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20ss2 | Since 2005 임희재 | 블루티쳐학원 | 01033383436 | 200710 22:53:52

 

순서배열

 

1. 20영독 1-1

 

It will never be possible to establish the origins of human music with any certainty; however, it seems probable that music developed from the prosodic exchanges between mother and infant which foster the bond between them.


(A) It has continued to be used as an accompaniment to collective activities; as an adjunct to social ceremonies and public occasions. 2

(B) Today, we are so accustomed to considering the response of the individual to music that we are liable to forget that, for most of its history, music has been predominantly a group activity. Music began by serving communal purposes, of which religious ritual and warfare are two examples.1

(C) From this, it became a form of communication between adult human beings. As the capacity for speech and conceptual thought developed, music became less important as a way of conveying information, but retained its significance as a way of communicating feelings and cementing bonds between individuals, especially in group situations. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


2. 20영독 1-2

 

As much as we want to believe that students learn everything we try to teach, we must admit that we aren't perfect as teachers.


(A) But for teachers who are able to accept their potential fallibility, the disappointment about the results translates into clearly identified areas for improvement. As odd as this may sound, when you suspect that you have the potential to enhance your teaching, assessment results can help clear up any confusion about where you might begin to make changes. 2

(B) In fact, recognizing our fallibility is said to be one characteristic that separates great teachers of diverse students from those teachers who are just adequate. Recognizing that you can make mistakes as a teacher and constantly strive to recover from those failings is significant. 0

(C) If you use preconcept and postconcept mapping exercises with your students and you discover that some of the gaps appearing at the beginning persisted until the end, then you have a couple of ways of responding. One thought that too many teachers invoke is that the kids were lazy and didn't care. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


3. 20영독 1-3

 

Vocabulary knowledge extends beyond the local meaning of a sentence or paragraph; it provides insight into how the text works more broadly.


(A) Their, not the. One word subtly shifts the meaning to acknowledge the existence of more than one belief system. Seemingly small word choices can profoundly affect the analysis and interpretation of a reading. 2

(B) The craft and structure of a text is understood in part by being mindful of the choices the writer makes in word selection. Students are challenged to view the text as a whole in order to understand the perspectives of the writer, as in a historical document, or the concepts related in a scientific article or technical reading. 0

(C) Writers establish mood and tone by the artful selection of words and phrases and link them to rhetorical purposes, especially in history. For instance, consider the use of the word their in the first sentence of the Declaration of Independence: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed, by their Creator with certain inalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness." 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


4. 20영독 1-4

 

Ethics itself is not primarily concerned with the description of the moral systems of different societies.


(A) Words such as good and bad just mean, it is claimed, "approved in my society" or "disapproved in my society," and so to search for an objective, or rationally justifiable, ethics is to search for what is, in fact, an illusion. 2

(B) That task, which remains on the level of description, is one for anthropology or sociology. In contrast, ethics deals with the justification of moral principles (or with the impossibility of such a justification). 0

(C) Nevertheless, ethics must take note of the variations in moral systems, because it has often been claimed that this variety shows that morality is simply a matter of what is customary and that it thus is always relative to particular societies. According to this view, no moral principle can be valid except in the societies in which it is held. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


5. 20영독 1-5

 

The destructiveness of idealized social media presentation is twofold.


(A) In one study, some college students had to pretend to understand made-up words (e.g., besionary) to complete a test, while others did not. Afterward, both groups were praised for their performance. 1

(B) The praise raised the self-esteem of those who did not have to fake understanding of nonwords, but lowered the self-esteem of the students who pretended to understand them. In other words, when people portray their life as better than it actually is on social media, all of the "likes" they get for their status updates and pictures may actually make them feel worse about themselves. 2

(C) When people read the glowing status updates of others, they are likely to feel worse about their own flawed lives, especially if they are the type of people who tend to judge their self-worth in comparison to others. In addition, when people put forth a version of themselves that is not genuine, they can actually feel bad about themselves. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


6. 20영독 1-6

 

A quality of the human brain is known as induction, how something positive generates a contrasting negative image in our mind.


(A) This is most obvious in our visual system. When we see some color — red or black, for instance — it tends to intensify our perception of the opposite color around us, in this case, green or white. As we look at the red object, we often can see a green halo forming around it. In general, the mind operates by contrasts. 0

(B) Every no sparks a corresponding yes. We cannot control this vacillation in the mind between contrasts. This predisposes us to think about and then desire exactly what we do not have. 2

(C) We are able to formulate concepts about something by becoming aware of its opposite. The brain is continually dredging up these contrasts. What this means is that whenever we see or imagine something, our minds cannot help but see or imagine the opposite. If we are forbidden by our culture to think a particular thought or entertain a particular desire, that taboo instantly brings to mind the very thing we are forbidden. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


7. 20영독 1-7

 

The bottlenose dolphin is second only to humans in the ratio of brain size to body size, and dolphins apparently outdo humans in some cooperative games.


(A) Dolphins face similar dilemmas. When eating from a school of fish, dolphins encircle the fish and take turns eating, one dolphin at a time. There is an incentive for the circling dolphins to cheat by eating while on duty. 1

(B) However, if a significant number of dolphins followed that incentive, the fish would disperse and the benefits from coordination would be lost. In reality, the trustworthiness of on-duty dolphins prevails to benefit all of dolphin society. 2

(C) The discussions of cartels and the prisoner's dilemma convey the value and difficulty of cooperation among players when there is an incentive to cheat. Individual cartel members undermine cooperative strategies by selling more than they should, hoping nobody will notice. Firms that can't cooperate on pricing or environmental strategies end up taking actions with inferior outcomes. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


8. 20영독 1-8

 

As my colleague Richard Gregory has argued, illusions like the missing-square pattern reveal that the mind is not lazy.


(A) You can't stop yourself because your mind has evolved to organize and see structure. The ease with which we see faces in particular has led to the idea that we are inclined to see supernatural characters at the drop of a hat. Each year some bagel, muffin, burnt toast, potato chip, or even ultrasound of a fetus showing the face of some deity is paraded as evidence for divine miracles. 2

(B) Some beans would instantly cluster together into groups as you simply looked at the array. Have you ever watched the clouds on a summer's day turn into faces and animals? 1

(C) Our minds are actively trying to make sense of the world by thinking of the best explanation. For example, if someone took a handful of coffee beans and scattered them across a table in front of you, you would immediately see patterns. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


9. 20영독 1-9

 

As the ancient skeptics taught, contentment is possible without the need to cling to comforting beliefs.


(A) As proof, we have the example of David Hume, who lived an entirely admirable life without any belief in the supernatural. His personal example shows that nobody need feel gloomy because life has no ultimate purpose, or because conventional conceptions of moral responsibility are built on foundations of sand. 0

(B) In discarding the metaphysical baggage with which the human race bolstered its youthful sense of self-importance, Hume taught us that we throw away nothing but a set of intellectual chains. 2

(C) So what if our fine feelings and intellectual achievements are just the stretching and turning of so many springs or wheels, or our value systems are mirrored by those of chimpanzees and baboons. Our feelings are no less fine, and our values no less precious because the stories we have traditionally told ourselves about why we hold them turn out to be fables. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


10. 20영독 1-10

 

The history of science and human invention is full of examples of important advances resulting from synthesizing previously fragmented ideas.


(A) When he spoke to the membrane, the other end of the stick would trace a record of his voice sounds on a piece of smoked glass. In 1874 a Scotsman from Canada, working in Cambridge, Massachusetts, put these scattered and diverse elements into one instrument. The instrument was the telephone and the man was Alexander Graham Bell. 2

(B) One such process began in 1820 when a Dane, H. C. Oersted, discovered that a wire carrying an electric current was surrounded by a magnetic field. In 1825 an Englishman, W. Sturgeon, wound a live wire around an iron bar and created an electromagnet. 0

(C) In 1859 a German pianist and scientist, H. von Helmholtz, discovered he could make piano strings vibrate by singing to them. Later a Frenchman, L. Scott, attached a thin stick to a membrane. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


11. 20영독 1-11

 

There have been vigorous arguments among biologists about whether complicated goal-directed behaviour among higher mammals is reliable evidence for their consciousness.


(A) At the other end of the animal kingdom octopuses and squid have entirely different brain anatomies from ourselves and our common ancestor probably had no brains at all. Nevertheless they are capable of learning and memorizing facts for months. If they are to be included in the realm of conscious beings, this indicates that consciousness does not depend upon a particular type of brain anatomy. 2

(B) Indeed the admission of consciousness into animal research is quite a recent phenomenon. Injury-avoidance behaviour is often based on reflexes, and it is not completely obvious that the inner sensation of pain must be attached to it. 0

(C) Even in our own case pain is often felt only after the limb has been moved away. Again, many birds build sophisticated nests entirely instinctively, and may or may not be conscious of what they are doing. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


12. 20영독 1-12

 

The cultural area is where the sky is truly the limit in regard to music.


(A) There are countless examples. Music is a wonderful avenue to introduce cultures from around the world. 0

(B) It is important to include an equitable balance of multicultural materials in the classroom to ensure that each child's heritage is represented and all children are exposed to the heritage of other cultures. Today the holistic classroom method draws and builds upon what the child already knows, engaging the child ― since one learns best when passion and interaction are at play ― and also addressing the needs of the whole child. Learning begins with the "whole," progresses through to analysis of the parts, and finishes full circle with the "whole" picture. 2

(C) The many recordings depicting the traditional music of each culture are readily available for teachers to add to their collection. Also, musical recordings of the various instruments from countries around the world provide children with an auditory and visual representation of culture. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


13. 20영독 2-1

 

Your comfort zone is like an invisible barrier around you, inside which if you stay, you feel comfortable.


(A) If you step outside your comfort zone, and do something you are fearful or nervous about doing, then your comfort zone expands and your confidence increases. Try something new to expand your comfort zone and increase your confidence. Trying something new reduces your limitations and you'll live your life with fewer barriers. 2

(B) However, your comfort zone is not fixed. If you constantly stay within your comfort zone it shrinks, filling you with fear of what is outside it, and then your confidence reduces. 1

(C) Your comfort zone and your confidence are linked together. Step outside it and you feel uncomfortable and fearful. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


14. 20영독 2-2

 

Given our unique life-scripted beliefs about how things should be: our expectations ― differences in preferences, attitudes, and beliefs are inevitable, and not all of them need to be resolved.


(A) Many, in fact, add the spice to relationships. But sometimes you cannot just agree to disagree. Some issues impact each of you and perhaps others (your children or coworkers) in ways that require a clear, unambiguous resolution. 0

(B) For example, you can't practically visit your mother in Florida and your father in Connecticut on Thanksgiving Day. So coping with conflicts as we traverse the ups and downs of daily life is not just a useful tool; it is absolutely necessary for the kinds of successful relationships and outcomes we most desire. 2

(C) You and your partner may need to decide where you will live and whether to rent or purchase a home. A decision must be made, or you may find yourselves living in the backseat of your car. Often you can't have things both ways, so a choice must be made. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


15. 20영독 2-3

 

The personal computer has done more to alter work methods and procedures than any other innovation of the past several decades.


(A) Unfortunately, the computers ― and tablets and smart phones and other electronic devices ― have also opened wide a door to a variety of time-wasting personal uses including games and nonbusiness e-mail (personal correspondence, jokes, inspirational messages, anecdotes, etc.). 1

(B) Computers have replaced typewriters and other office machines almost completely, and they have dramatically changed the way many jobs are performed. 0

(C) It is not unreasonable to conclude that much of the efficiency gained through the use of such devices is cancelled out by their misuse. The personal computer may well be the most useful and versatile tool ever to come into common organizational use, but by many who spend hours at keyboard and screen the computer is treated more as a toy than a tool. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


16. 20영독 2-4

 

In the circumstances of entertainment and aesthetic engagement, overt manifestations of the perception-action cycle are often blocked or transformed.


(A) The interruption or suspension of the perception-action cycle that characterizes some forms of aesthetic engagement is, of course, culturally specific; it is at its most extreme in some of the "high" art forms of the West and in circumstances in which formal ceremony and aesthetics interact. 2

(B) Watching films and television, looking at paintings or sculptures in a gallery, and listening to music in a concert hall deliberately place perceivers in a relationship with the objects of perception that prevents them from acting upon or exploring those objects in an unhindered fashion. 0

(C) Many of the reactions that people have to these special circumstances (reaching out to touch a sculpture; foot- and finger-tapping in response to music) are a residue of the more usual relationship between perception and action, as are the specific conventions that regulate these reactions ("Please do not touch" signs at exhibitions, socially enforced silence and immobility at concerts, applause at regulated moments). 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


17. 20영독 2-5

 

People from more individualistic cultural contexts tend to be motivated to maintain self-focused agency or control as these serve as the basis of one's self-worth.


(A) However, people from more interdependent cultural contexts tend to be less focused on issues of individual success and agency and more motivated towards group goals and harmony. Research has shown that East Asians prefer to receive, but not seek, more social support rather than seek personal control in certain cases. 1

(B) With this form of agency comes the belief that individual successes depend primarily on one's own abilities and actions, and thus, whether by influencing the environment or trying to accept one's circumstances, the use of control ultimately centers on the individual. The independent self may be more driven to cope by appealing to a sense of agency or control. 0

(C) Therefore, people who hold a more interdependent self-construal may prefer to cope in a way that promotes harmony in relationships. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


18. 20영독 2-6

 

Severe depression is not something people can pull themselves out of any more than they can pull themselves out of congestive heart failure, kidney disease, or gallstones.


(A) In my experience, once older adults understand that depression is a disease of the brain, and not something they have control over, they become more open to considering treatment. It's not that they can't handle their problems any longer; rather, their brain has let them down. I often say to my patients, "It's not you; it's your brain." 2

(B) When patients with congestive heart failure develop difficulty breathing, they are usually grateful for treatment that relieves their distress. They rarely believe they can handle such illnesses themselves because they have no sense of being in control over the workings of their heart. 0

(C) We also do not sense our brains at work, but we feel in control of our minds. This sense of being in control of our minds allows those with depression to believe they can pull themselves out of the severe depression. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


19. 20영독 2-7

 

In the process of selling your property, you may hear the phrase "real property" and "personal property."


(A) If a refrigerator is somehow permanently attached to the home (such as a built-in model), it is real property and stays. When selling a property, it is assumed that you are selling all real property. Ripping things like banisters, fireplaces, etc. 1

(B) Real property is fixed and attached; personal property is usually mobile and unattached. Where this is likely to come up is in regard to items within your property. Most refrigerators that can roll out, be unplugged, and taken with you, are considered personal property. 0

(C) off their moorings and taking them with you is not only boorish behavior, it would most likely be a violation of your sales contract. Even if it is possible to remove them, the buyer is assuming all real property to be his. Granted, anything is negotiable, but if I was a buyer and I allowed you to do such a thing at all (which I most likely wouldn't), I would demand significant financial consideration off the previously negotiated sales price, so much so that you would most likely say, "Forget it." As the buyer, I don't need you trashing the property as you leave. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


20. 20영독 2-8

 

Much prosocial behavior is stimulated by others, such as when someone acts more properly because other people are watching.


