnacle of the religious architecture of the sixteenth century.

접속사
댓=접관동부

San Giorgio Maggiore and the Chiesa del Santissimo Redentore, urban monuments [that] place him at the pinnacle of the religious architecture of the sixteenth century.

1V
1형식동사는 수동이 안된다.

Rialto Bridge). A destroyer of the Gothic (symbol of an unacceptable disorder), Palladio [appears] almost as an anti-Tintoretto.


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수완6  Since 2005 | 위스마트(WS) | WAYNE.TISTORY.COM | +821033383436 | iHeeJae | 제작일 20180728

[6-out]

 

iRead


1 Edmonia Lewis was America's first black woman artist and also the first of her race and gender to be recognized as a sculptor.

2 Born on July 4, 1845, in Albany, New York, she was the daughter of a Chippewa woman and a free black man.

3 From 1859 to 1863 she was educated at Oberlin College, the first American college to admit women into an integrated environment.

4 After college, Lewis moved to Boston, where she studied with Edmund Brackett and did a bust of Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, the commander of the first black regiment organized in the state of Massachusetts during the Civil War.

5 In 1865 she moved to Rome, where she soon became a prominent artist.

6 Returning to the United States in 1874, she fulfilled many commissions, including a bust of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow that was executed for the Harvard College Library.

7 Her works are fine examples of the neoclassical sculpture that was fashionable during her lifetime.

1 Edmonia Lewis는 미국 최초의 흑인 여성 예술가이자 또한 자신의 인종과 성별에서 조각가로서 인정받은 최초의 인물이었다.

2 뉴욕주 Albany에서 1845년 7월 4일에 태어난 그녀는 Chippewa 여자와 흑인 자유민 남자의 딸이었다.

3 1859년부터 1863년까지 그녀는 인종 차별을 하지 않는 환경으로 여성 입학을 허락한 최초의 미국 대학인 Oberlin 대학에서 교육받았다.

4 대학을 마친 후 Lewis는 보스턴으로 갔고, 그곳에서 그녀는 Edmund Brackett과 함께 공부했으며, 미국 남북 전쟁 동안 매사추세츠주에서 조직된 최초의 흑인 연대의 지휘관인 Robert Gould Shaw 대령의 흉상을 제작했다.

5 1865년에 그녀는 로마로 갔고, 그곳에서 곧 저명한 예술가가 되었다.

6 1874년에 미국으로 돌아와, 그녀는 하버드 대학 도서관을 위해 만들어진 Henry Wadsworth Longfellow의 흉상을 비롯하여 의뢰받은 많은 작품을 완수했다.

7 그녀의 작품은 그녀가 살던 시기에 유행한 신고전주의 조각의 훌륭한 본보기이다.

[6-1]

 

iRead


1 The babaco is a very hardy plant.

2 It is very easy to grow and grows on the mountains as well as close to the sea where there is salt in the air and strong storms.

3 The babaco can also survive slight frosts.

4 In Australia and New Zealand the babaco is grown commercially.

5 The fruit is up to 30 cm long and weighs about 1 kg.

6 The babaco is sometimes called the "Fruit-Salad Tree" because the fruit tastes like a mixture of strawberry, pineapple and papaya.

7 It's also called the fruit with champagne taste.

8 To taste really good, the fruit has to be absolutely ripe.

9 Full ripeness on the tree is not easy to obtain as the birds like the fruit as well.

10 They will sit on it and pick the juicy fruit flesh.

11 The heavy fruits fall from the tree.

12 A bird's net is therefore necessary in order to protect the fruit.

13 The leaves of the babaco look similar to the leaves of the papaya but are smaller and have only three major fingers.

1 babaco는 매우 강인한 식물이다.

2 그것은 재배하기가 매우 쉬우며, 공기 중에 염분이 있고 강한 폭풍우가 있는 바다 근처뿐만 아니라 산지에서도 자란다.

3 babaco는 또한 가벼운 서리를 견뎌 낼 수 있다.

