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esh 0:99 \w | Since 2005 블루티쳐 영어학원, 임희재 | wayne.tistory.com | 01033383436 | 제작일 190810 11:39:02


한 문장씩 자세히 보기

✔︎ 영시한 1-1

1. [Be a Doer, Not a Dreamer] Shonda Lynn Rhimes is a famous American television producer and writer.


2. Rhimes delivered the following speech at the graduation ceremony for Dartmouth College in 2014.


3. President Hanlon, staff, honored guests, parents, students, families, and friends, good morning and congratulations to the graduating class!


4. When people give graduation speeches, they usually tell you: Follow your dreams.


5. Dream and dream big! 6. Don't stop dreaming until your dreams come true. 7. I think that's nonsense.



✔︎ 영시한 1-2

1. A lot of people dream.


2. And while they are busy dreaming, the really happy and successful people are busy doing.


3. Dreams are lovely, but they are just dreams.


4. Dreams do not come true just because you dream them.


5. It is hard work that makes things happen and creates change.


6. So, this is my first lesson for you: Be a doer, not a dreamer.


7. Maybe you know exactly what you want to do, or maybe you have no idea what you truly want to do.


8. It doesn't matter. 9. You don't have to know. 10. You just have to keep moving forward.


11. You just have to keep doing something, seizing the next opportunity, and staying open to trying something new.


12. It doesn't have to be the perfect job or the perfect life that you dream of.


13. Perfect is boring, and dreams are not real. 14. Just do! 15. If you're dreaming of traveling, leave right now. 16. Do you want to be a writer? 17. Start writing. 18. A writer is someone who writes every day. 19. If you don't have a job, get one. 20. Get any job. 21. Don't sit at home waiting for the magical opportunity. 22. Do something until you can do something else.



✔︎ 영시한 1-3

1. My second lesson is this: Don't be self-centered.


2. Right after graduation, you may have the worst days of your lives.


3. But don't act like you're the most miserable person in the world, because you are not.


4. We are already a lot luckier than most people on the earth.


5. We live in the country where we are free to speak our own mind and most people believe that everyone should be treated equally regardless of gender or race.


6. In some parts of the world, girls are harmed simply because they want to get an education.


7. Slavery still exists. 8. Children still starve to death.


9. Even in the United States, there are countless people who are living much more difficult lives than we can ever imagine.


10. Crime and violence are part of the everyday lives of these people.


11. So before you complain, remember that you have been given a gift.


12. Your whole life so far has been a gift.


13. It's time to pay for it by doing something for the world.




✔︎ 영시한 1-4

1. My third lesson is this: Accept that you cannot do everything.


2. Since I'm a very successful woman and a mother with three children, many people ask me, "How do you do it all?


3. How do you become successful at your job while having a family?"


4. Now I'm going to give you an entirely honest answer: I don't.


5. Whenever I'm succeeding in one area of my life, I'm failing in another area.


6. If I'm writing really exciting stories for television, I'm not spending enough time with my children.


7. If I'm enjoying a family holiday with my children, I'm not finishing the script that I should.


8. If I'm succeeding at one, I'm inevitably failing at the other.


9. This happens with all truly successful people. 10. It will happen to you when you become successful.


11. We all achieve one thing by failing to achieve something else.


12. Anyone who tells you they are doing it all perfectly is a liar.




✔︎ 영시한 1-5

1. I hope I didn't scare you.


2. I just wanted to say that it is okay, even if it doesn't look okay.


3. Your dreams may not all come true.


4. You may sometimes feel like you're failing at work or at your home life.


5. The real world is hard.


6. And yet, you can still wake up in the morning and be amazed at everything you have and everything you have achieved.


7. And then 20 years from now, one of you can find yourself right here where I stand, giving a graduation speech.




✔︎ 영시한 2-1

1. Darwin's "survival of the fittest"is universally regarded as a simple reality in the game of life.


2. Successful play sometimes requires a degree of selfishness.


3. However, across the animal kingdom, selfishness is only a very small part of an animal's life.


4. Often, animals help each other and work together for the greater good.


5. Cooperation prevails at every level of the animal kingdom.


6. In the following three examples, it is inspiring to see how animals cooperate to help each other.




✔︎ 영시한 2-2

1. Have you ever observed ants marching in and out of their nest?


2. If so, it may have reminded you of a highway packed with cars.


3. But this comparison is not appropriate.


4. Ants never get into a traffic jam, no matter how fast they move or how many of them occupy the road.


5. This is because their movements are based on cooperation.


6. When there are a few ants moving in a single direction, some ants are likely to move slowly, some fast, and others even faster.


7. As their number increases, however, they communicate with each other so that they all move at the same speed.


8. The slow speed up while the fast and the superfast slow down.


9. There are times when ants leaving the nest for food encounter other ants coming back with food on their backs.


10. When this happens, the inbound ants, the ones carrying a burden, always have the right of way.


11. Outbound ants turn to get out of the way, while inbound ants continue in a straight line.


12. This arrangement makes sense because it is more difficult for inbound ants to change direction due to their heavy loads.


13. Following these rules and cooperating in this way, ants improve the traffic flow and make the delivery of food to the nest more efficient.




✔︎ 영시한 2-3

1. Fish also cooperate. 2. As everyone knows, big fish often eat little fish.


3. Sometimes, however, little fish help the big fish, so the big fish do not eat the little fish.


4. Tiny fish, which scientists refer to as "cleaners," swim into the mouths of bigger fish, which are referred to as "clients."