(A) Participants in a study by Kay L. Satow sat alone in a room and followed tape-recorded instructions. Half believed that they were being observed via a one-way mirror (public condition), whereas others believed that no one was watching (private condition). At the end of the study, the tape-recorded instructions invited the participant to make a donation by leaving some change in the jar on the table. 1

(B) Dogs will stay off the furniture and out of the trash when their owners are present, but they casually break those rules when alone. Humans may have more of a conscience, but they also still respond to the presence or absence of others. Public circumstances generally promote prosocial behavior. 0

(C) The results showed that donations were seven times higher in the public condition than in the private condition. Apparently, one important reason for generous helping is to make (or sustain) a good impression on the people who are watching. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


21. 20영독 2-9

 

Say you're driving down the interstate at sixty-five miles an hour with three friends from out of town, and you suddenly say to them, "Hey, there's that amazing Pink House!"


(A) What happens? Probably there's a lot of sudden head swiveling, and someone's elbow ends up in someone else's ribs, and maybe one of your friends gets a glimpse, but probably nobody really gets a chance to see it (and somebody might not believe you if she didn't see it for herself!). 0

(B) Writers need to advise their readers in a similar way. That advice doesn't always need to be in a thesis statement or a topic sentence, but it does need to happen regularly so that readers don't miss something crucial. 2

(C) What if you had said instead, "Hey, coming up on the right here in about two miles, there's an amazing huge neon Pink House: watch for it"? They'd be ready, they'd know where to look and what to look for, and they'd see what you wanted them to see. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


22. 20영독 2-10

 

So far as diet is concerned, I belong to no school; I have learned something from each one, and what I have learned from a trial of them all is to be shy of extreme statements and of hard and fast rules.


(A) We cannot live without asserting our right to subject the lower forms of life to our purposes; we kill innumerable germs when we swallow a glass of grape juice, or for that matter a glass of plain water. 1

(B) I shall be much surprised if the advance of science does not some day prove to us that there are basic forms of consciousness in all vegetable life; so we shall justify the argument of Mr. Dooley, who said, in reviewing "The Jungle," that he could not see how it was any less a crime to cut off a young tomato in its prime or to murder a whole cradleful of baby peas in the pod! 2

(C) To my vegetarian friends who argue that it is morally wrong to take sentient life, I answer that they cannot go for a walk in the country without committing that offense, for they walk on innumerable bugs and worms. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


23. 20영독 2-11

 

Indeed, one of the most problematic aspects of global warming from the point of view of social policy stems from the fact that the phenomenon has so far manifested itself very unevenly around the world.


(A) Some places have had little warming in the past century, and some have even experienced cooling. "For extensive regions of the Earth, the warming of the past 80 years has deviated strongly from the global average," notes climate expert Ken Hare. 0

(B) "If you're considering political action, you have to remember that you're asking a considerable number of people in the world to take on faith that this is a truly global effect," he said. 2

(C) "This fact raises major difficulties for political action: in many countries, future temperatures will differ strongly from the global norm and global warming will seem like a fiction to local politicians." He points out, for example, that the lack of a strong warming trend in the United States accounted in part for the reluctance of the U.S. government to support the 1992 international convention on climate change. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


24. 20영독 2-12

 

In the fifth century BCE, the Greek philosopher Protagoras pronounced, "Man is the measure of all things."


(A) Such an assumption makes us overlook a lot. Abilities said to "make us human" 一 empathy, communication, grief, toolmaking, and so on — all exist to varying degrees among other minds sharing the world with us. 1

(B) In other words, we feel entitled to ask the world, "What good are you?" We assume that we are the world's standard, that all things should be compared to us. 0

(C) Animals with backbones (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) all share the same basic skeleton, organs, nervous systems, hormones, and behaviors. Just as different models of automobiles each have an engine, drive train, four wheels, doors, and seats, we differ mainly in terms of our outside contours and a few internal tweaks. But like naive car buyers, most people see only animals' varied exteriors. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


25. 20영독 3-1

 

If you find it difficult to stay wise-minded when your teen is rude, it's no surprise.


(A) Teens want to discharge the garbage of their day onto someone who will take it and love them anyway, sticking with them through thick and thin. If it becomes evident that everything you say is "wrong" (even though you know you're right), you can stop the merry-go-round whenever you like by simply withdrawing. Don't walk out with an angry refrain like "Well, I was just trying to be nice, and look at how you treat me!" 1

(B) Instead, say something humble (and accurate), such as, "I can see that you aren't in the mood for chatting. Oh, well, maybe later." Unless their nastiness is persistent, assume that the interaction is more about an opportunity for dumping the garbage than a reflection of your overall relationship. 2

(C) The deck is stacked against you because of several inescapable facts of normal teenage behavior. For one thing, teens often try to pick a fight. That's because, in the chaos and uncertainty of adolescence, parents are a secure base ― sort of like the eye of a storm. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


26. 20영독 3-2

 

If I say to you, 'Don't think of a white bear', you will find it difficult not to think of a white bear.


(A) This dual-process system involves, first, an intentional operating process, which consciously attempts. to locate thoughts unrelated to the suppressed ones. Second, and simultaneously, an unconscious monitoring process tests whether the operating system is functioning effectively. 1

(B) If the monitoring system encounters thoughts inconsistent with the intended ones, it prompts the intentional operating process to ensure that these are replaced by appropriate thoughts. However, it is argued, the intentional operating system can fail due to increased cognitive load caused by fatigue, stress and emotional factors, and so the monitoring process filters the inappropriate thoughts into consciousness, making them highly accessible. 2

(C) In this way, thought suppression can actually increase the thoughts one wishes to suppress instead of calming them. One common example of this is that people on a diet who try not to think about food often begin to think much more about food. This ironic effect seems to be caused by the interplay of two related cognitive processes. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


27. 20영독 3-3

 

A trait can be said to be adaptive if it is maintained in a population by selection.


(A) We can put the matter more precisely by saying that another trait is nonadaptive, or "abnormal," if it reduces the fitness of individuals that consistently manifest it under environmental circumstances that are usual for the species. In other words, deviant responses in abnormal environments may not be nonadaptive 一 they may simply reflect flexibility in a response that is quite adaptive in the environments ordinarily encountered by the species. 0

(B) In Americans of African descent, it is nonadaptive, for the simple reason that its bearers are no longer confronted by malaria. 2

(C) A trait can be switched from an adaptive to a nonadaptive status by a simple change in the environment. For example, the sickle-cell trait of human beings, determined by the heterozygous state of a single gene, is adaptive under living conditions in Africa, where it confers some degree of resistance to falciparum malaria. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


28. 20영독 3-4

 

The philosopher Nelson Goodman argued that we should replace the question "What is art?"


(A) We could get the same information from a set of numbers. But if this same line is part of a drawing (say, the outline of a mountain), all of the line's physical properties are suddenly important and part of what the artist wants us to attend to — its color, texture, edges, thickness, among other things. And we cannot translate this experience into a set of numbers. 2

(B) For example, an object functioning as art is relatively replete (full), meaning that more of its physical properties are part of its meaning and should be attended to than when that same object is not functioning as a work of art. Goodman asks us to consider a zigzag line. Told that the line is a stock market graph, all we attend to are the peaks and dips. 1

(C) with the question "When is 띠t?" The same object can function as a work of art or not, depending on how the object is viewed. When an object functions as art, it exhibits certain "symptoms" of the aesthetic. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


29. 20영독 3-5

 

Because of the perceptual frames users of computer software and websites have, they often click buttons or links without looking carefully at them.


(A) Even after unintentionally going backward a few times, they might continue to perceive the buttons in their standard locations. This is why consistent placement of controls is a common user-interface guideline, to ensure that reality matches the user's frame for the situation. 2

(B) For example, if the positions of the "Next" and "Back" buttons on the last page of a multistep dialog box switched, many people would not immediately notice the switch. Their visual system would have been lulled into inattention by the consistent placement of the buttons on the prior several pages. 1

(C) Their perception of the display is based more on what their frame for the situation leads them to expect than on what is actually on the screen. This sometimes confounds software designers, who expect users to see what is on the screen — but that isn't how human vision works. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


30. 20영독 3-6

 

In 1979, Christopher Connolly cofounded a psychology consultancy in the United Kingdom to help high achievers perform at their best.


(A) They employed what Hogarth called a "circuit breaker." They drew on outside experiences and analogies to interrupt their inclination toward a previous solution that may no longer work. Their skill was in avoiding the same old patterns. 2

(B) They "traveled on an eight-lane highway," he wrote, rather than down a single-lane one-way street. They had range. The successful adapters were excellent at taking knowledge from one pursuit and applying it creatively to another, and at avoiding cognitive entrenchment. 1

(C) Over the years, Connolly became curious about why some professionals floundered outside a narrow expertise, while others were remarkably adept at expanding their careers ― moving from playing in a world-class orchestra, for example, to running one. Thirty years after he started, Connolly returned to school to do a PhD investigating that very question. Connolly's primary finding was that early in their careers, those who later made successful transitions had broader training and kept multiple "career streams" open even as they pursued a primary specialty. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


31. 20영독 3-7

 

In a recent discussion of human rights in social work and human services practices, a researcher argues that the risk of strongly held primary values is that they can easily become an inflexible form of universalism, in which a single view of what it is to be human can become imposed by those with power (whether political, economic, professional, academic or cultural).


(A) This requires that practitioners rethink their understanding of community, in which there is a balance between what unites people and the many differences between them. 2

(B) The answer, for the researcher, is to seek a 'shared humanity', in which all members of a community are able to play active roles in the construction of what humanity means, and allows for these definitions to differ and to overlap without having to be identical. 1

(C) This can lead to an ironic situation in which human rights become associated with totalitarian ways of imposing particular ideals, through asserting that what it is to be human has to take one particular form. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


32. 20영독 3-8

 

When biologists consider complex human activities such as the arts, they tend to assume that their compelling qualities are derivations of basic drives.


(A) If any given activity can be seen to aid survival or facilitate adaptation to the environment, or to be derived from behaviour which does so, it 'makes sense' in biological terms. For example, the art of painting may originate from the human need to comprehend the external world through vision; an achievement which makes it possible to act upon the environment or influence it in ways which promote survival. 0

(B) It enables the draughtsman to study an object in its absence, to experiment with various images of it, and thus, at least in fantasy, to exert power over it. 2

(C) The Paleolithic artists who drew and painted animals on the walls of their caves were using their artistic skills for practical reasons. Drawing is a form of abstraction which may be compared with the formation of verbal concepts. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


33. 20영독 3-9

 

Self-awareness, or reflective thought, is the main attribute distinguishing humans from animals.


(A) In consequence, it is denied access to a whole domain of reality in which mankind can move freely. Systems of physics, philosophy, mathematics, and astronomy, for example, have all been constructed because of man's unique ability to reflect inwardly. 2

(B) It is the consciousness that enables us to contemplate ourselves. Reflection is the power to turn one's consciousness upon oneself, to know oneself and, especially, to know that one knows. 0

(C) Humans are the only creation in the universe who can be the object of their own reflection and, because of that, another world is born: an inner world, a reality in which no lower animal can ever participate. Incapable of contemplating itself, or of being aware of itself as the conscious subject, not even a higher type of animal, such as a dog or cat that knows who its master is and where its food is, can know that it knows. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


34. 20영독 3-10

 

I understand it is not likely you are going to tell an interviewer about all of your job search activities or provide a status report, no, clearly it's none of their business.


(A) There is no need to, and I suggest you should not, share the name or details of the other company; just making them aware of your status is enough. I would, however, caution you that if it isn't true, don't fake it. 2

(B) However, there is nothing wrong with being honest to a limited degree, if you are reaching a critical stage with another company with whom you are also interviewing. Reasonably speaking, most of us are pursuing more than one job at a time. 0

(C) It's not a mistake to say to a hiring official, "I appreciate the opportunity for this interview, I am interested in this job and your company, but I think it is fair to tell you I am also talking to some other companies, and one of them has invited me to a final interview." Yes, this can be considered a take-away close, but it is simply the truth. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


35. 20영독 3-11

 

The fact that emotions are unlearned, automated, and set by the genome always raises the specter of genetic determinism.


(A) There are things that you fear that I do not, and vice versa; things you love and I do not, and vice versa; and many, many things that we both fear and love. In other words, emotional responses are considerably customized relative to the causative stimulus. In this regard, we are quite alike but not entirely. 2

(B) Is there nothing personal and educable about one's emotions? The answer is that there is plenty. 0

(C) The essential mechanism of the emotions in a normal brain is indeed quite similar across individuals, and a good thing too because it provides humanity, in diverse cultures, with a common ground of fundamental preferences on the matters of pain and pleasure. But while the mechanisms are distinctly similar, the circumstances in which certain stimuli have become emotionally competent for you are unlikely to be the same as for me. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


36. 20영독 3-12

 

One of the most widespread, sadly mistaken, environmental myths is that living "close to nature" out in the country or in a leafy suburb is the best "green" lifestyle.


(A) The pattern of life in the country and most suburbs involves long hours in the automobile each week, burning fuel and spewing exhaust to get to work, buy groceries, and take kids to school and activities. City dwellers, on the other hand, have the option of walking or taking transit to work, shops, and school. 1

(B) The larger yards and houses found outside cities also extract an environmental toll in terms of energy use, water use, and land use. It's clear that the future of the Earth depends on more people gathering together in compact communities. 2

(C) Cities, on the other hand, are often blamed as a major cause of ecological destruction — artificial, crowded places that suck up precious resources. Yet, when you look at the facts, nothing could be farther from the truth. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


37. 20영독 4-1

 

Opera is conventional.


(A) We understand how each genre works, and we know that not every murder has six suspects who can be gathered in one room in the last chapter by a brilliant detective. Yet we gladly accept the unreality of the situation because of the pleasure it provides us. 2

(B) We like conventions, provided that we understand, accept, and desire them. Conventions are simply the result of participants ' agreeing on the rules, of simplifying a complex world so that we can concentrate on what interests us. We are accustomed, for example, to detective novels, television situation comedies, and western movies. 1

(C) Nobody sings all the time in the real world. Nobody has an orchestra that begins to play whenever he feels emotional. Conventions are of course necessary in the theater, and even more so in opera. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


38. 20영독 4-2

 

One great danger of intellectual property lies in the threat to liberty.