4 호주와 뉴질랜드에서 babaco는 상업적으로 재배된다.

5 그 과일은 길이가 30cm까지 이르고 무게가 약 1kg이 나간다.

6 babaco는 때때로 '과일 샐러드 나무'라고 불리는데 그 이유는 그 과일이 딸기, 파인애플, 파파야가 혼합된 것과 같은 맛이 나기 때문이다.

7 그것은 또한 샴페인 맛이 나는 과일이라고 불린다.

8 맛이 정말 좋아지기 위해서 그 과일은 완전히 익어야만 한다.

9 새들 또한 그 과일을 좋아하기 때문에 나무 위에서 완전히 익은 상태의 과일을 구하기 쉽지 않다.

10 새들이 그 과일에 앉아 즙이 많은 과육을 쪼곤 한다.

11 무거운 과일은 나무에서 떨어진다.

12 따라서 그 과일을 보호하기 위해 새 그물이 필요하다.

13 babaco의 잎은 파파야 잎과 비슷하게 생겼지만, 더 작고 단 세 갈래의 주요 소엽을 가지고 있다.

[6-2]

 

iRead


1 Flip Wilson was an American comedian and actor.

2 His comic talents first surfaced while he was serving in the Air Force.

3 Sent overseas to the Pacific, Wilson entertained his buddies with preposterous routines.

4 Back in civilian life, he worked as a bellboy and part-time showman.

5 Opportunity struck in 1959 when a Miami businessman sponsored him for one year at $50 a week, thus enabling Wilson to concentrate on the evolution of his routine.

6 For the next five years or so, Wilson appeared regularly at the Apollo Theater in Harlem.

7 In 1965 he began a series of nationwide appearances on The Tonight Show.

8 Long-term contracts and several hit records followed in quick sequence, and Wilson became firmly established as one of the truly innovative talents in the comedy profession.

9 He reached the pinnacle of the entertainment world with a series of original routines and ethnic characters rivaled only by those of Bill Cosby.

10 His hilarious monologues, seen on a number of network television shows, made him the most visible black comedian of the early 1970s.

1 Flip Wilson은 미국 코미디언이자 배우였다.

2 그의 희극적 재능은 그가 공군에 복무하고 있었을 때 처음 표출되었다.

3 바다를 건너 태평양으로 보내졌을 때, Wilson은 엉뚱한 루틴으로 자신의 친구들을 즐겁게 해주었다.

4 민간인의 삶으로 되돌아갔을 때, 그는 객실 안내원과 시간제 쇼맨으로 일했다.

5 Miami의 한 사업가가 일주일에 50달러로 일 년 동안 Wilson을 후원하여 그가 자신의 루틴 발전에 집중할 수 있게 된 1959년에 기회가 찾아왔다.

6 그 다음 5년 정도 Wilson은 Harlem에 있는 Apollo 극장에 정기적으로 출연했다.

7 1965년에 그는 'The Tonight Show'에서 연이어 전국적으로 출연하기 시작했다.

8 장기 계약과 몇 개의 성공적인 음반이 계속해서 빠르게 이어졌고, Wilson은 희극계에서 진정 혁신적인 재능인 중 한 명으로 굳건히 자리 잡게 되었다.

9 Bill Cosby의 루틴과 역할만이 필적 하는 일련의 독창적인 루틴과 소수 민족 인물의 역할로 그는 연예계의 정점(최고의 자리)에 이르렀다.

10 많은 네트워크 텔레비전 쇼에서 보 인 그의 아주 재미있는 독백이 그를 1970년대 초의 출연이 가장 많은 흑인 코미디언이 되게 해주었다.

[6-3]

 

iRead


1 The Hupa people, who reside in Northern California, had two main ceremonies each year, the First Salmon Rite in the spring and the Acorn Feast in the fall, both foods being major components in their diet.

2 The Acorn Feast gained added significance as being one of the few ceremonies among Native Americans of the Northwest that were overseen and led by women.