5. The cleaners eat parasites in the clients' mouths.


6. After the cleaners do their job, the clients let them go, instead of swallowing them.


7. The cleaners get a meal, and the clients get a healthier mouth.


8. Sometimes the cleaner fish chew on the wall of the client fish's mouth.


9. Although this may cause pain, the big fish still do not eat the little ones for two reasons.


10. First, the cleaners are too small to satisfy their hunger.


11. Second, it is hard to find good cleaners.


12. Once the cleaners and the clients establish trust, the clients want to cooperate with the cleaners and keep them around.




✔︎ 영시한 2-4

1. Pied flycatchers are small birds that cooperate in dangerous situations.


2. When a predator enters a flycatcher's area, the flycatcher makes a loud sound for help.


3. Other flycatchers hear the call, and they come to help.


4. As more and more birds join the group, the predator becomes frightened and runs away.


5. It is important to note that flycatchers go to the aid of another bird in danger only if that bird has helped other birds in the past.


6. They do not answer the calls of birds that have refused to help others before.


7. More Info. 8. Do you know how bats cooperate to survive?


9. One kind of bat has a system of food sharing.


10. Bats die if they go two nights without food.


11. As hunting for blood—heir only food—s not easy, younger bats fail to find food one night out of three.


12. But hunger is rare because bats that find blood share it with bats that don't.




✔︎ 영시한 2-5

1. Cooperation is a process that started with the first single-celled creatures.


2. Living things, from their beginnings more than three billion years ago, took over the planet by learning to cooperate.


3. We human beings cooperate in plenty of ways, from lining up at a bus stop to sharing knowledge on a website.


4. Sometimes, however, human cooperation can break down.


5. To foster cooperative success among humans, we should perhaps look to nature for inspiration.




✔︎ 영시한 2-6

1. There are many team sports which require cooperation among the team members in order to win.


2. Let' see the origins of a few of these sports.


3. Field hockey has a long history.


4. Four-thousand-year-old drawings of men playing a simple version of a hockey game have been found in tombs in Egypt.


5. In the Middle Ages variations of hockey-like games were played in European countries.


6. Later England modernized it.


7. Soccer A Chinese game called cuju meaning "kick a ball" existed during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BC and has been recognized as the first version of soccer with similar rules to the modern game.


8. Players could use any part of their body except their hands.


9. Later soccer-like games were played in Japan Australia and several countries in Europe.


10. Now 211 countries around the world are registered as members of FIFA.


11. Rowing Rowing has existed since humans first traveled on water by boat.


12. The first reference to rowing as a sport comes from 15thcentury BC Egypt.


13. It later spread throughout Europe.


14. Modern rowing as a competitive sport goes back to England in the 18th century.


15. Now one of the most famous competitions is the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race.




✔︎ 영시한 3-1

1. [What Is Soda Doing to You] When you eat fast food, such as pizza, hamburger, or fried chicken, what do you drink with it?


2. Most people have a soda.


3. When you go to the movies or when you just want something refreshing to satisfy your thirst, a soda is often the first choice.


4. Soda, also called a soft drink, is a sweet drink with carbonation.


5. People all over the world love sodas.


6. Every year, Americans consume 170 liters of soda per person, and the British 100 liters.


7. Of all age groups, teenagers drink the most soda.


8. Most people, however, understand that sodas are not good for their health due to the ingredients.


9. What is in a soda? 10. Which ingredients are really not good for you?



✔︎ 영시한 3-2

1. [Sugar] Everyone knows that soft drinks are loaded with large amounts of sugar.


2. A typical 250ml can of soda contains 30 grams of sugar.


3. WHO, the World Health Organization, recommends that people consume less than 25 grams of sugar a day.


4. Therefore, if you drink one small can of soda, your daily sugar intake already exceeds the recommended amount.


5. What is worse, people usually don't stop with one can.


6. Having extra sugar means adding unnecessary calories.


7. Over time, this can lead to obesity and other health problems, such as heart disease and diabetes.


8. Even diet sodas are not safe. 9. Diet sodas replace the sugar with artificial sweeteners.


10. Artificial sweeteners provide a sweet, sugary taste with fewer calories.


11. This may seem like a good thing, but it really isn't.


12. According to a recent study, artificial sweeteners make you want more sweet foods.


13. This means that you may easily gain weight if you keep drinking diet soda.


14. In addition, artificial sweeteners are known to generate headaches, emotional disorders, and sleeping problems.




✔︎ 영시한 3-3

1. [Acid] Most soda contains several types of acids. 2. Acid is a chemical substance with a sour taste. 3. When added to water, it produces a sharp flavor.


4. Acid also delays the growth of bacteria, which extends the expiration date of a product.


5. However, acid interferes with the body's ability to absorb calcium, and as a result, bone softening occurs.


6. Also, the acid in sodas interacts with stomach acid, slowing digestion and blocking nutrient absorption.


7. Furthermore, it can damage tooth enamel, the hard substance that protects your teeth.


8. If you drink sodas regularly, your teeth decay more easily.




✔︎ 영시한 3-4

1. [Caffeine] When you hear the word "caffeine," you most likely think of coffee.


2. But some sodas, especially colas and carbonated energy drinks, also contain caffeine.


3. Caffeine makes you feel more awake, but it may bring about an irregular heartbeat.


4. A single can of cola may not affect you much, but if you consume colas regularly, they can make you feel more nervous and keep you from sleeping well at night.