(A) But we all have an interest in seeing public research programmes into diseases and health being carried out. We want, for example, public researchers to continue working on the genes for breast and ovarian cancer and helping to develop cheaper, more effective clinical tests. 1

(B) When a group of scientists stop working on a protein molecule because there are too many intellectual property rights that surround the use of the molecule, a basic freedom, the freedom to research, has been interfered with. The liberty cost of intellectual property rights may seem remote because most of us do not carry out research on proteins. 0

(C) We do not want them obstructed by announcements like the following: 'This important patent solidifies Myriad's dominant proprietary position on the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes' (the genes linked to breast and ovarian cancer). Companies are entitled to protect their treatments for disease but not, through use of their patents, to prevent others from access to genes which are linked to the origins of disease. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


39. 20영독 4-3

 

Too much choice is overwhelming for many people and results in consumers who are less satisfied with the shopping experience, which ultimately hurts retail profitability.


(A) Consider, for example, a consumer who wants a product to relieve her cold symptoms. First, she has to decide where to shop for such a product. 0

(B) Even within a particular brand, she can choose products that vary in when they should be taken, how they can be taken, and what symptoms they treat. Ironically, all this is enough to make a healthy person ill. 2

(C) Over-the-counter pharmaceuticals are now commonly available in a variety of locations ranging from hotel gift shops and convenience stores to drug and grocery stores. Once she has chosen a store and is standing in front of the shelf, the consumer faces a dizzying array of products from a variety of brands with a broad spectrum of ingredients. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


40. 20영독 4-4

 

In today's business environment, firms may face competition from companies located in their own home market as well as from those based halfway around the world.


(A) It should be noted that whether or not a firm elects_ to operate internationally, it is still vulnerable to changes taking place in the global marketplace. 2

(B) One need look no further than the sovereign debt crisis in Europe that began to unfold in 2009 or the sub-prime mortgage crisis in the USA, to appreciate the impact of such events on economic growth, consumer spending and prosperity. Economic and political events taking place around the world may have a profound effect on a company's prospects for survival and growth. 1

(C) Also, customer trends which take root in one country may quickly spread to other parts of the world, creating either new marketing opportunities or potential threats to a firm's established products and business models. In addition, political and economic crises in one region may have important implications for consumer and business confidence around the world. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


41. 20영독 4-5

 

Clarity is often a difficult thing for a leader to obtain.


(A) And the merits of a leader's most important decisions, by their nature, typically are not clear-cut. Instead, those decisions involve "a process of assigning weights to competing interests, and then determining, based upon some criterion, which one predominates. The result is one of judgment, of shades of gray; like saying that Beethoven is a better composer than Brahms." 2

(B) Concerns of the present tend to loom larger than potentially greater concerns that lie farther away. Some decisions by their nature present great complexity, whose many variables must align a certain way for the leader to succeed. 0

(C) Compounding the difficulty is what ergonomists call information overload, where a leader is overrun with inputs — via e-mails, meetings, and phone calls — that only distract and clutter his thinking. Alternatively, the leader's information might be only fragmentary, which might cause her to fill in the gaps with assumptions — sometimes without recognizing them as such. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


42. 20영독 4-6

 

Many women find their inner critic speaks up most loudly around their most deeply felt dreams for their lives and work, because they feel particularly vulnerable about them.


(A) As long as you don't venture forth out of that zone, the inner critic can leave you alone ― like a guard taking a nap. Yet when you approach the edge of your comfort zone, test old beliefs, contemplate change, or stretch into playing bigger, you wake the sleeping guard. 1

(B) They experience the most panicky, overwhelming self-doubt when they are moving toward what they truly long to do. The inner critic is like a guard at the edge of your comfort zone. 0

(C) The inner critic recites its lines in an attempt to get you to go back into the familiar zone of the status quo. Many women find that the more strongly the inner critic shows up, the louder and meaner and more hysterical its voice, the closer they are to a breakthrough or the more likely they are to be on the edge of taking a very important step. In this sense, when you hear a major inner critic attack, it likely means you are playing bigger. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


43. 20영독 4-7

 

Researchers of the Earth's system have been focused, appropriately, on developing a better understanding of the vast and interconnected processes that create our environment, and they have made a great deal of progress since the publication of A Sand County Almanac, a 1949 non-fiction book by Aldo Leopold.


(A) Although there are many problems left to solve, knowledge about planetary life-support systems has progressed far more rapidly than society's willingness to use this knowledge. The biggest challenge facing humanity is that our political, social, and economic systems are shortsighted. 0

(B) This is what "thinking like a mountain" should come to mean in the Anthropocene. If we succeed in transforming our culture, residents of the later Anthropocene will look back on the early twenty-first century as a time of human enlightenment, when people learned to truly think like mountains by anticipating their long-lasting and complex effects on the world. 2

(C) Long-term planning typically considers years or decades, but the global environmental processes we are now influencing play out over centuries, millennia, or more. We need to instill a sense of geologic time into our culture and our planning, to incorporate truly long-term thinking into social and political decision making. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


44. 20영독 4-8

 

From the early twentieth century through the beginning of the 1970s, the sociological analysis of cultural objects took one of two competing paths, which interestingly shared a core assumption.


(A) The products of mediated culture, whether books, songs, or fashion, were thought to be expressive symbols that changed in lockstep with evolutions in society. For example, in 1919 the anthropologist Alfred Kroeber argued that the hemlines of women's dresses were prescribed through "civilizational determinism"; they were a window into macro-level cultural values and belief systems. 0

(B) While these "nothing-but" arguments quibbled on the direction of the association between culture and the economy, they both assumed that hemline lengths in women's fashion were reflections of outsized societal forces. 2

(C) In turn, by the mid-l920s the economist George Taylor argued that instead the hemlines of dresses go up with rises and go down with declines in the stock market. For Taylor, hemlines were determined by macro-level economic, not cultural, shifts. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


45. 20영독 4-9

 

It is clear that even a single initial encounter with a word can potentially leave a memory trace of its use.


(A) But then no memory trace of the word would be left upon this second encounter. This situation could be repeated ad infinitum without any memory trace of the meaning being retained. 1

(B) Why is this clear? Consider the counterfactual: if no memory trace could exist after a single exposure, then the second time the word was encountered would be exactly the same as the first time. 0

(C) If this were the case, we would be utterly unable to learn any words. Therefore, it must be possible for an initial memory trace to exist in order for it to be strengthened upon subsequent exposure. Fortunately, we know that human brains have a vast capacity for implicit memory, even though memories may not readily be brought to consciousness (they are not always easy to recall or make explicit). 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


46. 20영독 4-10

 

Consider for a moment a fish.


(A) The thought that I am trying to convey to you is that, once you discover who you are and operate in that realm, you will always come out successful. But if you follow the guile of other things that may seem attractive and leave the place of your power, you will never win. Life is about winning, not necessarily about winning against others but winning at being you, and the way to win is to figure out who you are and do it. 2

(B) Fish belong in the water, and when it is in the place where it belongs, it dominates all other things that do not belong there that may try to compete with it. Man is no match for the fish as long as it remains in the water, so in order for us to have any power over the fish, we have to capture it by using tools and many forms of trickery to get it out of the place of its dominance. 0

(C) We understand that man versus fish in the water, fish wins. But if we can succeed in taking it out of the water, the fish will lose every time. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


47. 20영독 4-11

 

For a while, people thought that 10,000 hours of practice was what it took to become an expert at something.


(A) They know what time of day works best for them, when to push on through tiredness or confusion, and when to take a break. A pianist knows that sometimes it helps to play a piece at half speed, to get the fingering exactly right, and sometimes it is worth trying to play it at double speed, mistakes and all, to get a better feel for the flow and cadence of the piece. A footballer is able to suggest to the coach a new way of practicing an attacking maneuver. 2

(B) But now we know that this figure is a gross oversimplification, because the quality of practice matters even more than the quantity. Expert practicers get better faster. 0

(C) They have learned to pick out the difficult parts of what they are trying to do, and work especially hard on those. They make good use of recordings and videos of their own performance. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


48. 20영독 4-12

 

Today companies frequently require of their employees a different level and quality of engagement with the company.


(A) As Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri describe it, we have transitioned from a society in which there are factories to a factory society in which the entire social performs as a factory. 2

(B) In earlier periods, employees were often treated like machines, but their private lives, consisting in their leisure time, passions, and beliefs, remained largely unaffected. Nowadays, employees frequently contribute more than physical labor; they are required to innovate, make decisions, and work effectively as a team. 0

(C) As a result, they no longer leave work when they go home but instead continue at some level nonstop. The fact that workers are being asked to contribute collectively to the production of goods and services has begun to reweave the fabric of the social, from one based in the distinction between public and private spaces to one in which networks of associations and the advantages they may offer to move ahead now function as the organizing force in most daily interactions. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


49. 20영독 5-1

 

If you have become much less active, spending a lot of time alone focused on feeling depressed, think about activities that engage your attention and that require a moderate level of concentration and effort.


(A) But you would not want to choose exceedingly complex, demanding tasks, such as studying for a math exam, because any difficulties you have doing such a task could reinforce negative, self-critical thinking. When you are feeling depressed, a mentally demanding task may become overwhelming, and then you will start ruminating about failing the task (e.g., "Depression is going to ruin me, because I can't even concentrate on this simple math"). 1

(B) Driving, for example, is probably not ideal, because it is such an automatic behavioral sequence for most people that it siphons off only a small amount of attention. Something like strenuous aerobic exercise may be much more effective, because it captures more attention. 0

(C) Thus moderately engaging activities are probably the best distracters for rumination. Take some time to discover the positive activities that are most effective in reducing or eliminating your bouts of rumination. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


50. 20영독 5-2

 

Body water is involved in several functions critical to performance.


(A) An abundant supply of body water, first to transport muscle-generated heat and then to produce the sweat needed for evaporative cooling, is the best insurance against the complications of heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and life-threatening heat stroke. 2

(B) Of most importance to the exercising athlete is the fact that a large amount of heat generated by exercising muscles is transported by water in the blood to the skin, where water is essential for the production of sweat. Body heat is dissipated most efficiently through the evaporation of sweat on exposed skin surfaces. 1

(C) The body's chemical processes that provide the energy for muscle work occur in water. All of the transport functions of oxygen, nutrients, and body wastes are carried on in body water. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


51. 20영독 5-3

 

Sport sends some messages that support socioeconomic inequities.


(A) For example, winning is the most prevalent organizing theme in newspaper stories and telecasts of sporting events. Winning is usually attributed to self-discipline, talent, and hard work. If an athlete or a team doesn't win, then we assume that the player or the team was lazy or lacked talent and so didn't deserve to win. 0

(B) The point here is not that merit is a bad idea. The problem is that this logic often leads us to overlook the societal barriers (e.g., poor nutrition, neighborhood gang violence, poor access to libraries and computers, dysfunctional families, lack of child care) that prevent poor people from developing themselves to the fullest and becoming valuable members of society. 2

(C) Such beliefs underscore the American conception of merit ― we often link hard work and talent to financial success. The flip side is that if someone fails financially, it must be because she or he isn't talented or didn't work hard. This reasoning allows us to hold the belief that the rich and poor both deserve whatever money they have. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


52. 20영독 5-4

 

According to Wikipedia, of the countries that have adopted color television, twenty-nine had done so by 1969.


(A) The addition of color must have been seen as a powerful boost if used wisely. Though, no doubt, early color commercials were likely simply reshot black-and-white spots, creative directors at agencies from New York to London to Paris and beyond must have seen this new technology as an advantage in promoting brands. 1

(B) The vast majority of these were in Europe and North America. The rise in the use of television in the 1950s opened up the creativity of advertising within a more emotional and powerful medium. 0

(C) In many ways, this transition from black and white to color must have been similar to the challenges facing actors when sound was introduced to movies. For advertising agencies in the 1960s, an entire world of new possibilities and requirements put them back to square one: they could either understand how to use color effectively or face losing clients. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


53. 20영독 5-56

 

In the business world, large bureaucratic organizations are sometimes unable to compete against smaller, innovative firms, particularly in industries that are changing quickly.


(A) This situation occurs partly because innovative firms tend to have flatter and more democratic organizational structures. Compare the flat network structure in smaller, innovative firms with the traditional bureaucratic structure in large bureaucratic organizations. Note that the network structure has fewer levels than the traditional bureaucratic structure. Moreover, in the network structure, lines of communication link all units. 0

(B) They began eliminating middle-management positions. They allowed worker participation in a variety of tasks related to their main functions and delegated authority to autonomous teams of a dozen or so workers that were allowed to make many decisions themselves. They formed "quality circles" of workers to monitor and correct defects in products and services. Consequently, product quality, worker morale, and profitability improved. Today, these ideas have spread well beyond the Swedish and Japanese automobile industries and are evident in many large North American companies, both in the manufacturing and in the service sectors. 2

(C) In the traditional bureaucratic structure, information flows only upward. Much evidence suggests that flatter bureaucracies with decentralized decision making and multiple lines of communication produce more satisfied workers, happier clients, and bigger profits. Some of this evidence comes from Sweden and Japan. Beginning in the early 1970s, Volvo and Toyota were at the forefront of bureaucratic innovation in these countries. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


54. 20영독 5-7

 

The lesson of ecology is that, as species of the planet, we are all connected in a web of life.


(A) A Buddhist parable brings to life this rather stark and scientific lesson from ecology. During his meditation, a devotee fantasizes that he is eating a leg of lamb, an act proscribed by Buddhism where strict adherence to vegetarianism is required. 0

(B) A more prosaic way of reaching the same sense of connection is to think about a time when you might have hit an animal or bird when driving your car. The sense of shock and horror that you have destroyed something so precious is the same, no matter how insignificant the animal appears. 2

(C) His spiritual master suggests that when this fantasy comes to him he draws a cross on the leg of lamb. The devotee follows the advice and, on returning to self-consciousness, is amazed to find the cross on his own arm. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


55. 20영독 5-8

 

The distinctions ― between mind and body, and war and peace — appear to have lost credibility altogether, with the result that we now experience conflict intruding into everyday life.


(A) Meanwhile, new forms of violence have emerged, in which states are attacked by non-state groups, interstate conflicts are fought using nonmilitary means (such as cyberwarfare), and the distinction between policing and military intervention becomes blurred. 1

(B) Since the 1990s, rapid advances in neuroscience have elevated the brain over the mind as the main way by which we understand ourselves, demonstrating the importance of emotion and physiology to all decision making. 0

(C) As society has been flooded by digital technology, it has grown harder to specify what belongs to the mind and what to the body, what is peaceful dialogue and what is conflict. In the obscure space between mind and body, between war and peace, lie nervous states: individuals and governments living in a state of constant and heightened alertness, relying increasingly on feeling rather than fact. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


56. 20영독 5-9

 

The obvious problems being caused by economic growth have not been ignored by academics: they were noticed by some in the economics profession, who then attempted to incorporate these concerns into their discipline.