3 The Acorn Feast would begin as the nuts began to drop from the local oak trees each fall.

4 A female officiant would gather the first acorns to reach the ground, cook them, and prepare them with appropriate prayers and ritual actions.

5 When the ritual was completed, the acorns would be offered to the group for consumption.

6 The ritual appears to have been abandoned through much of the 20th century, as the Hupa people adopted Christianity and acorn flour became less important in their diet; but in 1989, for the first time in more than 50 years, it was again revived.

7 It is now seen as part of their cultural heritage.

1 캘리포니아 북부에 거주하는 Hupa 족은 매년 두 개의 주요 의식, 즉 봄에는 첫 연어 의식을, 그리고 가을에는 도토리 축제를 했는데, 두 식품 모두 그들 식단의 주요한 구성 요소였다.

2 도토리 축제는 여성에 의해 감독되고 주도된 북서부 아메리카 원주민 사이의 몇 안 되는 의식 중 하나로 부가적인 의의를 얻었다.

3 도토리 축제는 매년 가을 나무 열매가 지역 오크 나무에서 떨어지기 시작할 때 시작되곤 했다.

4 여성 제사장은 땅에 떨어진 첫 도토리들을 모아 요리하고, 적합한 기도 및 의식 행위와 함께 그것들을 차리곤 했다.

5 의식이 끝나면 그 도토리들은 섭취를 위해 부족에게 제공되곤 했다.

6 Hupa 족이 기독교를 채택하고 도토리 가루가 그들의 식단에서 덜 중요해지면서 그 의식은 20세기의 상당 기간 그만두어진 것 같지만, 1989년에 50년이 넘게 지나고 나서 처음으로 그것은 다시 부활되었다.

7 그것은 현재 그들의 문화유산의 일부로 여겨진다.

[6-4]

 

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1 Andrea di Pietro della Gondola is one of the most famous architects of the Italian Renaissance.

2 Born in Padua in 1508, ten years before Tintoretto, he owes his nickname, Palladio, to an angel in an epic poem ("Italy liberated from the Goths!")

3 written by his mentor Gian Giorgio Trissino.

4 He made several trips to Rome between 1541 and 1554 and was impressed by the ancient ruins which inspired him throughout his career.

5 He designed numerous villas in the Venetian countryside, always seeking the ideal proportions, symmetry and visual order.

6 In his Four Books of Architecture he detailed his theories and presented his projects (including for the Rialto Bridge).

7 A destroyer of the Gothic (symbol of an unacceptable disorder), Palladio appears almost as an anti-Tintoretto.

8 He died in 1580 after designing two magnificent churches in Venice, the San Giorgio Maggiore and the Chiesa del Santissimo Redentore, urban monuments that place him at the pinnacle of the religious architecture of the sixteenth century.

1 Andrea di Pietro della Gondola는 이탈리아 르네상스 시대의 가장 유명한 건축가 중 한 명이다.

2 Tintoretto보다 10년 전인 1508년 Padua에서 태어났고, 그의 애칭 Palladio는 자신의 멘토 Gian Giorgio Trissino가 쓴 서사시('고트족으로부터 해방된 이탈리아!

3 ')에 나오는 한 천사에서 유래한다.

4 그는 1541년과 1554년 사이에 로마로 수차례 여행을 갔고 건축가로서의 경력 내내 자신에게 영감을 불어넣어 준 고대 유적에 감명받았다.

5 그는 항상 이상적인 균형, 대칭, 그리고 시각적 질서를 추구하며 베니스의 시골 지역에 수많은 저택을 설계했다.

6 자신의 'Four Books of Architecture'에서 그는 자신의 이론을 상술하고, (Rialto 다리를 위한 것을 포함하여) 자신의 계획을 제시했다.

7 (수용할 수 없는 무질서의 상징인) 고딕 양식의 파괴자 Palladio는 거의 Tintoretto를 반대하는 사람으로 등장 한다.

8 그는 베니스에 자신을 16세기 종교 건축에서 최고의 자리에 올려놓은 기념비적 도시 건축물인 두 개의 웅장한 교회, San Giorgio Maggiore와 Chiesa del Santissimo Redentore를 설계한 후 1580년에 사망했다.