5. Artificial Colors and Artificial Flavors Soft drink companies attract consumers by adding bright colors and sweet flavors to their products.


6. Most of these colors and flavors, however, are not natural.


7. They are artificial chemicals.


8. For example, the artificial color Yellow No_6, used in some pineapple juices, adds nothing to the taste.


9. It is just there to make the drink look pretty.


10. Also, the artificial flavor that gives the drink its pineapple taste is not real pineapple juice at all.


11. Studies have shown that excessive consumption of these kinds of chemicals can create problems such as kidney disease and ADHD.




✔︎ 영시한 3-5

1. You can see how the sugar, the acid, the caffeine, and the artificial chemicals in sodas are really not good for you.


2. Perhaps you might now understand that you should stop drinking them.


3. However, if quitting sodas altogether sounds too difficult, cut down gradually.


4. For example, replace one regular soft drink or one diet soda per day with another more healthy drink.


5. Of course, the best choice would be water.


6. Water has no calories, no acid, no caffeine, and no chemicals of any kind.


7. And if you want something to add a boost of flavor, put a slice of lemon in the water.


8. If you can't break your soda drinking habits in a short period of time, don't be too hard on yourself.


9. Once you start cutting back, you are heading in the right direction.




✔︎ 영시한 4-1

1. [RFCx] the Rainforest Savior Imagine you are standing in a rainforest.


2. You are surrounded by tall trees, many of which are more than 40 meters tall.


3. You are a hundred kilometers away from the nearest city.


4. What do you hear? 5. Do you think it is a quiet, peaceful place? 6. If so, you are wrong. 7. The rainforest is actually a very noisy place.


8. Insects, birds, and monkeys are responsible for much of this noise.


9. And sometimes there is another sound, one that does not belong in the forest at all.


10. It is the buzz of a chainsaw.


11. Every year some 13 million hectares of rainforest, an area about the size of England, disappears.




✔︎ 영시한 4-2

1. This loss destroys the habitats for millions of species and has a major effect on the jungle's biodiversity.


2. Also, it increases the amount of CO² in the air.


3. Destruction of the rainforest is caused by logging, farming, mining, and other human activities.


4. Among these, logging is the main reason for nature's loss.


5. Some 70 to 80 percent of the logging in the rainforests is thought to be illegal.


6. To address this problem, a young American engineer has invented a simple device that detects illegal logging the moment it occurs.


7. It all started in 2011, when Topher White visited Indonesia as a volunteer.


8. One day, he and some of the other volunteers set out from the ranger station on a walk into a protected rainforest.


9. After walking only five minutes, his group came upon people who were cutting down trees illegally.


10. The surprised loggers fled, but White was shocked.


11. Despite the fact that they were still fairly close to the ranger station, it had been impossible to hear anything from back there.


12. It is because the forest was so full of other sounds.




✔︎ 영시한 4-3

1. White started thinking about ways to help.


2. He knew that even in the jungle, far from the city, there was good cell phone service.


3. He thought that perhaps cell phone technology could solve the problem.


4. After he returned home to the U.S., in his father's garage he developed a small listening device using an old cell phone.


5. He attached a sensitive microphone to the cell phone so that it could detect chainsaw noise from up to three kilometers away.


6. This device would be placed high up in a tree.


7. When it picked up the buzz of a saw, it would send a message to a ranger's cell phone.


8. White knew that he had to protect the cell phone so that it could survive in the hot and wet rainforest environment.


9. His solution was to put the phone in a plastic box.


10. Since there was no electricity where the phone needed to be placed, the device had to be able to power itself.


11. White attached solar panels to the cell phone.


12. He was sure that the panels would work, even under the shade of the thick tree leaves.




✔︎ 영시한 4-4

1. White returned to Indonesia to test the device.


2. Surprisingly, on only the second day after he installed the device, it picked up chainsaw noises.


3. An alert message was immediately sent to White and the forest rangers.


4. When they approached the logging spot, the illegal loggers ran away.


5. White published his story on the Internet and word quickly spread.


6. People living in other countries contacted White and asked if they could use the device.


7. Others, from around the world, started sending him their old cell phones so he could build more devices.


8. These devices, called Rainforest Connection (RFCx), are now being used in the rainforests in Africa and South America.




✔︎ 영시한 4-5

1. One RFCx can protect 300 hectares of forest.


2. If a forest of this size is cut, 15,000 tons of CO² are released into the air.


3. Preventing this amount of CO² from being released has the same effect as taking 3,000 cars off the road for a year.


4. These devices are saving rainforests and providing new life for thousands of discarded cell phones.


5. Thanks to Topher White and his RFCx devices, the earth is now a better place to live.




✔︎ 영시한 5-1

1. How to Handle Haters.


2. Have you ever known someone you just did not get along with?


3. Maybe it was someone you had difficulty working with or it could have been someone you were always arguing with.


4. This kind of situation can leave you wondering what you should do.


5. Should you ignore them, be extra nice to them, or stand up to them?


6. If you have ever been confused about what to do, you are not alone.


7. Luckily for us, Benjamin Franklin, the American politician and inventor, came up with an answer more than 200 years ago.




✔︎ 영시한 5-2

1. Benjamin Franklin was a very smart man, not just in politics and science, but also in his ability to deal with people.


2. Once, when Franklin was serving as a representative for the people of the state of Pennsylvania, a powerful opponent made a long speech criticizing him.