(A) Environmental economists were keen to bring these negative impacts back within the discipline. However, they still approached the subject in a scientific and measurement-based way, for example, using shadow pricing to measure how much people were concerned about noise pollution or the loss of habitat. 1

(B) This led to the development of environmental economics, and also the related study of natural-resource economics. Conventional economics considers environmental impact to be an 'externality', something outside its concern. 0

(C) In other words, the way in which economics traditionally marginalizes or ignores something that cannot be priced was still adhered to, but the response was to attempt to evaluate in some way aspects of life which economics had ignored. Green economists would consider this to be a category error; in other words, they believe it is important to accept that some aspects of life have social or spiritual worth that simply cannot be measured. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


57. 20영독 5-10

 

Until fairly recently, human beings lived in kin bands of usually no more than twenty people, loosely associated into tribes of perhaps a few hundred.


(A) Spend some time alone with a person or small group in silence, and observe whether, after just a few days or even hours, you feel more intimately connected with them than if you'd been talking. The empathy and intuitive understanding of others that develops in such circumstances is amazing. 2

(B) Open to nature and each other, they knew each other more intimately than we can imagine today. Speech may have been superfluous, as it often is between lovers, or between mother and baby. 0

(C) When we know someone that well, we know without asking what they are thinking and feeling. All the more in prelinguistic times, when our empathetic faculties were yet unclouded by the mediatory apparatus of language. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


58. 20영독 5-1112

 

When students in a civilian college are found to be cheating on an examination, it does not make a story in the national media — not even headlines in the local papers and probably not a story in the college newspaper.


(A) In the junior class, 184 students were formally accused of cheating, and 152 of those were expelled. Similar cheating "scandals" at the Naval Academy in Annapolis and at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs have also been given the most serious attention. Why is cheating by an officer candidate taken more seriously than cheating by a civilian student at the same educational level? The question almost answers itself. Civilian schools have honor codes, but moral education is usually not a conscious educational goal. 1

(B) The students may have a hearing before a student/faculty disciplinary board, and a penalty may be imposed if the verdict is that the students are guilty. The penalty may be a failure in the course or a brief suspension from the institution; often it is less severe than either of these. The West Point scandal of 1976 made front-page news across the country. Military students were cheating, which violated the honor code. That event, a most serious matter, was followed by student dismissals and lengthy editorial comment. 0

(C) The Military Academy at West Point has a well-known honor code requiring that "a Cadet will not lie, cheat or steal, nor tolerate anyone who does." The experience of living by such a code, we hope, will help produce officers who can be trusted to avoid moral individualism. They will have consciously practiced the reflex of honesty, of consistently doing what they promised to do, regardless of temptation. The thought and temptations of individualism are always in the mind, but we assume that people can be found who consciously adopt another moral style. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


59. 20영독 6-1

 

In the 1990s the Internet became the newest entrant in the baby advice field.


(A) Depending on her location and the post office this entire process might take several weeks. In 2000 she could access the Internet from her home computer at 2:00 a.m. if necessary and find an answer within minutes. Hospitals and pediatricians also embraced the Internet and Web sites written by and directed by them were set up across the country. 2

(B) The Internet meant that the speed of information available to mothers had compressed from weeks and months in the early 1900s to near instantaneous by 2000. In the 1910s a mother with a baby care question that was unanswerable in her immediate surroundings could write to the Children's Bureau and wait for a reply. 1

(C) Major manufacturers of baby equipment as well as the neighbor down the street set up Web sites to help parents care for their babies. Chat rooms brought mothers from all around the country together online to discuss, question, and support each other. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


60. 20영독 6-2

 

We presumably play many games because they are exciting, but will playing a particular game result in a positive or a negative mood?


(A) The higher the stakes, in terms of time investment, public acknowledgment, and personal importance, the higher are the potential losses and rewards. We make very rough estimates of this gamble, factoring in the likelihood of failure along with the time investment required, the audience for our performance, and our personal investment in performing well. 1

(B) We are probably also not very good at doing the calculation — optimists may be unable to believe that failure is a possibility, for example. 2

(C) This is where the fundamental unpredictability of games comes in, since failure will likely result in a worse mood than success will. To play a game is to take an emotional gamble. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


61. 20영독 6-3

 

Just as other living creatures thrive or perish depending on how well they adapt to the environment, so too do humans, although the consequences are not usually so dramatic.


(A) They might induce lower levels of stress (and its related health risks) by shielding individuals from certain jobs that place undue tension on work-life balance. Those who do adapt to the demands of higher education might enter high-stress careers that call for adaptive techniques of their own, such as meditation or effective time-management. 2

(B) For example, students often fail to adapt their attention and work habits to the demands of educational institutions. In the short term, their grades suffer, but the long-term difficulties associated with this maladaptation are no less palpable. 0

(C) They might have trouble adjusting their behaviour once they enter the workforce, which ultimately might deprive them of career advancement and financial remuneration. On the other hand, more relaxed work habits can be adaptable in other ways. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


62. 20영독 6-4

 

Some years ago in the United States, a woman named Linda Kenney nearly died when, prior to an operation, anesthesia was administered to her improperly.


(A) The Kenneys were deeply moved by the doctor's letter, and even more impressed when he came to their home and begged forgiveness. The couple ended up not pursuing a malpractice suit, and instead, in conjunction with the doctor, started a group to help both doctors and families deal with the trauma of medical and surgical errors. 2

(B) Her husband, understandably, wanted to sue the doctor and the hospital. Then the anesthesiologist wrote the couple a note expressing his regrets and grief. He told her, "Whenever you want to speak to me, I will make myself available. 0

(C) Here is my phone number." The Kenneys later learned that the doctor did not inform the hospital or its lawyers of what he was doing. He knew that they would probably have forbidden him to contact the patient, because acknowledging his responsibility so frankly would put him and the hospital at great risk if the patient sued. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


63. 20영독 6-56

 

Because the phrase is so well known, some readers may be surprised to know that Darwin never wrote "survival of the fittest."


(A) A second and related effect was to justify genocide and colonization (the dash to carve up Africa culminated in the Berlin Conference of 1884, when Europeans sat around tables and drew lines on maps to delimit "their" possessions, and the "taming" of the American West took place at the same time), and to undermine any suggestion of social welfare for the poor in Europe. That people were not as well off as those (whites) with the most resources was taken as evidence that they were not as "fit," nor deserving. This Social Darwinism helped define as "natural" the hierarchy of races that had been constructed and classified through the discourses of science. 2

(B) In the process, it detoured from Darwin's ideas; Organisms do not consciously "struggle" in this way 一 they do not know if a mutation has taken place that may require millennia to become widespread in their species. They are simply born, live, and die, and pass on whatever was in their genes. This idea of competition grew out of and had more application to the burgeoning industrialization and class divisions that were occurring in Britain than it did to Darwin's idea of natural selection. 1

(C) This term was coined by British philosopher Herbert Spencer (who, incidentally, also first used the term "evolution") in applying Darwin's ideas to topics he himself did not address. The "survival of the fittest" concept had several effects. First, it naturalized competition as part of a "struggle for existence." 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


64. 20영독 6-7

 

Now, back to the essential issue at hand — that of human intellect being dependent upon the application of logical principles.


(A) Even though mathematics is inherently a highly logical discipline, any person who performs brilliantly in language, or any such endeavor, is showing high intelligence, because any such effective use of language, and such reasoning powers, must involve much logical thinking. And, in general, the greater capacity one has for effective application of logical principles (whether in language, mathematics, artistic creations, or whatever), the greater is one's power of intelligence. 1

(B) There is much evidence that the quality that we usually refer to as intelligence (in humans), is closely related to the individual's capacity for logical thought. For example, a great mathematician must be highly intelligent, because his/her successful learning and manipulating of mathematical rules is impossible, apart from much capacity for logical thinking. 0

(C) Therefore, it can be seen that intelligence and logic are closely intertwined. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


65. 20영독 6-8

 

Millions of people around the world suffer a lack of necessary nutrients because of limitations on what will grow in their region.


(A) Millions of people suffer from this problem worldwide because they live in areas where vegetables containing the vitamin will not grow. Since rice will grow in these regions, golden rice could provide at least some of this critical vitamin to the local population. 2

(B) One area that scientists are exploring is genetically modifying vegetables to increase their nutritional value. An example of this is "golden rice." 0

(C) This variety of rice is genetically engineered to produce vitamin A — the vitamin that gives carrots their orange color. A vitamin A deficiency can have serious effects, including blindness and even death. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


66. 20영독 6-9

 

The growing emphasis on 'work readiness' is the subject of much debate.


(A) However, the demand for work-ready graduates, who are familiar with organizational practices in the workplace, is increasing. Employers value work experience believing that exposure to the workplace while studying provides students with the opportunity to acquire valuable insights into how the workplace operates and what is expected of them in different workplace settings. Employers report that work experience improves graduates' soft skills, increases confidence and helps relate their studies to employment, making them more rounded and with more realistic expectations of work. 1

(B) The opportunity to make contacts and create networks for future employment is another advantage. In other words, work experience improves work readiness. 2

(C) Some believe that work and education are qualitatively different social sites. While education provides skills and knowledge useful both in the short and long term, it can only provide broad or generic training for work. Specific training for a particular job can only be undertaken after study. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


67. 20영독 6-10

 

A baby who can't hear would have a stronger need to remain in visual contact with her parents as she begins to roam.


(A) A baby who can't see would benefit from hearing lots of encouraging words and vocalizations, as well as touches and smells. In fact, we often recommend interesting games that enable babies who can't see to locate people and objects by touch and sounds, as well as smells. 1

(B) In that way, they can create a sensory road map of their home even though they can't see. The important sense of space and spatial relationships that we all need to feel secure and to navigate can be formed from many of our senses, and not just our vision. 2

(C) Mom and Dad could make a concerted effort to make their friendly waves or approving smiles especially vivid to their toddler, even at a distance. They could even make a point of coming over to her from time to time and offering a quick hug or peck on the cheek to reassure their toddler that her explorations won't isolate her from them. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


68. 20영독 6-1112

 

Ideation in its many forms is an area today where humans have a comparative advantage over machines.


(A) Scientists come up with new hypotheses. Journalists sniff out a good story. Chefs add a new dish to the menu. Engineers on a factory floor figure out why a machine is no longer working properly. Many of these activities are supported and accelerated by computers, but none are driven by them. Picasso's quote — Computers are useless. 0

(B) Ideation, creativity, and innovation are often described as 'thinking outside the box,' and this characterization indicates another large and reasonably sustainable advantage of human over digital labor. Computers and robots remain lousy at doing anything outside the frame of their programming. Watson, for example, is an amazing Jeopardy! player, but would be defeated by a child at Wheel of Fortune, The Price is Right, or any other TV game show unless it was substantially reprogrammed by its human creators. Watson is not going to get there on its own. 2

(C) They can only give you answers. — is just about half right. Computers are not useless, but they're still machines for generating answers, not posing interesting new questions. That ability still seems to be uniquely human, and still highly valuable. We predict that people who are good at idea creation will continue to have a comparative advantage over digital labor for some time to come, and will find themselves in demand. In other words, we believe that employers now and for some time to come will, when looking for talent, follow the advice attributed to the Enlightenment sage Voltaire: "Judge a man by his questions, not his answers." 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


69. 20영독 7-1

 

Whether or not they allow some contemporary technology to be squeezed in, the reformers fundamentally believe that they can bring back "what once worked."


(A) It is tragic because so much of what we do currently teach, and what so many want to preserve, is now unimportant because the context for education has changed so radically. 1

(B) That belief has tragic ramifications for our students today. 0

(C) In the current environment, every field and job — from factory work to retail to healthcare to hospitality to garbage collection ― is in the process of being transformed dramatically, and often unrecognizably, by technology and other forces. And while most reformers recognize that society is going through dramatic changes (even though few truly "get" their extent, speed, and implications), they too often — and paradoxically 一do not see the need for education to change fundamentally to cope with themselves. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


70. 20영독 7-2

 

Heller and Eisenberg claimed that gene patenting may cause a problem of the "tragedy of the anti-commons" for biomedical research, because a gene patent can be broad enough to cover any commercial use of the gene and the gene product.


(A) This overuse is generally referred to as a "tragedy of the commons," and privatization is often used to solve this problem. 1

(B) When people hold a resource in common, they tend to overuse it because they lack any incentive to conserve the resource. 0

(C) However, when a scarce resource is overprivatized the result can be a "tragedy of the anti-commons," which will result in the under-use of a resource because too many people are excluded from using the resource. Under-use in human gene patents was said to be pervasive, because the high licensing fee limits any further research, especially when most diseases are polygenic, meaning that multiple genes are involved in the manifestation of a disease and several pieces of genetic material are needed to develop a product. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


71. 20영독 7-3

 

The thing about maintaining a lawn is that the very action of cutting encourages grasses to multiply.


(A) If you cut these plants off at the ground, you chop off the meristem, and they have to start the process of producing a shoot all over again. This regrowth can only happen at considerable energy cost to the plant. If you keep doing this, eventually the plant will give up the ghost and die. 1

(B) On the other hand, grasses keep their meristems tucked away at the base of the plant. If you chop off the leaves of a grass plant it merrily continues to grow from the bottom, unconcerned by the decapitation it receives. Grasses have evolved this system in response to being repeatedly eaten by herbivores. By regularly mowing a lawn, the only plants that can survive are grasses. 2

(C) Trees, for example, do very poorly if you repeatedly and regularly cut them down just above the ground. In fact, many plants cannot cope with being regularly felled. The bit of a plant that does the growing is called a meristem, and in plants such as tulips, begonias and carnations, the meristems are at the tips of the growing shoots. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


72. 20영독 7-4

 

The effect of one's actions on collective consequences, and one's participation in those consequences regardless of one's actions, is relevant because there is a dollar value associated with these actions.


(A) There is a push and pull of cost and relative savings that is difficult for consumers to predict, as it is affected so greatly by their collective actions. It brings to mind economist John Maynard Keynes' description of stock-market investing: a beauty contest in which the winner is not any of the contestants, but the judge whose scores come closest to the average scores of the judges collectively. 2

(B) Furthermore, that dollar value can be complicated. When the cost of gasoline is high enough, the extra initial cost of a more fuel-efficient vehicle ― or one that does not use gasoline at all ― can seem less expensive, even if one does not quite believe the car will "pay for itself" through its fuel savings.0

(C) However, if enough people were to buy those vehicles ― in sufficient numbers to reduce the demand for gasoline — the cost of gasoline would come down. Then again, so would the cost of the vehicles, thanks to economies of scale. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


73. 20영독 7-56

 

The metaphor of barking dogs has been used by historians of religions to describe various uses of comparison, but like all good myths, it bears retelling in each new context and can always be used in new ways.