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[4-out]
 
#123,842 빅데이터 연구결과 #'분석'하라!' 
뽑아내지말고 우선순위대로 지워라


긴동사/긴준동사
ㅇㄱㄹㅇ being/been

The innovativeness of cities is related directly to the quality of human talent. China's coastal cities [have been quicker] off the mark because they [have been more]successful in nurturing quality, retaining the most talented knowledge workers, and attracting the cream of the knowledge workers from other parts of the country.

명→형→부→5V보어

The innovativeness of cities is related directly [to] the quality of human talent.
The coastal cities are also more open and accessible [to] outsiders and have integrated with global knowledge networks.
For smaller inland cities [to] become innovative smart cities, they will need [to] specialize and pull in some of the best brains in their fields of specialization from across the country.
Any serious attempt [to] become an innovative city built on the quality of talent, which after all is the life blood of innovation, will have [to] combine urban design and renewal with a focus on developing a few core areas of world-class expertise.

Ving
동→명→형→부

China's coastal cities have been quicker off the mark because they have been more successful in [nurtur+ing] quality, [retain+ing] the most talented knowledge workers, and [attract+ing] the cream of the knowledge workers from other parts of the country.

피피
동→형→부

China's coastal cities have been quicker off the mark because they have been more successful in nurturing quality, retaining the most [talented] knowledge workers, and attracting the cream of the knowledge workers from other parts of the country.
The coastal cities are also more open and accessible to outsiders and have [integrated] with global knowledge networks.
Any serious attempt to become an innovative city [built] on the quality of talent, which after all is the life blood of innovation, will have to combine urban design and renewal with a focus on developing a few core areas of world-class expertise.

수동
이거레알! 수동+투/명/형

The innovativeness of cities [is related] + {directly} to the quality of human talent.

관계사
계속적주의!

Any serious attempt to become an innovative city built on the quality of talent, [which] after all is the life blood of innovation, will have to combine urban design and renewal with a focus on developing a few core areas of world-class expertise.

연결
예/역/첨/인

The coastal cities are [also] more open and accessible to outsiders and have integrated with global knowledge networks.



[4-1]
 
#123,842 빅데이터 연구결과 #'분석'하라!' 
뽑아내지말고 우선순위대로 지워라

명→형→부→5V보어

But then some of them began [to] see opportunities.
As a result, they made breakthroughs in their operations that have actually enabled them [to] have lower production costs without toxic materials than with them.

Ving
동→명→형→부

U.S. [manufactur+ing] companies discovered the bright side of decision problems when they were forced by law to eliminate environmentally harmful materials from their [operat+ing] processes.
But then some of them began to see opportunities. Instead of [view+ing] the problem in its narrow and obvious form — How can we get rid of the harmful materials?
By [chang+ing] a problem into an opportunity, they gained an important advantage over their less savvy competitors.

피피
동→형→부

U.S. manufacturing companies [discovered] the bright side of decision problems when they were [forced] by law to eliminate environmentally harmful materials from their operating processes.
Instead of viewing the problem in its narrow and obvious form — How can we get rid of the harmful materials?— they [redefined] it more broadly: How can we produce our product in the best and most efficient way?
As a result, they [made] breakthroughs in their operations that have actually [enabled] them to have lower production costs without toxic materials than with them.
By changing a problem into an opportunity, they [gained] an important advantage over their less savvy competitors.

대명→가주어/가목적어→강조

How can we get rid of the harmful materials?— they redefined [it] more broadly: How can we produce our product in the best and most efficient way?

수동
이거레알! 수동+투/명/형

U.S. manufacturing companies discovered the bright side of decision problems when they [were forced] + {by} law to eliminate environmentally harmful materials from their operating processes.

접속사
댓=접관동부

As a result, they made breakthroughs in their operations [that] have actually enabled them to have lower production costs without toxic materials than with them.

5V
목적격보어자리 잘봐!