3. This speech was so powerful that it threatened Franklin's political career.


4. Franklin decided to try to change his enemy's opinion of him.


5. To do this, he sent a letter to the man asking for a favor.


6. He asked the man to lend him a very rare and valuable book, one that he knew the man had in his personal library.


7. The man, Franklin's enemy, immediately sent him the book.


8. Franklin read the book and returned it with a note of thanks.




✔︎ 영시한 5-3

1. The next time Franklin met his enemy, the man was much nicer to him.


2. They eventually became friends and remained so for the rest of their lives.


3. In his autobiography, Franklin explained what happened.


4. Franklin wrote, "He that has once done you a kindness will be more ready to do you another.


5. "By asking a small favor of his enemy, Franklin gave the man a chance to do him a kindness.


6. This turned his enemy into a friend.


7. Today this phenomenon is known as the Benjamin Franklin effect.


8. It is commonly thought that if you want people who do not like you to like you, you should do favors for them.


9. However, if you want to try to create a connection with someone who does not like you, asking that person to do you a favor is more effective.


10. To test this phenomenon, a psychologist performed an experiment and came to the same conclusion.




✔︎ 영시한 5-4

1. About 80 students were invited to participate in an experiment and were told they would be given some money after a series of tests.


2. A researcher was hired and made the students dislike him by being rude to them.


3. The students took the tests and were all awarded the promised money.


4. They were then divided into three groups.


5. Group 1 was asked by the researcher to return some of the prize money.


6. He explained that he had used his own money for the tests and the study was in danger of running out of funds.


7. Group 2 was asked by a secretary to return some of the money to the institution because the budget was running low.


8. Group 3 was not asked to return any money.


9. Afterward, all three groups were asked to rate how much they liked the researcher.


10. The people in Group 1, who had done the researcher a personal favor by returning some of the money, rated the researcher the highest.


11. Despite the fact that they had had a bad impression of him during the experiment, they had more positive feelings for him after returning "his money."




✔︎ 영시한 5-5

1. How can it be that we feel more positively toward people for whom we do favors?


2. It is because of what psychologists refer to as "cognitive dissonance.


3. "We want our actions and our thoughts to be in harmony.


4. When we do something that we do not like, the balance is broken, and we feel unhappy.


5. If there is a conflict between our thoughts and our actions (cognitive dissonance), we will change one or the other to relieve the conflict.


6. After lending Franklin the book, Franklin's enemy experienced cognitive dissonance.


7. He felt troubled because he was doing something nice for someone he disliked.


8. Feeling anxious and unhappy, he had to find a way to resolve his feelings.


9. The easiest way for him to do that was to change how he thought about Franklin.


10. He justified doing the favor by telling himself that Franklin was not a bad person after all and convinced himself that he actually liked Franklin.


11. Is there someone with whom you would like to have a better relationship?


12. Try asking that person for a small favor, such as lending you a pencil or watching your bag while you go to the restroom.


13. Then see if their feelings toward you change. 14. The chances are they will.



✔︎ 영시한 5-6

1. Every culture has proverbs about human relationships.


2. Read the following proverbs different countries and cultures and think about the meaning of each one.


3. He who gets close to a good tree will have good shade - Spain.


4. Kind words take the snake out of its hole - Turkey.


5. Show me your friends and I'l tell you who you are - Russia.


6. As distance tests a horse' strength, so does time reveal a person' character - China.


7. Laughter is a language everyone understands - Chad.


8. A friend will cause you to weep, an enemy to laugh - Afghanistan.


9. If you want to go fast, go alone.


10. If you want to go far, go together - Africa.


11. Lose your temper and you lose a friend; lie and you lose yourself - Native American.




✔︎ 영시한 6-1

1. Dabbawalas: Mumbai's Lunch Box Delivery Men In India, many traditions are today being challenged as a result of globalization.


2. The practice of eating a home-cooked meal for lunch, however, continues.


3. In Mumbai, many people who work in offices far from home rely on an express food delivery service run by dabbawalas.


4. Dabbawalas are delivery men who carry hot lunch boxes for Mumbai office workers from their homes to their offices.


5. The word dabbawala comes from the Hindi dabba meaning "lunch box," and wala meaning "the person who carries it."




✔︎ 영시한 6-2

1. Most dabbas, or lunches, reach their destination after passing through several pairs of hands.


2. A typical scenario would have one person on a bicycle pick up a dabba by 9:00 a.m. from about thirty different addresses.


3. After collecting all of the dabbas assigned to him, he takes them to the nearest train station.


4. Another person loads each dabba onto the right train, sending them off in different directions.


5. A third person rides on each of the trains with the dabbas.


6. Finally, a fourth person picks up the boxes at the receiving station and distributes them, again by bicycle, to each customerʼ office, all by 12:30 p.m.


7. The empty dabbas are picked up by 5:00 p.m. and are returned to their original addresses by the same team, following the same procedure in reverse.




✔︎ 영시한 6-3

1. The dabbawala service began around 1890, when a banker hired a young man to deliver a lunch box from his home to his Mumbai office.