(A) Comparison makes it possible for us literally to cross-examine cultures, by using a myth from one culture to reveal to us what is not in a telling from another culture, to find out the things not "dreamt of in your philosophy"(as Hamlet said to Horatio). Moreover, we can use comparative work to test theories about our own culture, by noting where our own dogs have not barked. Comparison defamiliarizes what we take for granted. We can only see the inflection of a particular telling when we see other variants. 2

(B) The fact that the dog did not bark when someone entered the house at night was evidence, in this case evidence that the criminal was someone familiar to the dog. Dogs bark at difference ― in this case, someone different from those with whom the dog was familiar. We cannot hear the sound of one hand clapping; we cannot hear sameness. But through the comparative method we can see the blinkers that each culture constructs for its retellings of myths. 1

(C) Sherlock Holmes once solved a mystery, the case of Silver Blaze, a racehorse, by using a vital clue of omission. When Inspector Gregory asked Holmes whether he had noted any point to which he would draw the inspector's attention, Holmes replied, "To the curious incident of the dog in the night-time." "The dog did nothing in the night-time," objected the puzzled inspector, the essential straight man for the Socratic sage. "That was the curious incident," remarked Sherlock Holmes. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


74. 20영독 7-7

 

Most employees want to do a good job, make a difference, and be valued for their efforts.


(A) The closer the recognition to the occurrence, the greater will be the motivation, creating a positive environment that fosters improved performance. Really listening to what employees are saying lets employees feel they are contributing, giving them a sense of worth. 2

(B) Recognizing accomplishments in a timely manner by a simple, sincere "Thank You" can go a long way in improving performance. The level of motivation in part will be determined by the time lapse between the occurrence and awarding the recognition. 1

(C) Regardless of the situation, the company must take time to determine what employees need. Employee performance is often tied more to personal factors like being appreciated for doing a good job than to money. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


75. 20영독 7-8

 

Internationalization is a critical issue in higher education today.


(A) Students who take courses with international content are believed to be better equipped to effectively communicate in global contexts. Therefore, employers are looking for candidates who not only have appropriate degrees for the job but also foreign language skills and intercultural competence. 1

(B) Furthermore, many colleges and universities are admitting more and more international students, and this makes it necessary to train fellow students as well as faculty and staff about intercultural awareness and multiculturalism. 2

(C) Many colleges and universities are transforming their curriculum by integrating international perspectives and providing professional development to faculty and staff so that they can effectively participate in today's increasingly global environment. A major reason for internationalization in higher education is that college graduates are expected to become global citizens to be able to successfully communicate in a diverse workplace. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


76. 20영독 7-9

 

Even people who do not live near the ocean can have an impact on marine communities and ecosystems.


(A) The decomposition of their bodies removes more oxygen from the water, making a bad situation even worse. The result of this excessive decomposition is an area of ocean water that is oxygen depleted. Because so little marine life can survive in such an area, it is referred to as a dead zone. 2

(B) Burning of fossil fuels, for instance, increases the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, leading to climate change such as global warming, rising sea levels, and increased acidity of the ocean. Another way in which inland populations can affect the marine environment is by contributing nutrients to the ocean. Nitrogen is a major nutrient that supports the growth of algae in aquatic ecosystems. 0

(C) When nitrogen-containing chemicals from terrestrial sources reach the ocean they support an enormous increase in the growth of algae. When the algae die, the decomposition of their remains robs the water of oxygen. Marine organisms that can swim away, such as fishes, migrate to better water while those that cannot, such as clams and worms, die from lack of oxygen. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


77. 20영독 7-10

 

The use of critical thinking has been identified as particularly important in the digital age as relatively quick access to a wide range of information means that the user needs the ability to critically evaluate the validity and relative value of information accessed.


(A) In the past, the library, a book, or an expert (e.g., a teacher) were the student's source of knowledge, and the value or validity was unlikely to be questioned. When the Internet was originally introduced to school-based learning programmes, a number of educators were reluctant to use it as a teaching resource as the information may not contain correct facts. 0

(B) This type of critical thinking expands the scientific orientation of critical thinking using reasoning to evaluate credibility. 2

(C) This view reflected the limited information available at the time through the Internet, the lack of social media where large numbers of people and experts were developing knowledge, and a positivist orientation to schooling (purpose is to learn truths). The abundance of information at the touch of a digital technology means that learners need to be able to critically evaluate its relevance, validity and significance. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


78. 20영독 7-1112

 

Predicting how inventions and technological innovations will be used and how they will ultimately affect society is often very difficult.


(A) Given enough experiences of this kind, one gets the idea that every new technology has not only known and expected benefits and costs but also unknown and unforeseen benefits and costs. New technologies sometimes even produce consequences exactly the opposite of what they were intended to produce, what the author Edward Tenner calls "revenge effects." Powerful new technologies alter the social context in which they arise; they change the structure of our interests and values; they change the ways in which we think and work, and they may even change the nature of the communities in which we live. 2

(B) Thomas Edison apparently believed that the phonograph would be mainly used for recording people's last wills and testaments and would undoubtedly be amazed by today's tapes, CDs, and MP3 players, all of which are descended from his invention for recording sound. And who, until recently, would have thought that chlorofluorocarbons, which have been used for decades as refrigerants, would be eating away the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere? 1

(C) The history of technology is full of stories of inventors and innovators who had no idea of how their inventions and innovations would ultimately be used or the far-reaching effects that they would have on society. Johannes Gutenberg, inventor of the printing press and movable metal type, was a devout Catholic who would have been horrified to know that his invention enabled the Bible to be widely printed and so helped stimulate the Protestant Reformation. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


79. 20영독 8-1

 

From its very beginnings, tango showed its changeable profile: first it was simply music played on piano in houses of dubious reputation.


(A) In Buenos Aires, you can breathe tango at every comer, and there are countless tango shows, many including dinner, first-class orchestras, musicals and also 'milonga' dances where you are taught the ABCs of this passionate rhythm. 2

(B) Tango is such a wide-ranging rhythm that it can only be compared with jazz, insofar as its richness and ability to adapt to changing times are concerned. But because tango is danced and most forms of popular music are not, it invariably ended up in the concert halls instead of on the streets. 1

(C) Later it was joined by the guitar, the flute and the violin as it started to be accepted in the more prestigious ballrooms. The great change in tango was brought about by the arrival of the 'bandoneon' squeeze box from Germany, an instrument which was to become emblematic of tango and played by great musicians such as Astor Piazzolla. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


80. 20영독 8-2

 

Land transportation systems have become a crucial component of modernity.


(A) By speeding up communications and the transport of goods and people, they have generated a revolution in contemporary economic and social relations. However, incorporating new technology has not come about without cost: environmental contamination, urban stress and deteriorating air quality are directly linked to modern land transport systems. 0

(B) Equally significant are the rising costs in health services and the added burden on public finances. 2

(C) Above all, transportation is increasingly associated with the rise in road accidents and premature deaths, as well as physical and psychological handicaps. Losses are not limited to reduced worker productivity and trauma affecting a victim's private life. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


81. 20영독 8-3

 

The Westernized "developed" economies are, by a very large margin, the largest markets for prescription medicines.


(A) This situation is now changing because of economic, political and social factors, including the rise of "venture philanthropy" and new pricing models. Perhaps most significantly, rapidly growing economies (China, India and Brazil, for example) are sustaining a large number of people with Western lifestyles and the diseases to match. 1

(B) This may be one reason for an increased willingness on the part of multinational pharmaceutical companies to invest heavily in research and development in these countries and to offer generous pricing models for drugs that treat infectious diseases such as malaria. 2

(C) It is, therefore, inevitable that any coverage of the biopharmaceutical industry will assume that its research and development activities are directed almost exclusively at these affluent nations. The problem for millions of people in the developing world is that treatments for tropical diseases such as malaria are not economical to develop and that medicines for "Western" diseases are too expensive. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


82. 20영독 8-4

 

The relevance of generalized knowledge that is applicable to particular individual phenomena is especially important in the applied areas of psychology — where the layperson's and scientist's perspectives cross paths.


(A) Successful application of the basic knowledge of psychology in particular concrete situations ― be those situations examples of individual or group psychotherapy, of consultation in a business firm, or of dealing with a troubled adolescent — can be consistent only if the basic scientific basis of these applications is adequate to the reality. 0

(B) Such occasional success, however, would be based on the particular combination of circumstances in the case of a concrete application, and need not follow from any adequate scientific understanding of the phenomenon. 2

(C) Certainly it is possible to achieve occasional practical success on the basis of inadequate scientific knowledge — as with the many people who believe in, and try to confirm, predictions made on the basis of horoscopes. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


83. 20영독 8-56

 

One feature of progress and separation from nature is the growing incidence of physical inactivity.


(A) Maybe it is too late for some of us. We have forgotten, and will never reconnect enough. The real challenge is to get to today's young children, connect them with nature and its mysteries early, and prevent the extinction of ecological literacy that will dog us to our graves. 2

(B) Hunter-gatherers and farmers expend energy to catch and grow their food; the rest of us rely on cars and are gradually losing the ability to walk. Physical inactivity (and junk food) is killing us, and our kids. It also reduces the chance of accidental or designed connection with nature. We know that the natural environment positively affects our mental states. 0

(C) Is it any surprise to learn that mental ill-health is on the increase just as environments and biodiversity come under serious threat, just as we seem to stop going there? The World Health Organization predicts that depression and mental ill-health will be the greatest source of ill-health worldwide by 2020. Yet green places are good places ― from the small patches in cities to the wide open wildernesses, and there are many ways to engage in green exercise, from gardening to forest schools to country walks. All these are good for health, but for many adults are no more than temporary remedial measures, as we dash back to the rat race. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


84. 20영독 8-7

 

At the heart of learning is good, old-fashioned trial and error.


(A) Sometimes we know what we want to achieve, and our experiments are refined as we approach the goal. And sometimes we are just playing with material (as artists do), ideas (scientists), or bodily movements (choreographers) to see what happens. 2

(B) In many areas of learning, including baseball, writing, and math, we tinker our way toward understanding and competence. Once we have the glimmerings of an idea about how to proceed, we give it a go, observe the effects and the success, adjust our action, and have another go. 0

(C) We can rarely figure everything out in advance so well that our first attempt is a surefire success. Watch an engineer sketching a bridge, an athlete adjusting her run-up, a teacher or an executive polishing their PowerPoint presentations, a child learning to dive, a cook tinkering with a recipe, and you will see the power of this kind of rehearsing, practicing, and drafting. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


85. 20영독 8-8

 

Living butterflies hold their wings in positions that differ from those of mounted museum specimens.


(A) Thus, the shape of the hindwings, especially the length versus the width, may appear very different in the field than on museum specimens. In addition, relatively fresh individuals often have distinctive sheens that are useful for identification; these sheens are lost upon aging and after death, as are some markings on the butterfly's body and especially its eye color. 2

(B) For example, an obvious difference is that live grass-skippers spread their hindwings flat but open their forewings only partially, appearing very different from completely flat-spread museum specimens. 0

(C) A less often noted difference is that when landed with their wings closed, living skippers fold under the trailing edge of their hindwings, hiding about one-fifth of the wings. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


86. 20영독 8-9

 

In terms of parenting, limited funds may restrict parents' ability, for example, to pay for the best private schools or to satisfy their children's demands for the latest gaming console.


(A) Some parents need to work long hours, cutting down the time they can spend with their children. In some instances, time constraints can be extreme: some parents migrate without their families in pursuit of work, enduring separation from their children for years. 1

(B) Yet constraints need not be exclusively of a financial nature. For many parents, the most significant constraints are time and capabilities. 0

(C) Limits to parents' knowledge and abilities are equally important. Some parents may have the time and resources to care for their children, but fail to provide them with an appropriate diet because they are unaware of the nutritional properties of different types of food. Others underestimate the importance of education as a means of getting on in society and do not put effort into motivating their children to do well in school. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


87. 20영독 8-10

 

From today's perspective, it is difficult to imagine the depth of the Great Depression, and the desperation and deprivation it created among people from all walks of life and social conditions.


(A) Not only that: uncles and cousins who had gone to faraway places, such as Argentina or Australia, were in even worse conditions. There were no jobs, no relief, and nowhere to go. 2

(B) Complete industries disappeared, the ranks of the unemployed swelled to unthinkable levels, families lost their life savings and had no one to turn to. Homes and farms were repossessed by the thousands. 0

(C) Soup kitchens could not serve enough meals to those going hungry, banks collapsed in rapid succession, and children stopped going to school. Complete families thought about emigrating, only to find out that the Depression was a worldwide phenomenon and that relatives who had stayed behind in the old world were suffering as much as they were. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


88. 20영독 8-1112

 

Intelligence is a 'relative' or normative construct.


(A) An intelligence test designed for 18-year-olds in 1930 would be expected to yield very different performance norms if administered today, yet an IQ score for 18-year-olds in 1930 on a then-current test has the same normative meaning as an IQ score for an 18-year-old today on a current test. The IQ score only tells us the individual's standing with respect to other members of the norming sample. 2

(B) The principal disadvantage to this approach is that it renders comparisons across norming groups somewhat problematic. For example, it is arguably nonsensical to say that a large sample of today's 18-year-olds is more or less 'intelligent' than a large sample of 18-year-olds in 1930. The average 18-year-old today has very different knowledge and skills from the 18-year-old in 1930, in areas of math, science, arts and literature, and so on. 1

(C) One of Alfred Binet's seminal contributions to the assessment of intelligence was to introduce the idea that we can best index intelligence, especially during childhood when rapid cognitive development occurs, as the individual's performance in comparison to a reference group (e.g., all six-year-old children). It is almost universally accepted that one can only quantify an individual's intelligence by referring to the reference or norming group. The principal advantage to this approach is that an individual's intelligence is indexed in a way that it has the same meaning, even though norming groups may change from one decade to the next (e.g., in terms of the core knowledge and skills that are within the capabilities of the larger reference group). 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


89. 20영독 9-1

 

Scientists hope to someday establish beyond a doubt that aging and all the nefarious things that go with it can be indefinitely postponed simply by reducing the amount of food and calories we consume.


(A) This means that a junk food junkie who is blessed with a high metabolic rate that keeps her from gaining weight may still be at a higher risk for developing a memory problem. If we consider the logic that explains how caloric restriction exerts its beneficial effects on the body and mind, this makes a lot of sense. 1

(B) Take note that in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease, maintaining an ideal weight may not be enough. Studies have shown that the risk of Alzheimer's disease is more closely linked to caloric intake than to weight or body mass index (BMI). 0

(C) The amount of age-accelerating oxygen free radicals generated from our diet is related to the amount of calories we consume, not to our weight. Thus a person with a high metabolic rate who consumes greater calories may actually be producing more harmful forms of oxygen than someone with a slower metabolic rate. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


90. 20영독 9-2

 

Economies are organized in different ways to answer the question of what is to be produced.