U.S. manufacturing companies discovered the bright side of decision problems when they were [forced] by law to eliminate environmentally harmful materials from their operating processes.
As a result, they made breakthroughs in their operations that have actually [enabled] them to have lower production costs without toxic materials than with them.

연결
예/역/첨/인

[Instead] of viewing the problem in its narrow and obvious form — How can we get rid of the harmful materials?
[As a result], they made breakthroughs in their operations that have actually enabled them to have lower production costs without toxic materials than with them.



[4-2]
 
#123,842 빅데이터 연구결과 #'분석'하라!' 
뽑아내지말고 우선순위대로 지워라

명→형→부→5V보어

Higher food production, markets for products of all sorts, incentives for inventors, greater ability [to] communicate ideas, and the scientific method all combined [to]fuel more and more rapid innovation.
It also gave birth [to] telescopes when early inventors discovered that lenses could be placed in front of other lenses [to] make distant objects appear near.
The telescope then gave birth [to] the microscope.
The microscope uncovered the world of microorganisms too small for the eye [to] see.
The discovery of microorganisms, and the ability [to] look for them on food, in water, and in samples taken from the body, led [to] the germ theory of disease.
That in turn led [to] modern medicine and longer lives.

Ving
동→명→형→부

Ideas built on ideas, often in [surpris+ing] ways.

피피
동→형→부

Higher food production, markets for products of all sorts, incentives for inventors, greater ability to communicate ideas, and the scientific method all [combined] to fuel more and more rapid innovation.
Ideas [built] on ideas, often in surprising ways. Lens-making for eyeglasses let craftsmen work decades longer, even after their eyesight [faltered].
It also gave birth to telescopes when early inventors [discovered] that lenses could be [placed] in front of other lenses to make distant objects appear near.
The telescope then gave birth to the microscope. The microscope [uncovered] the world of microorganisms too small for the eye to see.
The discovery of microorganisms, and the ability to look for them on food, in water, and in samples [taken] from the body, led to the germ theory of disease.

대명→가주어/가목적어→강조

[It] also gave birth to telescopes when early inventors discovered that lenses could be placed in front of other lenses to make distant objects appear near.

수동
이거레알! 수동+투/명/형

It also gave birth to telescopes when early inventors discovered that lenses could [be placed] + {in} front of other lenses to make distant objects appear near.

접속사
댓=접관동부

It also gave birth to telescopes when early inventors discovered [that] lenses could be placed in front of other lenses to make distant objects appear near.

연결
예/역/첨/인

Lens-making for eyeglasses let craftsmen work decades longer, even after their eyesight faltered. It [also] gave birth to telescopes when early inventors discovered that lenses could be placed in front of other lenses to make distant objects appear near.



[4-3]
 
#123,842 빅데이터 연구결과 #'분석'하라!' 
뽑아내지말고 우선순위대로 지워라

피피
동→형→부

There is, of course, a certain communality in what cultures consider comical, but a significant part of the comical and the comedy remains specific to a culture and is, therefore, almost untranslatable.

대명→가주어/가목적어→강조

On the contrary, [it] largely depends on our identity as part of a larger social group.

전+which
ㅇㄱㄹㅇ

What we find funny, comical, or hilarious depends on where we come from, {in} + [which] country (even which region of a country) we grew up, and what language(s) we speak.
There is, of course, a certain communality {in} + [what] cultures consider comical, but a significant part of the comical and the comedy remains specific to a culture and is, therefore, almost untranslatable.

접속사
댓=접관동부

There is, of course, a certain communality in [what] cultures consider comical, but a significant part of the comical and the comedy remains specific to a culture and is, therefore, almost untranslatable.
For instance, [what] solicits the highest respect from one group (religious rituals or nationalist celebrations are favorites here) can be seen as comical by those who look at it from the outside, who are embedded in a similarly social but crucially different structure of their own group.