2. Other people liked the idea and copied it.


3. When demand for the service expanded, a businessman started the lunch-delivery service in its present format.


4. Now, more than 120 years later, the dabba is a unique part of the Mumbai culture.


5. Why do Mumbai workers not take their lunch boxes with them in the morning, when they leave for the office?


6. Those who use the dabbawala service are mostly middle-class office workers who live in one of Mumbai's suburbs.


7. They have to leave for the office early in the morning, riding on a packed train.


8. It would be difficult for them to carry their own dabba.


9. Also, they often have dietary restrictions, depending upon their religion.


10. Hindus do not eat beef, Muslims do not eat pork, and Jains do not eat onions and potatoes.


11. As a result, it is not easy for workers to find the right food in restaurants near their office.


12. To meet their dietary needs, Indian workers prefer their home-cooked meals, made especially for them.




✔︎ 영시한 6-4

1. Today approximately 5,000 dabbawalas cover 70 square kilometers in and around Mumbai.


2. They conduct about 400,000 transactions daily.


3. 200,000 lunch boxes are delivered to offices every morning, six days a week, and 200,000 are returned home every afternoon.


4. They even deliver in the pouring rain and during political strife.


5. Surprisingly, hardly any cases of late or mistaken delivery are ever reported.


6. Their motto is "error is horror.


7. "The dabbawalas are proud of their 99.99 percent accuracy rate, which means just one mistake in every six million deliveries.


8. It is an amazing record, considering that most of the dabbawalas are illiterate and that not a single piece of paper is used in the delivery process.


9. The secret to this error-free system is in a coding system.


10. Each dabba carries a code, painted with different colors, numbers, and symbols.


11. These codes tell the dabbawala where the food comes from and which railway stations it must pass through on its way to a specific office in a specific building, in Mumbai.




✔︎ 영시한 6-5

1. The dabbawala organization is an outstanding example of an efficient distribution system.


2. It is simple, relies on teamwork, has a low operating cost, and delivers almost 100 percent customer satisfaction.


3. It is not surprising, then, that business schools and large corporations around the world learn from the dabbawala system.


4. Today, most people cannot imagine an efficient delivery system operating without the benefit of technology.


5. Dabbawalas, however, demonstrate that with no form of technology, some of the old ways may still be the best ways.




✔︎ 영시한 6-6

1. SWITZERLAND Watchmaking School Switzerland is world-renowned for its high-quality watches.


2. Its first watchmaking school opened in the mid-1800s.


3. Now Switzerland has several watchmaking schools whose students take the traditional watchmaking course.


4. The class sizes are kept small to ensure that each student receives extensive individualized lessons from master watchmakers.


5. ITALY Central Institute of Restoration Italy is a country filled with valuable cultural assets.


6. Therefore, the restoration and protection of the nation' cultural heritage is guaranteed by the Italian Constitution.


7. The Central Institute of Restoration was founded in l939 to conserve and restore artworks and archaeological findings using scientific technology.


8. Each year the four-year course accepts about 20 students who are selected through exams that are held by the Ministry of Cultural Heritage.


9. BHUTAN Royal Textile Academy of Bhutan Bhutan is famous for its hand-woven textiles.


10. They are recognized for their abundance of color, different patterns, and weaving techniques.


11. With the aim to preserve and promote this living art, the Royal Textile Academy of Bhutan was created in 2005.


12. Its mission is to educate, promote and preserve Bhutanese textiles.




✔︎ 영시한 7-1

1. Gaudi Architect Inspired by Nature Most industrialized countries have produced a number of good architects.


2. Few countries, however, can claim to have produced a great architect.


3. One country that can make that claim without embarrassment is Spain.


4. There, at the summit of the nation's architectural genius, stands Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926).


5. Gaudi was born in Catalonia, Spain, in 1852.


6. As a child, he was fascinated by the natural wonders of the surrounding countryside.


7. Gaudi took an interest in architecture at a young age and studied architecture in Barcelona, the city that would become home to his greatest works.


8. Gaudi's designs were deeply influenced by forms in nature.


9. He understood that the natural world is full of curved lines, rather than straight lines.


10. As a result, most of his constructions use curved stones and animal- or plant-shaped designs.


11. Gaudi's work is also known for its use of bold colors.


12. He decorated many of his buildings with colorful tiles.


13. This combination of natural designs and bright colors creates a breathtaking visual experience.


14. Here are some of Gaudi's greatest works, all of which are found in the city of Barcelona.




✔︎ 영시한 7-2

1. Parc Güell is a public park and is one of Gaudi's most decorative works.


2. Gaudi completed this park in 1914.


3. It was built for Eusebi Güell, a rich businessman who admired Gaudi's style.


4. Parc Güell contains amazing stone structures, gorgeous tiles, and beautiful buildings.


5. At the entrance to the park are two buildings, both with curved roofs.


6. These buildings seem to be taken directly from "Hansel and Gretel.


7. "The park is also home to a famous dragon fountain, covered with beautiful colored tiles.


8. Known as "El Drac," which means "the dragon" in the language of Catalonia, this colorful fountain is a symbol of Parc Güell.


9. On a hill within the park are curved terraces and multicolored tile seats where visitors can enjoy wonderful views of Barcelona and the sea beyond.




✔︎ 영시한 7-3

1. Casa Batllo is a house renovated by Gaudi between 1904 and 1906.


2. Built in 1877, the original building was very different from what it is today.


3. When it was purchased by Joseph Batllo, he asked Gaudi to add his impressive touch to the design.


4. From the outside, Casa Batllo looks as if it has been made from skulls and bones.


5. The "skulls" are in fact balconies and the "bones" are supporting stone columns between the windows.


6. These details have given the house the nickname, the House of Bones.


7. Gaudi decorated the building with colors and shapes found in the sea.


8. Indeed, the design of the green and blue tiles on the wall remind people of the sea, while the curved window frames were inspired by ocean waves.