(A) That same group decides on the number and size of school buildings, refrigerators, shoes, and so on. Other countries, including the United States, much of Europe, and increasingly, Asia and elsewhere have largely adopted a democratic and participatory decision-making process where literally millions of individual producers and consumers of goods and services determine what goods, and how many of them, will be produced. A country that uses such a decentralized decision-making process is often said to have a market economy. 2

(B) Sometimes this highly centralized economic system is referred to as a command economy. Under this type of regime, decisions about how many tractors or automobiles to produce are largely determined by a government official or committee associated with the central planning organization. 1

(C) The dispute over the best way to answer this question has inflamed passions for centuries. Should a central planning board make the decisions, as in North Korea and Cuba? 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


91. 20영독 9-3

 

Research with hμman runners challenged conventional wisdom and found that the ground-reaction forces (GRFs) at the foot and the shock transmitted up the leg and through the body after impact with the ground varied little as runners moved from extremely compliant to extremely hard running surfaces.


(A) As a result, impact forces passing through the legs are strikingly similar over a wide range of running surface types. Contrary to popular belief, running on concrete is not more damaging to the legs than running on soft sand. 2

(B) As a result, researchers gradually began to believe that runners are subconsciously able to adjust leg stiffness prior to foot strike based on their perceptions of the hardness or stiffness of the surface on which they are running. 0

(C) This view suggests that runners create soft legs that soak up impact forces when they are running on very hard surfaces and stiff legs when they are moving along on yielding terrain. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


92. 20영독 9-4

 

The MNM philosophy ― Make New Mistakes ― recognizes that mistakes are opportunities to learn.


(A) Making no mistakes means that we continue to execute a familiar model or formula; making no mistakes means a lack of creativity and new strategies. Conversely, making new mistakes means that different activities and directions are being attempted. We should make mistakes when we try new things; if we don't do so, then we aren't being ambitious enough. 1

(B) The key is to learn from our new mistakes so that we grow as a result of them. If we want our teachers to learn from their experiences 一to actively engage in anticipating, hypothesis testing, reflecting, and analyzing ― they need to know that learning is messy and that it's all right to feel comfortable when they make a mistake. 2

(C) Of course, making the same old mistakes over and over isn't very smart. We should learn from our mistakes so that we don't repeat them. Yet making no mistakes isn't very smart either. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


93. 20영독 9-57

 

One beautiful spring day, a farmer was plowing his ground to plant carrots, when a bear wandered by.


(A) But the next year, the farmer didn't plant carrots. Instead, he planted wheat. He figured since he was doing all the work, he should get the best end of the deal. When it was time to harvest the wheat, the bear showed up again. The farmer gave the bear all the roots and then loaded the wheat in his wagon. When the bear got home, he couldn't think of anything to do with the roots. He was furious! He went to the farmer's house and warned him, "You've shown how smart you are, Farmer. But if you're really smart, from now on you'll stay out of my woods!" To this day, the farmer is always a little nervous when he goes into the woods. And with good reason, for the bear still hasn't forgiven the farmer for tricking him. 2

(B) The bear was quite pleased with the huge bundle of carrot leaves he took home. But he was not pleased with their bitter taste. He returned to the farmer and demanded to taste one of the roots. The bear ate a carrot and said, "These are sweet and delicious. You've tricked me, Farmer. You had better not go in the woods again!" "I'm sorry, Bear. I didn't mean to trick you. Next year you can have all the roots, and I'll take what grows above the ground. It's only fair." 1

(C) The bear was just about to grab him, but the farmer begged, "Don't hurt me, Bear. Why don't we farm together? I'll do all the work for both of us. You can have everything that grows above the ground, and I'll take the roots." "That sounds fair," said the bear. "But you'd better not try to trick me, or you won't be safe in the woods anymore!" The carrots the farmer planted grew to be quite large. At last the day came to harvest them. When they were all dug up, the farmer said to the bear, "Now let's divide them evenly. Just as I promised, you get all the tops, and I get the roots." 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


94. 20영독 9-8

 

Socially anxious people usually feel friendly towards others and certainly have their fair share of the positive characteristics that other people appreciate.


(A) The anxiety interferes with their expression, and the ability to display them may have gone rusty from lack of use. Indeed, socially anxious people may have altogether lost belief in their likeable qualities together with their self-confidence. 1

(B) One of the rewards of learning to overcome social anxiety is that it enables you to express aspects of yourself that may previously have been stifled, and allows you to enjoy, rather than to fear, being yourself. 2

(C) They may have a sense of fun, be energetic and generous, kind and understanding, serious, amusing, quiet or lively, and they spontaneously behave in these ways when they feel at ease. But feeling at ease in company is so hard for them, and makes them so anxious, that these qualities are often hidden from view. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


95. 20영독 9-9

 

Exotic pets pose a risk to human health and safety, particularly because some infectious diseases they carry are transmittable to humans.


(A) But the traded animals themselves arguably bear the risks of the exotic pet trade most profoundly. Pre-purchase mortality rates within the trade are as high as 70 percent for reptiles and some birds, or 80 percent for wild-caught marine fish, with similar mortality rates persisting within the first year after purchase. Experts argue it is difficult if not impossible to provide adequate care for exotic pets. 2

(B) Ecological risks are also significant. Species loss due to the exotic pet trade can be so dramatic that experts have coined the term "empty forest syndrome" to describe some of these exporting zones. 0

(C) In importing regions, too, exotic pets can escape or be illegally released into non-native environments, where they may become invasive. The most famous case of this is the breeding population of Burmese pythons now established in the Florida Everglades. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


96. 20영독 9-10

 

What was arguably the all-time greatest example of selection bias resulted in the embarrassing 1948 Chicago Tribune headline "Dewey defeats Truman."


(A) In reality, Harry Truman trounced his opponent. All the major political polls at the time had predicted Thomas Dewey would be elected president. 0

(B) First, they stopped polling too far in advance of the election, and Truman was especially successful at energizing people in the final days before the election. Second, the telephone polls conducted tended to favor Dewey because in 1948, telephones were generally limited to wealthier households, and Dewey was mainly popular among elite voters. The selection bias that resulted in the infamous Chicago Tribune headline was accidental, but it shows the danger and potential power — for a stakeholder wanting to influence hearts and minds by encouraging others to hop on the bandwagon — of selection bias. 2

(C) The Chicago Tribune went to press before the election results were in, its editors confident that the polls would be correct. The statisticians were wrong for two reasons. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


97. 20영독 9-11

 

Despite advances in desktop mapping software, which would empower reporters as mapmakers, news publishers tend to treat maps like photographs and other images ― as illustrations developed by specialists working in an art department outside the news room.


(A) The resulting maps are often team efforts involving reporters, editors, and graphics specialists. 2

(B) Some newspapers have a separate graphics department that is responsible for maps and other information graphics or a "graphics editor" who mediates between the news desk and the art department. Elsewhere the integration of illustrations and art relies on informal alliances — inviting the art director to the daily editorial meeting is a common concession. 0

(C) Because reporters and editors are rarely trained in graphic design and mapmaking, this division of labor is likely to persist. Even so, some newspapers committed to investigative reporting acquired a geographic information system and made the software available to reporters covering crime, elections, or the environment. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


98. 20영독 9-1214

 

At the 2008 Washington State Class 4A Track and Field Championship, Nicole Cochran had just finished the 3,200-meter race.


(A) Then the third-place finisher gave her medal to the second-place runner, and so on down the line. Finally, a girl named Lyndy Davis from Monroe High School gave her eighth-place medal away. That meant she wouldn't be receiving one at all. "It gave me chills," said Cochran. "It shows how much respect distance runners have for each other." Cochran competed in two more events, including the 800-meter race. She finished in eighth place. Afterward, she found Lyndy Davis and gave her the eighth-place medal. "After what she had done, I didn't want her to go home from the meet in her senior year without a medal," said Cochran. Then, 10 days after the competition, officials decided the original ruling had been wrong. Cochran was formally named the 3,200-meter champ. 2

(B) The defending champion thought she had won. After all, Cochran ― a senior at Bellarmine Prep ― seemed to have finished first by more than three seconds. But then her coach was called to the officials' tent. The officials said that Cochran had stepped outside of her lane during one of the turns. Cochran knew she hadn't done it, but the ruling was final. She was going to be disqualified. Almost everybody, including the other runners, believed the judge had made a mistake. Still, the title was awarded to the runner-up, Andrea Nelson from Shadle Park High. Nelson wasn't happy about it. In fact, she was upset. She had been running in the lane next to Cochran's, and she knew Cochran had run a clean race. 0

(C) "That's not how I wanted to win the state championship," said Nelson. "It wasn't fair. She deserved it. She totally crushed everybody." So as the eight top finishers took their places on the podium to receive their medals, Nelson made a decision. She stepped off the podium, walked over to Cochran, and placed the first-place medal around her neck. "It's your medal," she said. Cochran was moved by the gesture. She was pretty astonished. The other runners were inspired, too. The second-place finisher gave her medal to Nelson. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


99. 20영독 10-1

 

One of the great risks of writing is that even the simplest of choices regarding wording or punctuation can sometimes prejudice your audience against you in ways that may seem unfair.


(A) Suppose you have written a position paper trying to convince your city council of the need to hire security personnel for the library, and half of the council members 一 the people you wish to convince — remember their eighth-grade grammar teacher's warning about splitting infinitives. How will they respond when you tell them, in your introduction, that librarians are compelled "to always accompany" visitors to the rare book room because of the threat of vandalism? 1

(B) How much of their attention have you suddenly lost because of their automatic recollection of what is now a nonrule? It is possible, in other words, to write correctly and still offend your readers' notions of your language competence. 2

(C) For example, look again at the old grammar rule forbidding the splitting of infinitives. After decades of telling students to never split an infinitive (something just done in this sentence), most composition experts now concede that a split infinitive is not a grammar crime. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


100. 20영독 10-2

 

While we dislike failing in our regular endeavors, games are an entirely different thing, a safe space in which failure is okay, neither painful nor the least unpleasant.


(A) To prevent other people from achieving their goals is usually hostile behavior that may end friendships, but we regularly prevent other players from achieving their goals when playing friendly games. Games, in this view, are something different from the regular world, a frame in which failure is not the least distressing. 1

(B) The phrase "It's just a game" suggests that this would be the case. And we do often take what happens in a game to have a different meaning from what is outside a game. 0

(C) Yet this is clearly not the whole truth: we are often upset when we fail, we put in considerable effort to avoid failure while playing a game, and we will even show anger toward those who foiled our clever in-game plans. In other words, we often argue that in-game failure is something harmless and neutral, but we repeatedly fail to act accordingly. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


101. 20영독 10-3

 

Emotions can easily intrude upon the most simple messages.


(A) Mine or yours? Most likely you'd feel like socking the person who sent it. There are certainly people who can push us over the edge of civilized decorum. The question is how to respond to them. 1

(B) In this case, perhaps it's best not to respond at all. The writer is clearly upset and resentful, perhaps even insecure about something you may have said or suggested. If you receive an unsettling message such as this, do not respond immediately. No matter how justified or outraged you feel, your emotions will get the better of your ability to express your thoughts and, ironically enough, you may end up appearing the aggressor. 2

(C) Some people can send us letters and e-mail messages that are clearly hostile or nasty and tempt us to respond in kind. At times maybe we should. How would you feel if you received this message? Whose job do you think you can do better? 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


102. 20영독 10-4

 

Within my family, obtaining a university degree was never presented as a choice.


(A) I was exceptionally lucky because my parents always cultivated in my sister and me deep admiration for academic and professional achievement. As I grew up, my parents would repeat again and again that education was an investment that would always yield returns. They convinced us that knowledge was the one thing in life nobody could take away from you. 0

(B) In these circumstances, the promise of a better life depended on my parents' ability to exercise their professions in the United States and on the education my sister and I could obtain. There seemed to be no American Dream without a college degree. 2

(C) Money, properties, even loved ones could disappear. But not knowledge. This thinking had acquired greater meaning in our new context as recent immigrants facing significant scarcity. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


103. 20영독 10-57

 

While she was going to Elanor Hales's place, Anika kept thinking about the baby elephant.


(A) Can I see him?" Mrs. Hales laughed and said, "Yes, he is. He's still weak, but he has a good chance of surviving." A sense of comfort filled Anika. "I've named him Kioko. I will show you around," Mrs. Hales said. Mrs. Hales took Anika to where they were taking care of elephants. There were two other small elephants. All of them were having a mud bath out front. Kioko was there. An animal caretaker was rubbing cool, muddy water behind Kioko's ear. Kioko leaned against her and touched her with his trunk. Anika wanted to go pet Kioko, but Mrs. Hales said no. She said Kioko needed to feel peacefully secure. It wouldn't be good for strangers to pet him yet. 1

(B) 'Would he still be alive?' she thought. As soon as the car stopped at Elanor Hales's place, Anika burst out of the car. She was in a hurry to see if the baby elephant was still alive. Then she saw an older woman who was standing with her arm around an eland, a large African antelope. She was talking to some people and patting the eland. She looked over at Anika and then walked over. She was barefoot. The eland followed her. "You must be Anika," she said. "I'm Elanor Hales." Her voice was very English, clipped, and no-nonsense. She had kind eyes. Anika blurted, "Is he still alive? Is the baby elephant still alive? 0

(C) Mrs. Hales explained that baby elephants die unless they feel safe and get lots of attention. The tiny ones used to die, even with lots of attention. After having tea in the veranda, it was time for Anika to leave. She looked at Elanor Hales and said "Mrs. Hales, is there any chance I could work with you?" Mrs. Hales raised her eyebrows. "What do you mean by work?" she asked. "Anything there is to do. I could learn immense amounts from you," Anika said. "Well," Mrs. Hales said in a dry voice, "what good would you be to me? I have workers already who know the animals." Anika shrugged and raised her hands. Mrs. Hales laughed, "Write to me. I'll consider it." She shook Anika's hand and said goodbye. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


104. 20영독 10-8

 

Avoid the myth that writing is easier at the last minute.


(A) It's a popular, but dangerous myth. Last-minute deadlines are more likely to create stress that can paralyze your thinking and ability to write. You may feel "energized" by the stress, but the stress also undermines your ability to make logical connections and correct choices while writing. Inevitably, last-minute writing results in embarrassing mistakes, omissions, and a lack of clarity. 0

(B) Always read what you've written out loud. Reading out loud will reveal errors and omissions that you didn't notice the previous day. Reading out loud helps you locate run-on sentences, awkward phrases, and unnecessary ideas. 2

(C) Finish a day ahead of time, and review your work the next day. Never post, publish, or submit a project immediately after you finish writing. Instead, put it aside for an hour, or — even better — overnight. Then, carefully review what you've written. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


105. 20영독 10-9

 

Composers compose music.