연결
예/역/첨/인

[On the contrary], it largely depends on our identity as part of a larger social group.
[For instance], what solicits the highest respect from one group (religious rituals or nationalist celebrations are favorites here) can be seen as comical by those who look at it from the outside, who are embedded in a similarly social but crucially different structure of their own group.



[4-4]
 
#123,842 빅데이터 연구결과 #'분석'하라!' 
뽑아내지말고 우선순위대로 지워라

명→형→부→5V보어

Minorities tend not [to] have much power or status and may even be dismissed as troublemakers, extremists or simply 'weirdos'.
Such change has often occurred because a minority has converted others [to] its point of view.
Christianity, trade unionism or feminism) were originally due [to] the influence of an outspoken minority.

피피
동→형→부

The crucial factor in the success of the suffragette movement was that its proponents were consistent in their views, and this [created] a considerable degree of social influence.
Minorities that are active and [organised], who advocate and defend their position consistently, can create social conflict, doubt and uncertainty among members of the majority, and ultimately this may lead to social change.
Such change has often [occurred] because a minority has [converted] others to its point of view.

수동
이거레알! 수동+투/명/형

Minorities tend not to have much power or status and may even [be dismissed] + {as} troublemakers, extremists or simply 'weirdos'.

전+which
ㅇㄱㄹㅇ

Without the influence of minorities, we would have no innovation, no social change. Many {of} + [what] we now regard as 'major' social movements (eg_ Christianity, trade unionism or feminism) were originally due to the influence of an outspoken minority.

접속사
댓=접관동부

The social psychologist Serge Moscovici claims [that] the answer lies in their behavioural style, ie_ the way the minority gets its point across.
The crucial factor in the success of the suffragette movement was [that] its proponents were consistent in their views, and this created a considerable degree of social influence.
Minorities [that] are active and organised, who advocate and defend their position consistently, can create social conflict, doubt and uncertainty among members of the majority, and ultimately this may lead to social change.
Many of [what] we now regard as 'major' social movements (eg_ Christianity, trade unionism or feminism) were originally due to the influence of an outspoken minority.


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[4-out]

 

iRead


1 The innovativeness of cities is related directly to the quality of human talent.

2 China's coastal cities have been quicker off the mark because they have been more successful in nurturing quality, retaining the most talented knowledge workers, and attracting the cream of the knowledge workers from other parts of the country.

3 The coastal cities are also more open and accessible to outsiders and have integrated with global knowledge networks.

4 For smaller inland cities to become innovative smart cities, they will need to specialize and pull in some of the best brains in their fields of specialization from across the country.

5 Any serious attempt to become an innovative city built on the quality of talent, which after all is the life blood of innovation, will have to combine urban design and renewal with a focus on developing a few core areas of world-class expertise.

1 도시의 혁신성은 인간 재능의 우수성과 직접적인 관계가 있다.

2 중국의 해안 도시들은 우수성을 양성하고, 가장 재능이 있는 지식 근로자를 보유하고, 국내의 다른 지역 출신의 지식 근로자 중 최고를 끌어들이는 데 더 성공적이었기 때문에 상황 대처가 더 빨랐다.

3 그 해안 도시들은 또한 외부인에게 더 개방적이고 접근성이 있으며 전 세계의 지식 네트워크와 통합되었다.

4 더 작은 내륙 도시가 혁신적인 스마트 도시가 되기 위해서는 전문화하고 전국에서 전문 분야에 있는 최고의 두뇌 중 일부를 견인할 필요가 있을 것이다.

5 결국 혁신의 생명선인 재능의 우수성을 기반으로 하여 구축되는 혁신적인 도시가 되기 위한 모든 진지한 시도는 도시 설계와 재개발을 세계 정상급의 전문 기술을 갖춘 일부 핵심 분야의 개발에 대한 집중과 결합해야 할 것이다.

[4-1]

 

iRead


1 U.S. manufacturing companies discovered the bright side of decision problems when they were forced by law to eliminate environmentally harmful materials from their operating processes.