9. The interior of the house is even more impressive.


10. Everything is curved, including the walls, the ceilings, and the wooden doors.


11. Because of the curves, the Batllo family could not fit their traditional, straight furniture against the curved surfaces.


12. Thus, Gaudi had to design special furniture for the family.




✔︎ 영시한 7-4

1. Sagrada Familia is the most widely-known symbol of Barcelona and one of the world's largest churches.


2. Begun in 1882, it has been under construction for more than one hundred years.


3. It is expected that the church will be completed in 2026, on the 100th anniversary of Gaudi's death.


4. Despite its incomplete state, Sagrada Familia's incredible design draws an estimated 2.5 million tourists every year.


5. On the outside, the church will have 18 high towers.


6. When completed, the highest tower will reach a height of 170 meters.


7. The walls are decorated with sculptures that describe events in the Bible.


8. When you step inside the church, the large columns supporting the ceiling immediately catch your eye.


9. The columns branch out at the top so that each column looks like a huge tree.


10. Between the columns are skylights to let natural light in.


11. The colorful stained glass windows filter the sunlight and project red, blue, and green light all over the interior space.


12. The tree-like columns and the different light at different times of the day transform the inside of the church into a stone forest.




✔︎ 영시한 7-5

1. These are only three of Gaudi's many works in or near Barcelona.


2. All are recognized as important works of architecture, and seven have been named UNESCO World Heritage Sites.


3. These extraordinary works show how important Gaudi was to the development of modern architecture in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.


4. Even today his imaginative, creative, unique architecture characterizes the city of Barcelona.


5. No visitor to Barcelona would want to leave without seeing these works of Antoni Gaudi.




✔︎ 영시한 8-1

1. Robots May Rescue You from Future Disasters In 2011, an earthquake and its accompanying tsunami destroyed Japan's Fukushima nuclear power plant.


2. The resulting nuclear disaster released large amounts of radioactive material into the surrounding area.


3. Since it was impossible for humans to work in this environment, the Japanese government considered sending in robots to handle the situation.


4. The robots the Japanese were using, however, were not up to the task.


5. Eventually, humans had to do most of the extremely dangerous work.




✔︎ 영시한 8-2

1. Since then, there has been renewed emphasis on developing robots that can serve in dangerous situations.


2. In response to Japan's nuclear disaster, the 2015 DARPA Robotics Challenge was created to speed up the development of robots that could work in disaster-stricken areas.


3. The competition attracted 25 teams from around the world.


4. The winner was a Korean team from KAIST who developed a robot called HUBO.


5. During the competition, the robots had to solve a series of problems they might come upon in a disaster situation.


6. The tasks were: driving a vehicle, getting out of the vehicle, opening a door, locating and closing a leaking valve, using a drill to cut through a wall, pulling a plug out of a wall socket and then plugging it in, navigating rough terrain, and climbing stairs.


7. HUBO completed all eight tasks in the shortest time of all the competitors – 44 minutes and 28 seconds.


8. The key to HUBO's success was its ability to move from a standing position to a kneeling position.


9. HUBO had wheels attached to its knees and feet.


10. When kneeling, HUBO was able to use these wheels to move around quickly and decisively.




✔︎ 영시한 8-3

1. From the beginning, HUBO was better than the other robots at performing the tasks.


2. It was able to drive a vehicle fast and when it encountered a barrier, it was able to turn the vehicle smoothly to avoid it.


3. Next, it was able to get out of the car in less than four minutes and, once out of the vehicle, got on its knees and sped away.


4. As the series of eight tasks became progressively more difficult, HUBO's performance on the tasks reflected the growing difficulty.


5. On the fifth task, for which it had to use a drill to cut through a wall, HUBO failed on its first attempt.


6. Generally speaking, it was difficult for a robot to hold a drill in the right position and simultaneously press an on/off button.


7. On the second trial, however, HUBO successfully completed the task.


8. The task that took the longest time for HUBO was the sixth one, pulling a plug out of a wall socket and putting it back into another.


9. It takes a human less than 10 seconds to perform the task, but it took HUBO 13 minutes and 30 seconds.




✔︎ 영시한 8-4

1. For the final task, climbing stairs, it was important that the robot be able to see its feet.


2. Other robots had difficulty doing this because they had to bend their bodies forward to see over their knees to scan the stairs.


3. This awkward move caused them to lose their balance. 4. HUBO solved this problem in a clever way. 5. It climbed the stairs backward.


6. But how did it see the steps if it was moving backwards?


7. By rotating its upper body 180 degrees.


8. That way, the robot's knees did not block the camera's view of either the feet or the floor.


9. After scanning the stairs, the robot set off to climb to the top, completing the task effortlessly.




✔︎ 영시한 8-5

1. This amazing robot was not made in a day.


2. The KAIST team had already built four HUBOs and had been improving them for years.


3. They practiced outdoors, in good weather and bad, and on rough terrain.


4. They burned up motor after motor, but never gave up.


5. They approached each failure as a challenge to make a faster, stronger, and better robot.


6. The DARPA Robotics Challenge eventually ended, but it is only the beginning.


7. In the future, there will be other robots like HUBO.


8. They will be called upon to perform complicated tasks that will be too dangerous for humans.


9. Scientists expect that these robots will save lives and reduce the damage caused by future disasters.




✔︎ 영시한 SP1-1

1. How Volunteering Abroad Changed My Life by Susan Shain I was about to board a plane, and I was scared.


2. Not because I was afraid of flying, but because I was afraid of what awaited me at my destination.


3. "I could turn around now," I said to myself.