(A) They write down a series of dots and lines on a page; then performers come along with their instruments and voices, look at the dots and lines on the page, and make sounds from them. It's all very mysterious. Or is it? 0

(B) There's no musical sound meaning 'sausage' or 'dirty laundry', for instance. On the other hand, a musical sentence, or phrase, can sound happy, sad, thoughtful, nostalgic and eager — all at the same time! Words would get exhausted if they tried to express as many meanings as that. 2

(C) After all, these words you're reading are just another series of dots and lines; you know what they mean, so you can look at them and make sounds (and sense) from them. So maybe music is really just another language, with its own meaning; but there IS something more magical about music than about any other language. The range of sounds is far, far huger than that of any spoken language; and because they aren't tied to any specific meaning, the sounds can express much more. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


106. 20영독 10-10

 

In judging that a particular explanation is the best one, you need to compare it with other possible explanations; and the more alternatives you are able to imagine, the better your judgement is likely to be.


(A) Similarly, when you make a moral judgement about someone's behaviour, not only do you need to look at what they actually did, but you also need to imagine what they could have done. 1

(B) In science, a chemist working with the same data as their colleagues may reject an 'obvious' explanation of the phenomena because they have the intellectual ability to imagine a range of different explanations and the judgement to be able to choose between them. 0

(C) If someone does something bad, your judgement is likely to be harsher if you think there were better choices available to them, and more lenient if you think they really had no choice. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


107. 20영독 10-11

 

Solving the productivity problem is a double-edged sword.


(A) As soon as the business sector raises productivity and salaries start to rise in absolute terms, wage disparities between poorly trained and highly trained workers are likely to become more pronounced. While the rising tide of higher salaries will lift more people above the poverty line, the income differences among different sectors of society are likely to grow. 0

(B) In an economy dominated by innovation and mass customization, the highly skilled and the highly trained are likely to prosper. 2

(C) As companies strive to become more productive as well as more innovative in differentiating their products from their competitors, they will increasingly either spin off low-paying, low-value jobs to Third World countries or eliminate them altogether through automation. The remaining high-value, high-paying jobs are thus likely to require an increasingly well-educated labor force. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


108. 20영독 10-1214

 

Once upon a time there was a woman named June.


(A) He thought the best way to teach me self-reliance was to never encourage or praise me. He wanted me to be tough and independent." "Two or three times a week, we played catch. Sometimes we would play catch with a baseball, at other times with a football. Either way, the goal was always the same. I was to catch the ball ten times straight. I would catch that ball eight or nine times, but always on the tenth, he would do anything to make me miss. He would throw it on the ground or over my head, but always so I had little chance of catching it." Michael paused for a long moment and then finished, "He never let me catch the tenth ball ― never! No matter how hard I tried, he always set me up to fail. And I guess that's why I have to get away from my father's business; I want to catch the tenth ball." 2

(B) He had witnessed this frustration in other parents. Knowing June's disappointment was genuine, he agreed to talk with Michael. Michael arrived early for their appointment. Rather than being reluctant to talk, Michael jumped right into the reasons for his decision. Michael explained, "There was a time when I would have loved nothing more than to run my father's business. As a boy, I idealized my dad. I wanted to please him. I wanted to hear him say he was proud of me. But you need to understand the relationship. My father was a driven man who came up the hard way. He was determined to teach me self-reliance, but his method was demoralizing. 1

(C) June was the widow of a successful entrepreneur. Over a period of twenty-six years her late husband, Walter, had built a family-owned corner drugstore into a chain of fifty-eight stores with annual sales in excess of 326 million dollars. June and Walter were the parents of a single child, Michael. As Michael grew toward adulthood, his mother assumed that Michael would follow in his father's footsteps. As president and CEO, Michael would fulfill his father's vision of one hundred stores with annual sales of over four hundred million dollars. This, June believed, was the only course her son's life could take. June was to be disappointed. When Michael completed undergraduate school, he announced he would not be entering the family business. Upset and worried, June sought the advice of an old family friend. The old friend, who happened to be a retired high school principal, listened patiently as June wandered through various stages of grief — denial, anger, depression, and back to anger. June's pain was not new to the former principal. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


109. 20영독 11-1

 

To many people, having a goal is synonymous with commitment, and commitment to a goal — in turn — is nearly synonymous with success.


(A) Quitting, on the other hand, is reserved for the morally and physically weak. As you might guess, we challenge the notion that giving up (an indisputable psychological discomfort, by the way) is so awful. Blind devotion to goals has led to, among other things, "gold fever," most often associated with the California Gold Rush, when miners expended enormous physical, emotional, and financial capital in their fruitless pursuit of riches. 1

(B) Legendary boxer Muhammad Ali once remarked, "I hated every minute of training but I said, 'Don't quit. Suffer now and live the rest of your life as a champion."' And there you have it ― the clear sentiment that doubling down on goals is more likely to lead to success. 0

(C) In fact, researcher Eva Pomerantz of the University of Illinois argues that heavy investment in a goal can erode a person's psychological quality of life by creating a spike in their anxiety. This is especially true when people push themselves by focusing on the potential negative impact of not achieving their goals. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


110. 20영독 11-2

 

Our insatiable appetite for seafood, coupled with the brutal efficiency of our industrial fishing technologies, has wreaked havoc.


(A) But above all, it has been a combination of government weakness, industrial greed and a scientific community lacking the courage to sound the alarm that has resulted in one of the greatest ecological tragedies of our time. Decision-makers have routinely ignored the warning signs. 0

(B) For example, in November 2008, the inappropriately named International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT) set a catch quota for bluefin tuna that is nearly 50 per cent higher than its own scientists advise. Citing concern for jobs, livelihoods and consumer interest, politicians have brought fish stocks to the brink of collapse, and by their failure, they threaten the very people in whose interests they claim to be acting. 2

(C) The reason is that they have been frightened of upsetting the 'fishing lobby'. As a result, they have set hopelessly unrealistic quotas, and have gone out of their way to appease industrial fishing companies. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


111. 20영독 11-3

 

We live in times when speed of reaction often takes precedence over slower and more cautious assessments.


(A) As we become more attuned to 'real time' events and media, we inevitably end up placing more trust in sensation and emotion than in evidence. Knowledge becomes more valued for its speed and impact than for its cold objectivity, and emotive falsehood often travels faster than fact. 0

(B) News, financial markets, friendships and work engage us in a constant flow of information, making it harder to stand back and construct a more reliable portrait of any of them. The threat lurking in this is that otherwise peaceful situations can come to feel dangerous, until eventually they really are. 2

(C) In situations of physical danger, where time is of the essence, rapid reaction makes sense. But the influence of 'real time' data now extends well beyond matters of security. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


112. 20영독 11-4

 

Quite often, a party seeking to show statistical significance combines data from different sources to create larger numbers, and hence greater significance for a given disparity.


(A) Conversely, a party seeking to avoid finding significance disaggregates data insofar as possible. In a discrimination suit brought by female faculty members of a medical school, plaintiffs aggregated faculty data over several years, while the school based its statistics on separate departments and separate years. 0

(B) When the figures were broken down by department, however, it appeared that in most departments the women's acceptance rate was higher than the men's. The reason for the reversal was that women applied in greater numbers to departments with lower acceptance rates than to the departments to which men predominantly applied. The departments were therefore variables that confounded the association between sex and admission. 2

(C) The argument for disaggregation is that pooled data may be quite misleading. A well-known study showed that at the University of California at Berkeley female applicants for graduate admissions were accepted at a lower rate than male applicants. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


113. 20영독 11-57

 

Professor Povzner taught a course at the Military Academy for Engineers.


(A) The student said, 'This is so interesting, about medieval Russian mathematics. Could you tell us, please, where we could get more information about it — what the reference books would be? I would like to learn more.' Having no time to think, the professor immediately answered: 'Well, that's impossible! All the archives were burned during the Tatar invasion!' When the class was over, the general got up slowly from his seat. 1

(B) He walked into a class one day, ready to start his lecture with a routine spiel about Russian primacy in mathematics, and then settle down to a serious session of really teaching mathematics. But to his alarm, the minute he got up in front of the class he saw that among the audience was a general, the chief of the Academy. Povzner pulled up short and decided that he had better devote the whole lecture to the subject of early Russian genius in mathematics. Luckily, he was a very talented man, good at thinking on his feet, so on the spur of the moment he invented a wonderful lecture on Russian mathematics in the twelfth century. He engaged in flights of fancy for the entire hour, stopping only five minutes before the end to ask, as was customary, 'Are there any questions?' Povzner saw that one of the students had raised his hand. 0

(C) Then he came up to the lecturer and said, 'So, Professor... All the archives were burned?' Only then did poor Povzner realize what he had said. The unspoken question hung in the air: If all the evidence of Russian primacy in this science was burned, how in the world did the professor himself know the history of pre-invasion mathematics? He was ready to panic when, unexpectedly, the general smiled at him sympathetically, turned around, and left. This high-ranking commander was a clever ancent person; otherwise Professor Povzner would have been in deep trouble. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


114. 20영독 11-8

 

When romantic partners lie to each other they do so relatively often by concealing information.


(A) There are several reasons as to why liars prefer concealments. First of all, they are difficult to detect. Once information is provided, lie detectors can verify the accuracy of this information by searching for further evidence that supports or contradicts it. 0

(B) Another problem with telling an outright lie or exaggerating is that liars need to remember the details they provided in case the topic of the lie comes up on subsequent occasions. However, they don't need to remember anything if they don't provide information (concealment). 2

(C) In the case of concealments, however, no information is given. Moreover, concealing information is relatively easy. When telling an outright lie or when exaggerating, a liar should invent a story that sounds plausible, whereas nothing needs to be invented when concealing information. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


115. 20영독 11-9

 

Control of the crime scene is obviously important.


(A) The recording of the names of those who enter and leave the defined scene (or come into contact with it) and at what time maintains the integrity of the scene management process. The scene or investigation also extends to persons removed from the scene and those who may be potentially connected with it. The availability of trained crime scene investigators to examine such scenes may not always be adequate. 1

(B) This can be done by establishing the boundary of the scene (be it a location, item, or person) and protecting it. The establishment of a cordon at a major crime scene, marking it with incident tape and protecting it with police officers, is the common practice. The same principles apply if the examination is that of a person (a suspect, victim, or witness), recovered vehicle, or any other item. 0

(C) It is a long-established principle that all areas such as scene, victim, vehicle, and suspect should be dealt with by separate scene investigators. But at some stage, most often in the laboratory, items will be examined and compared by the same scientist, where systems are also required to ensure that there is no contamination. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


116. 20영독 11-10

 

In a study, 77 undergraduate students were interviewed.


(A) During these interviews, they were presented with various events (e.g., falling on their head, getting a painful wound, or being sent to a hospital emergency room). They were told that, according to their parents, these events had occurred in their childhood. 0

(B) Guided imagery instructions were given to the participants to help them generate images for the false event (e.g., "Visualize what it might have been like and the memory will probably come back to you"). Results indicated that 26% of students "recovered" a complete memory for the false event, and another 30% recalled aspects of the false experience. 2

(C) The interviewer gave further details about the events supposedly given by the parents. Unknown to the interviewees, the events were invented by the researchers and had never happened to the participants according to their parents. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


117. 20영독 11-11

 

Noise is often thought to affect performance, as anyone who has tried to concentrate in a noisy environment can attest.


(A) Unfortunately, most of the evidence on task performance under noisy conditions comes from laboratory experiments. Based on the research conducted so far, we cannot assess whether the findings of lab research on noise will generalize to less controlled conditions in real work settings. 2

(B) Performance deficits are particularly obvious for difficult or demanding tasks. Simple or routine tasks, on the other hand, are typically not affected by noise, and sometimes noise increases performance on simple tasks. This enhancement effect probably occurs because the noise acts as a stressor, raising the person's arousal level and therefore overcoming the boredom associated with the task. 1

(C) High intensity noise clearly is related to a generalized stress response. However, the effects of noise on performance are far from clear-cut. In general, task performance is only impaired at very high noise intensities. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


118. 20영독 11-1214

 

I recently had the privilege of listening to Robert Cooper, author of Executive EQ, address an auditorium of 900 people.


(A) He described the decline in his grandfather's health and how after each major heart attack his grandfather would call Robert to his side, burning to share his latest near-death insight. Robert had us leaning forward in our seats, as he recounted his grandfather's words "I've been thinking about what is most important in life, and I've concluded that the most important thing in life is...." We wanted to share the insights of this great man. By the fourth time he had us laughing at the old man's revisions and Robert's adolescent fear that he was going to be tested on remembering what the last heart attack's "most important thing in life" was. As we continued to smile, he told us about his grandfather's last revision: "My grandfather said to me, 'Give the world the best you have and the best will come back to you. I have asked myself — what if every day I had refused to accept yesterday's definition of my best? So much would have come back to me ... to your father ... to you. But now it won't, because I didn't. 1

(B) The story he told in the first ten minutes of his speech demonstrated his authenticity. He chose to tell us "who he was" by telling a story about his grandfather, who died when Robert was sixteen years old. His father's father had four major heart attacks before he eventually died from the fifth. During that time, he had taken great care to assist in Robert's development as a young man. He invested long talks and personal time with him. We could see the love Robert felt for his grandfather when he used words to help us see this man as he saw him back then. He said, "If you could measure intelligence in the quality of intensity in a man's eyes, he surely must have been a genius." 0

(C) It is too late for me. But it's not too late for you.'" I held my breath along with everyone there at the power of a man's regret at the end of his life. "It is too late for me." Our common humanity means that we, too, will die. Every person in that audience had a flicker of awareness toward our own deaths and potential regrets. He didn't pull any punches with this story, but Robert glowed with the intensity of total authenticity and his integrity gave him the right to tell such a powerful story. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


119. 20영독 12-1

 

Clutter beats us up psychologically and physically.


(A) It clouds our minds, making it difficult to access what truly matters in our lives. According to Ab Jackson, a fellow organizer, "Are you a person that buys things that you don't need, with money that you don't have, to impress people that you don't even like?" Sound familiar? 0

(B) Why spend it performing tasks that don't match your prewired tendencies? How can we learn to do this with less stress and more grace; even, dare I say, a sense of satisfaction and pleasure? Here is where your own organizing skills can greatly assist you in feeling intact, leading a life that is proactive rather than reactive, purposeful, and ultimately satisfying. 2

(C) How reassuring would it be to get organized in a way that not only helps you cope with the basic demands of life but also gives you more energy and joy? How about a way that actually resonates with what is easy for your unique brain? We only have so much life force, so much chi, pran, or energy.1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


120. 20영독 12-2

 

TV shows were more popular in the seventies than they are now not because they were better, but because we had fewer alternatives to compete for our screen attention.