2 At first, the companies saw only the negatives — disruptions, higher costs, more paperwork.

3 But then some of them began to see opportunities.

4 Instead of viewing the problem in its narrow and obvious form — How can we get rid of the harmful materials?— they redefined it more broadly: How can we produce our product in the best and most efficient way?

5 As a result, they made breakthroughs in their operations that have actually enabled them to have lower production costs without toxic materials than with them.

6 By changing a problem into an opportunity, they gained an important advantage over their less savvy competitors.

1 미국 제조사들은 법에 따라 어쩔 수 없이 작업 공정에서 환경에 해로운 물질을 제거해야 했을 때 결정 문제의 긍정적 측면을 발견했다.

2 처음에 그 회사들은 (가동) 중단, 더 높은 비용, 더 많은 서류 작업 같은 부정적 측면만 보았다.

3 그러나 그런 다음 몇몇 회사들은 기회를 포착하기 시작했다.

4 '어떻게 그 해로운 물질을 없앨 수 있을까'라는 편협하고 뻔한 방식으로 문제를 바라보는 대신에, 그들은 '어떻게 최선의 그리고 가장 효율적인 방식으로 제품을 생산할 수 있을까'라고 문제를 더 폭넓게 재정의했다.

5 결과적으로 그들은 실제로 유독성 물질을 포함했을 때보다 없는 경우에 자신들에게 더 낮은 생산 비용이 들 수 있게 하는 공정에서의 비약적인 발전을 이룩했다.

6 문제를 기회로 바꿈으로써 그들은 전문 지식이 더 적은 경쟁사들보다 중요한 우위를 점했다.

[4-2]

 

iRead


1 Higher food production, markets for products of all sorts, incentives for inventors, greater ability to communicate ideas, and the scientific method all combined to fuel more and more rapid innovation.

2 Ideas built on ideas, often in surprising ways.

3 Lens-making for eyeglasses let craftsmen work decades longer, even after their eyesight faltered.

4 It also gave birth to telescopes when early inventors discovered that lenses could be placed in front of other lenses to make distant objects appear near.

5 The telescope then gave birth to the microscope.

6 The microscope uncovered the world of microorganisms too small for the eye to see.

7 The discovery of microorganisms, and the ability to look for them on food, in water, and in samples taken from the body, led to the germ theory of disease.

8 That in turn led to modern medicine and longer lives.

1 더 많은 식품 생산, 모든 종류의 제품을 위한 시장, 발명가를 위한 장려책, 아이디어를 전달하는 더 훌륭한 능력, 그리고 과학적인 방법, 이 모두가 결합하여 점점 더 급속한 혁신을 자극했다.

2 자주 놀라운 방식으로 아이디어 위에 아이디어가 구축되었다.

3 안경알을 위한 렌즈 제작은 기능공이 심지어 시력이 약해진 후에도 수십 년을 더 오래 일하게 했다.

4 초기의 발명가가 렌즈가 다른 렌즈 앞에 놓이면 멀리 있는 물체를 가까이 보이게 할 수 있다는 것을 알아냈을 때, 그것은 망원경도 탄생시켰다.

5 그러고 나서 망원경은 현미경을 탄생시켰다.

6 현미경은 너무 작아 육안으로 볼 수 없는 미생물의 세계를 드러내 보여 주었다.

7 미생물의 발견과 그것들을 식품에서, 물에서, 그리고 신체에서 추출된 표본에서 찾아볼 수 있는 능력은 질병 세균설을 낳았다.

8 그것은 결국 현대 의학과 연장된 수명을 가져왔다.

[4-3]

 

iRead


1 What we find funny, comical, or hilarious depends on where we come from, in which country (even which region of a country) we grew up, and what language(s) we speak.

2 There is, of course, a certain communality in what cultures consider comical, but a significant part of the comical and the comedy remains specific to a culture and is, therefore, almost untranslatable.

3 There is, in other words, a direct but complex relationship between nationality and sense of humor.

4 What we see as comical or funny does not only depend on us as unique individuals.

5 On the contrary, it largely depends on our identity as part of a larger social group.

6 For instance, what solicits the highest respect from one group (religious rituals or nationalist celebrations are favorites here) can be seen as comical by those who look at it from the outside, who are embedded in a similarly social but crucially different structure of their own group.