4. "I could just go back to my part-time job and have a nice quiet summer."


5. The year was 2005. 6. The plane's destination? 7. Tanzania.


8. I'd never traveled anywhere so different before, and I had no idea what to expect.


9. That scared me.


10. But I had never been one to turn away from adventure, so when the rest of my group started boarding, I did, too.


11. Little did I know that the next six weeks would change my life forever.




✔︎ 영시한 SP1-2

1. What Volunteering in Tanzania Was Like I traveled to Tanzania as part of a university program the summer after my freshman year.


2. We spent several weeks volunteering at a community center and an orphanage.


3. Though we did many other exciting things like going on safari and climbing Mt Kilimanjaro, it was our volunteering time that stuck with me.


4. Volunteering allowed me to truly connect with the people in Tanzania.


5. If I had not volunteered, I would never have got an inside look at their way of life.


6. By volunteering, I became part of the lives of local families — sharing meals, playing with their kids, and visiting their homes.


7. These experiences were eye-opening, educational, and inspiring:.


8. – eye-opening to see how few possessions they had, yet how much love and personal strength they had –.


9. educational to experience their culture:.


10. I learned to cook ugali, milk a cow, and wear a kanga –.


11. inspiring to witness their close family ties and endless positivity.


12. Volunteering abroad taught me so much about the world and about myself.


13. I grew more in those few weeks than I did my entire first year of college.




✔︎ 영시한 SP1-3

1. How Volunteering Abroad Changed Me These are what volunteering gave me:.


2. Gratitude for what I have When I returned home, I literally hugged my toilet, and I cried during my first hot shower.


3. I didn't have these things in Tanzania.


4. To this day, I sometimes say a silent "Thank you" as I turn on the tap to get a drink of water.


5. Volunteering gave me deep gratitude for the comforts and opportunities I used to take for granted.


6. Appreciation for new cultures The local people are welcoming, strong, and overwhelmingly positive.


7. Their language, clothing, and culture are beautiful.


8. Growing up in rural New York State, I had never before experienced people so different from me.


9. During my time in Tanzania, I learned to appreciate those differences.


10. Volunteering abroad taught me the beauty of diversity.



✔︎ 영시한 SP1-4

1. Hunger for exploration Though I was happy to return home, I was confident it would not be my last adventure.


2. I knew I wanted to continue exploring, meeting people from different backgrounds, trying new foods, and discovering unique landscapes.


3. It made me a travel addict.


4. Commitment to helping people I will be honest: Volunteering feels good.


5. Giving back to others and seeing the smiles on their faces is a feeling unmatched by anything else.


6. After experiencing this in Tanzania, I decided to help people wherever and whenever I could for them and for myself.


7. It is something I try to do every day.



✔︎ 영시한 SP1-5

1. It has now been 10 years since I traveled to Tanzania, and these principles still guide me.


2. I graduated from college in 2008, and ever since, I have been working and traveling around the world.


3. I have volunteered everywhere from Korea to France to Nicaragua to North Carolina.


4. I practice gratitude daily and am always trying to meet new people and learn about different ways of life.


5. Sometimes I wonder what my life would be like if I had not got on that plane to East Africa.


6. Would I have ever tasted ugali, danced with the Masai, or bathed an elephant?


7. Would I be the person I am today? 8. I will never know the answers to these questions.


9. But I do know I will be forever grateful I got on that plane.


10. Volunteering abroad led me to the life I have today — which I wouldn't change for anything.




✔︎ 영시한 SP1-6

1. < ADDITIONAL READING > The Secret to Happiness There is a Chinese saying that goes: "If you want happiness for an hour, take a nap If you want happiness for a day, go fishing If you want happiness for a year, inherit a fortune If you want happiness for the rest of your life, help somebody" For centuries, the greatest thinkers have suggested the same thing: Happiness is found in helping others And so we learn early: It is better to give than to receive But is there a deeper truth behind this statement?


2. The answer is yes Scientific research provides convincing data to support the evidence that giving is a powerful path to lasting happiness Researchers have found that the areas in our brains that feel pleasure become activated when we give —meaning that besides doing good, donating our money or time actually makes us feel good This feeling is similar to a "runner's high," a term created for that feel-good sensation that rushes through your body after a run They use the term "helper's high" to describe what happens to your body and your brain when you are kind to another person or give to them in some way Helping others may just be the secret to living a life that is not only happier but also healthier, wealthier, more productive, and meaningful.




✔︎ 영시한 SP1-7

1. < CULTURE > Volunteers around the World Mealshare Mealshare is a non-profit organization founded by two young men from Canada in 2013.


2. With "uy One, Give One"motto, Mealshare partners with restaurants, and places its symbol next to a few menu items.


3. When a customer orders a Mealshare item, the restaurant donates $1 to Mealshare.


4. With the collected money, meals for people in need are served.


5. Teens for Jeans Started by a non-profit organization, it is a campaign in which teenagers in the U.S. collect pairs of jeans and give them to local homeless youth.


6. Many schools and teenagers have donated over five million pairs of jeans since the campaign started in 2008.


7. COASTSWEEP It is an international clean-up campaign organized in the U.S.


8. Volunteers gather for the clean-up and are provided with cleaning tools such as plastic gloves and bags.


9. Volunteers record what they pick up and the data is used to find out the sources of trash, and to study how to reduce trash.




✔︎ 영시한 SP2-1

1. To Kill a Mockingbird In the early part of the novel To Kill a Mockingbird, the heroine and her brother are told by their father never to kill a mockingbird.


2. "I hope you shoot only tin cans in the garden, but I know you'll want to hunt birds," he says to his children, who are learning how to shoot a gun.


3. "Shoot as many bluejays as you want, but remember that it's a sin to kill a mockingbird.


4. "Puzzled, the heroine asks Miss Maudie, her kind and clever neighbor, why she should not kill a mockingbird.


5. Miss Maudie answers: "Your father's right.


6. All mockingbirds do is make music for us to enjoy.


7. They don't eat up people's gardens or steal their food.


8. They only sing their hearts out for us. 9. That's why it's a sin to kill a mockingbird."



✔︎ 영시한 SP2-2

1. In To Kill a Mockingbird, there are characters like mockingbirds, who are innocent and harmless.


2. However, they are often hurt and sometimes even killed by others.


3. Through their stories, the author Harper Lee shows how an unfair society harms innocent people and prevents others from helping them.


4. At the same time, she also shows how important it is to remain just, fair, and understanding in such a society.


5. Lee wrote To Kill a Mockingbird based on her own childhood experiences.


6. Just like the heroine of the novel, she grew up in Alabama and saw many African-American people treated cruelly and unfairly.


7. Her criticism against racism and her wish for a more fair and understanding world are well expressed in this book.


8. For this reason, To Kill a Mockingbird has long been a book loved not only by Americans but also by many people around the world.


9. It has been translated in 40 different languages, and more than 40 million copies have been sold.




✔︎ 영시한 SP2-3

1. To Kill a Mockingbird is the story of a young girl growing up in a southern town during the 1930s, when African-American people were facing severe discrimination.


2. The six-year-old heroine, Scout Finch, lives with her brother Jem and their father Atticus in Maycomb, a little town in Alabama where things do not change quickly.


3. Here, the same families have been doing the same things for generation after generation, and Atticus is a lawyer just like his father was.


4. Scout, Jem, and their friend Dill are fascinated by the haunted house in their neighborhood and the man who lives there, Arthur "Boo"Radley.


5. Boo is known as a "Monster" for stabbing his father in his leg when he was a boy, but no one actually witnessed the accident.


6. He has not been seen by anyone for many years, and the adults of Maycomb do not want to talk about him.


7. Curious about what he looks like and why he remains hidden, the children share rumors about him and try to get him to come out of his house.


8. While they are acting out the story of his life one day, Atticus stops them, telling them to see things from other people's points of view.




✔︎ 영시한 SP2-4

1. Despite the children's playful actions, Boo shows signs of affection for them.


2. He leaves small gifts in a tree outside the Radley home, fixes and returns Jem's lost pants, and puts a blanket on Scout's shoulders, while she is out in the cold weather looking at a neighbor's house that is on fire.


3. However, he never shows himself, so Scout grows more and more curious about him.


4. Meanwhile, Atticus agrees to defend an African-American man named Tom Robinson, who has been accused of attacking a young white woman, Mayella Ewell.


5. Most of the white people in Maycomb do not understand why Atticus would defend this African-American man.


6. They are angered by Atticus's effort to give Tom the best defense possible.


7. Jem and Scout are also bullied by other children because of this.




✔︎ 영시한 SP2-5

1. One day during the trial, Atticus provides clear evidence that Tom never attacked Mayella and that she and her father, Bob Ewell, are lying.


2. Nevertheless, the all-white jury decides that Tom is guilty.


3. Tom later tries to escape from prison and is shot to death, and Scout finds that most of her neighbors don't care about this.


4. Both Atticus and his children are shocked by the injustice of what has happened to Tom.


5. Despite the fact that Tom has been convicted and is now dead, Bob Ewell feels that he has been insulted and tries to take his revenge.


6. He threatens Tom's wife, tries to break into the judge's house, and finally attacks Jem and Scout as they walk home from a Halloween party.


7. However, a strange man comes to rescue them. 8. Scout realizes that this man is Boo Radley.


9. She and the wounded Jem are brought back to their house by Boo.




✔︎ 영시한 SP2-6

1. When the sheriff arrives, he discovers that Ewell was stabbed to death during the fight.


2. However, he does not charge anyone with murder.


3. He knows that any further investigation will harm Boo, and he doesn't want to do that because he knows that Boo has risked himself to save the children.


4. After the sheriff leaves and Jem is safely put to bed, Scout and Boo walk arm-in-arm back to Boo's house.


5. When Boo disappears into the house, never to be seen again, Scout thinks about all the things he has done for her and Jem and regrets that they have never given him anything in return.


6. Standing on the porch of the Radley house, she sees the village as Boo has always seen it.


7. She imagines seeing herself and her brother from Boo's perspective and finally understands what her father meant when he told her to put herself in other people's places.




✔︎ 영시한 SP2-7

1. "Atticus was right," she thinks.


2. "One time he said you never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them.


3. Just standing there on the Radley porch was enough.


4. "The various events that she experienced taught Scout how unjust and ugly the adult world was.


5. However, they also taught her the importance of sympathy, understanding, and a sense of justice.



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