1 우리가 재미있다거나, 우습다거나, 또는 매우 웃긴다고 여기는 것은 우리가 어디 출신인지, 우리가 어느 국가(심지어는 한 국가의 어느 지역)에서 자랐는지, 그리고 우리가 어느 언어(들)를 쓰는지에 달려 있다.

2 물론 문화들이 우습다고 여기는 것에 있어서 어느 정도의 공통성이 있지만, 우스운 것과 희극성의 상당히 많은 부분은 여전히 한 문화에 특유하며, 따라서 다른 언어로 거의 옮길 수가 없다.

3 다시 말해서, 국민성과 유머 감각 사이에는 직접적이지만 복잡한 관련이 있다.

4 우리가 우습다거나 재미있다고 여기는 것은 독특한 개인으로써의 우리에게 달린 것만은 아니다.

5 그와는 반대로, 그것은 더 큰 사회적 집단의 일부로서의 우리의 정체성에 주로 달려 있다.

6 예를 들어, 한 집단으로부터 최고의 존중을 요구하는 것(이 경우 종교적 의식이나 민족주의적인 기념행사가 선호되는 것인데)이 외부에서 그것을 보는 사람들에게는 우스운 것으로 비칠 수 있는데, 그들은 비슷하게 사회적인, 그러나 결정적으로 다른, 그들 자체 집단의 구조에 깊숙이 묻혀 있기 때문이다.

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1 Minorities tend not to have much power or status and may even be dismissed as troublemakers, extremists or simply 'weirdos'.

2 How, then, do they ever have any influence over the majority?

3 The social psychologist Serge Moscovici claims that the answer lies in their behavioural style, ie_ the way the minority gets its point across.

4 The crucial factor in the success of the suffragette movement was that its proponents were consistent in their views, and this created a considerable degree of social influence.

5 Minorities that are active and organised, who advocate and defend their position consistently, can create social conflict, doubt and uncertainty among members of the majority, and ultimately this may lead to social change.

6 Such change has often occurred because a minority has converted others to its point of view.

7 Without the influence of minorities, we would have no innovation, no social change.

8 Many of what we now regard as 'major' social movements (eg_ Christianity, trade unionism or feminism) were originally due to the influence of an outspoken minority.

1 소수 집단은 많은 힘이나 지위를 가지고 있지 않은 경향이 있고 심지어 말썽꾼, 극단주의자, 또는 단순히 '별난 사람'으로 일축될 수도 있다.

2 그렇다면 대체 그들은 어떻게 다수 집단에 대한 영향력을 행사하는가?

3 사회 심리학자 Serge Moscovici는 그 답은 그들의 '행동 양식', 즉 소수 집단이 자기네 의견을 이해시키는 '방식'에 있다고 주장한다.

4 여성 참정권 운동이 성공을 거둔 중대한 요인은 지지자들이 자신들의 관점에서 '일관적'이었다는 것이었는데, 이것이 상당한 정도의 사회적 영향력을 행사하였다.

5 자신들의 입장을 '일관되게' 옹호하고 방어하는 활동적이고 조직적인 소수 집단이 다수 집단의 구성원 사이에 사회적 갈등, 의심, 그리고 불확실을 만들어 낼 수 있고, 궁극적으로 이것이 사회 변화를 가져올 수도 있다.

6 그러한 변화가 흔히 일어난 까닭은 소수 집단이 다른 사람들을 자신의 관점으로 바꿔 놓았기 때문이다.

7 소수 집단의 영향 없이는 우리는 어떤 혁신, 어떤 사회 변화도 일으킬 수 없을 것이다.

8 우리가 현재 '주요' 사회 운동(예를 들어, 기독교 사상, 노동조합 운동, 또는 남녀평등주의)으로 여기는 많은 것이 원래 거침없이 말하는 소수 집단의 영향력 때문에 생겨났다.

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