(A) The economics of the broadcast era required hit shows — big buckets — to catch huge audiences. The economics of the broadband era are reversed. Serving the same stream to millions of people at the same time is hugely expensive and wasteful for a distribution network optimized for point-to-point communications. 2

(B) But it can't do the opposite — bring a million shows to one person each. Yet that is exactly what the Internet does so well. 1

(C) What we thought was the rising tide of common culture actually turned out to be less about the triumph of Hollywood talent and more to do with the sheepherding effect of broadcast distribution. The great thing about broadcast is that it can bring one show to millions of people with unmatchable efficiency. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


121. 20영독 12-3

 

In one study Barbara Weston and I attempted to determine whether or not 2- and 3-yearold babies would show evidence of familiarity to the perfume the mother wore during regular feedings.


(A) There were two control groups: a test with an odourless cotton swab, and a test with another perfume, 'Cachet', which was not worn by any of the mothers in the experimental group. The results for 15 infants, 8 girls and 7 boys, showed 80 per cent response on trials with the perfume versus virtually zero with the odourless control. However, the infants responded about equally to mothers' perfume and the control perfume, 'Cachet'. 2

(B) After a few such exposures, we tested the babies in the laboratory. The perfume was presented to the infant on a cotton swab and the babies' sucking, respiration, general activity and heart rate were recorded on a polygraph. 1

(C) She would wear her own perfume and the same one each time. The perfumes included 'L'Air du Temps', 'Jontu' and 'Maximi'. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


122. 20영독 12-4

 

In addition to efforts to develop natural and more sustainable adhesive materials for commercial use, recent years have seen the emergence of a wide variety of "green adhesives."


(A) Low-temperature hot melt glues, for example, require less energy to melt and apply, and new cardboard and foil-based packaging has also been developed to reduce the landfill waste from plastic tube applicators. 2

(B) Efforts to produce and market these have been associated not only with the use of more sustainable raw materials but also with minimizing the environmental impacts of adhesives, particularly with regard to reducing harmful compounds and solvents contained in the adhesives. A number of governments have introduced regulations on the chemical emissions produced when using adhesives. 0

(C) These regulations have attempted to place limits on the amount of volatile organic compounds contained in adhesive products, as these compounds are thought to release hazardous air pollutants posing both health and environmental risks. Other products are designed to save energy and reduce waste. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


123. 20영독 12-57

 

Joe has one specific memory of when he was 17 years old.


(A) He had been working summers and vacations for nearly five years at his father's appliance store. Joe was out on a service call one afternoon to fix a customer's washing machine. Some members of the high school yearbook staff came into the store to get a picture of him for a story they were doing on how the senior class spent summer vacation. His dad directed them to the customer's home (it's a small-town thing). So, much to Joe's surprise, two of the prettiest girls in the senior class showed up to take his picture. At the time Joe was so self-conscious. At 17, the presence of pretty girls made him incredibly nervous. Also, he looked dirty and completely unprepared for this unannounced visit. Making it all the worse was the utilitarian way the two classmates handled the task. 0

(B) Joe remember thinking, "Really! 'Cheer up, it gets worse?' That has got to be the worst motivational speech I have ever heard in my life." Years later, he reminded his dad, now softened with age, of that conversation. He offered more nuance this time. First, he said, the phrase is true. Life is hard, but no matter how difficult today is, there will be a worse one ahead. "Cheer up, it gets worse," is not negative, he said. It is a reminder not to wallow in your troubles today because there will be a day in the future you will want to trade for today. Truly, an amazing piece of advice. 2

(C) They briefly announced the purpose of their visit, snapped two photos, and left with no more than three sentences of interaction. The manner in which they showed up, executed their chore, and exited all in the span of five minutes with not even a pleasantry was bruising to a teenage boy's ego. After completing the service call, Joe returned to the store. It was clear, even to his emotionally restricted father, that he was bummed. "What happened to you?" His father asked him. Reluctantly, Joe shared his encounter with the two girls. After listening to his story, he said, "Cheer up, it gets worse." And with that, Dad returned to the task at hand. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


124. 20영독 12-8

 

Imagine I tell you that Maddy is bad.


(A) But there is more detail nevertheless, perhaps a stronger connotation of the sort of person Maddy is. In addition, and again assuming typical linguistic conventions, you should also get a sense that I am disapproving of Maddy, or saying that you should disapprove of her, or similar, assuming that we are still discussing her moral character. 2

(B) In contrast, if I say that Maddy is wicked, then you get more of a sense of her typical actions and attitudes to others. The word 'wicked' is more specific than 'bad'. I have still not exactly pinpointed Maddy's character since wickedness takes many forms. 1

(C) Perhaps you infer from my intonation, or the context in which we are talking, that I mean morally bad. Additionally, you will probably infer that I am disapproving of Maddy, or saying that I think you should disapprove of her, or similar, given typical linguistic conventions and assuming I am sincere. However, you might not get a more detailed sense of the particular sorts of way in which Maddy is bad, her typical character traits, and the like, since people can be bad in many ways. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


125. 20영독 12-9

 

When electromagnetic wavelengths start to get too long to bend retinal (a biological chemical in the retina of the eye), we call them infrared because they are just below the visible color red.


(A) Those wavelengths shorter than visible light carry more energy. The shorter wavelength radiations (think x-rays) carry enough energy that they go beyond simply bending molecules; they can actually break them. And it is the breaking of biological molecules that results in radiation's adverse biological effects. 1

(B) In contrast, those radiations with longer wavelengths carry much less energy than light (think radio waves), not even enough to bend retinal or other biological molecules. If these low energy radiations have biological effects, their mechanism is more obscure and beyond what we currently understand about biology. 2

(C) When the wavelengths are a little too short to be seen we call them ultraviolet because they are just beyond the visible color violet. Visible light is squeezed in between the invisible infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths. If we consider visible light to be the dividing line within the universe of invisible electromagnetic waves, what can we say about wavelengths on either side of the visible? 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


126. 20영독 12-10

 

Pain has always been philosophically and politically problematic.


(A) Whereas physical injuries and diseases can be observed by others, pain has an apparently private quality, which potentially cuts the sufferer off from others. By its nature, it can be difficult to adequately communicate, a quality that led the cultural theorist Elaine Scarry to describe intense pain as "world-destroying." 0

(B) This generates its own political strains, as some sufferers are inevitably viewed as more credible than others, while some are assumed to exaggerate their pains. The politics of pain involves differing views of who deserves compassion and how much, a matter that generates its own distinctive political positions. For example, American conservatives have historically taken the harsher view that those in pain are less deserving of sympathy or pain relief. 2

(C) The sufferer feels alone with their pain, and depends on the capacity of others to empathize and to believe them. As Scarry puts it, "To have pain is to have certainty; to hear about pain is to have doubt." 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


127. 20영독 12-11

 

In the classic model of the Sumerian economy, the temple functioned as an administrative authority governing commodity production, collection, and redistribution.


(A) For that matter, it is not clear how widespread literacy was at its beginnings. The use of identifiable symbols and pictograms on the early tablets is consistent with administrators needing a lexicon that was mutually intelligible by literate and nonliterate parties. 1

(B) As cuneiform script became more abstract, literacy must have become increasingly important to ensure one understood what he or she had agreed to. 2

(C) The discovery of administrative tablets from the temple complexes at Uruk suggests that token use and consequently writing evolved as a tool of centralized economic governance. Given the lack of archaeological evidence from Uruk-period domestic sites, it is not clear whether individuals also used the system for personal agreements. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


128. 20영독 12-1214

 

Although Joyce had little patience with elderly people, she applied for the activity director position in a nursing facility.


(A) She was a broad-shouldered woman with large hands and feet, in a near prone position. She spent her days in a blue chair. Her hair, sparse and iron-gray, had twin cowlicks that caused it to stick out in all directions. Worse yet, Miss Lilly never spoke. Joyce had seen her one relative, a niece, several times. Each visit was the same. Standing a few feet in front of the blue chair, her niece would say, "Your check came, your bill is paid." Never a personal word, a hug, or any sign of affection. Months passed, and Miss Lilly seemed to shrink lower and lower down in her chair. Joyce discovered she was not eating well and gave up her lunch hour to feed Miss Lilly. Seeing how much Miss Lilly enjoyed Jell-0 and pudding, Joyce brought her extra. Joyce talked to her constantly ― about the weather, current events, anything that she could think of. 1

(B) One day, to her amazement, Miss Lilly spoke. "Bend down," Miss Lilly said. Quickly, Joyce knelt at her side. "Put your arms around me and pretend you love me," Miss Lilly whispered. "Me love Miss Lilly?" Joyce had never thought about it. Joyce gathered Miss Lilly into her arms and felt her heart bursting with love. There have been many Miss Lillys in Joyce's life since then and she knows there will be others. They are the ones who need more than kindness and care; they need a little piece of her heart. She loves each day of work, sharing with the residents with her life, her joys, and her sorrows. They share with her their past, their fear of the future, their families, and most of all, their love. Because of Miss Lilly, Joyce never feels the same about the older generation, about nursing facilities, or even about life. 2

(C) When the ringing of the telephone woke her, it was 8:05 am. The woman on the other end sounded cheerful. "I have your application for activity director," she said. "We are about to open a new unit. How soon can you be here for an interview?" Trying her best to sound awake, Joyce said, "One hour. I can come in one hour." From that day on, Joyce's life changed. Each waking moment, her thoughts are on the residents of the nursing facility. The residents fill her thoughts and her heart. Her first love was Miss Lilly, a lonely woman with only one living relative. Miss Lilly was not a pretty sight. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


129. 20영독 M3-01

 

Since the Book Tree Library was founded in 2001 as a place for research and study, we have made efforts to meet the users' various needs.


(A) Funds are needed to employ more administrative staff. For 20 years, our dream has been to build the library of everything and make it available to everyone. Please help the Book Tree Library. 1

(B) We are about to modernize our services. We strive to develop electronic library resources, as well as provide remote services to our users. We need to buy more paperback books to sustain a library you can trust. 0

(C) If everyone donates $5, we can end this fundraising campaign successfully. With your donation we can make our dream come true. If you find our library useful, please help us. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


130. 20영독 M3-02

 

It was July 1985.


(A) Billy gazed up at the enormous building with its nine floors and its thousand windows. It was the big day, a watershed in his life, and he couldn't get his head round it. He'd retired! At last! The enormity of the event began to sink in, and a shiver of joy ran down his spine. 0

(B) No more trying to persuade uncooperative colleagues to take one of his improvement courses; no more having to bow and scrape to bosses who paid lip service to the need for his job. No more having to join the morning rush hour to get to work on time. No more being ruled by the demands of tight timetables and having to jump whenever some superior gave the command. Farewell to all that! Now he knew how a prisoner felt on the day of his release when he heard the gate finally clang behind him. 2

(C) He'd left! Actually left! Finally got away from the William Pitt College of Technology. What a nightmare of a job it'd been. Now he was free. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


131. 20영독 M3-03

 

If you're a young athlete, you, your parents, and your coaches want you to experience success now because you and they believe that early success is highly predictive of later success in your sport.


(A) For example, out of the thousands of young baseball players who have competed in the Little League World Series throughout the years, fewer than 50 went on to major-league careers. In fact, phenoms are a statistical rarity, and those can't-miss kids often do miss later in their athletic careers. 1

(B) More often than not, it is the athletes who keep at it through setbacks, plateaus, and failures who ultimately "make it." Your efforts early on as you strive for your sports goals should be devoted to preparing yourself for success in the future, when it matters most, not achieving quick and immediate success. 2

(C) Our athletic culture is obsessed with the "phenom" and the "can't-miss kid," who show earlier dominance in a sport. Yet, although there have been phenoms who went on to great success later in their careers, this perception is as much fantasy as reality. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


132. 20영독 M3-04

 

Why did evolution decide to ban muscle activity during REM sleep?


(A) It wouldn't take long before you quickly left the gene pool. The brain paralyzes the body so the mind can dream safely. 2

(B) Because by eliminating muscle activity you are prevented from acting out your dream experience. During REM sleep, there is a nonstop barrage of motor commands swirling around the brain, and they underlie the movement-rich experience of dreams. 0

(C) Wise, then, of Mother Nature to have tailored a physiological straitjacket that forbids these fictional movements from becoming reality, especially considering that you've stopped consciously perceiving your surroundings. You can well imagine the disastrous outcome of falsely enacting a dream fight, or a frantic sprint from an approaching dream foe, while your eyes are closed and you have no comprehension of the world around you. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


133. 20영독 M3-05

 

When you and your daughter hear the word volunteering, what's the first image that comes to your mind?


(A) That's a long way from eating raw bugs in Africa! She found something that she loved doing and gives her time helping others. 2

(B) Donating your outgrown clothes to the Salvation Army? Maybe you think volunteering means you have to go to Africa and live in a mud hut and eat raw bugs while teaching Sunday School to starving children. Actually, those are ways to volunteer, yet the world of volunteering is much broader than the stereotypical ideas most people have. 0

(C) There are hundreds of ways to volunteer, from collecting newspapers for the Humane Society to playing the guitar at an assisted living center. There's a volunteer possibility just right for your daughter. I have a friend who loves gymnastics, so she volunteers at a local gym and teaches kids to somersault and do cartwheels. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


134. 20영독 M3-06

 

How often do we think about the air we breathe, the water we drink, or the soil our agribusiness conglomerates plant our vegetables in?


(A) Only when people can see — and smell — the air they breathe and cough when they inhale does air become a visible resource. Water, the universal solvent, causes no concern (and very little thought) until shortages occur, or until it is so foul that nothing can live in it or drink it. Only when we lack water or the quality is poor do we think of water as a resource to "worry" about. 1

(B) Is soil a resource or is it "dirt?" Unless you farm, or plant a garden, soil is only "dirt." Whether you pay any heed to the soil/dirt debate depends on what you use soil for ― and on how hungry you are. 2

(C) Not often enough. The typical attitude toward natural resources is often deliberate ignorance. Only when someone must wait in line for hours to fill the car gas tank does gasoline become a concern. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


135. 20영독 M3-07

 

Twenty to thirty years is a long time in the annals of information technology ― long enough to allow us to discern a fundamental rift between the inner workings of yesterday's and today's computational tools.


(A) In a metaphorical sense, computers are now developing their own science ― a new kind of science. Thus, just as the digital revolution of the 1990s (new machines, same old science) generated a new way of making, today's computational revolution (same machines, but a brand-new science) is generating a new way of thinking. 2

(B) At the beginning, in the 1990s, we used our brand-new digital machines to implement the old science we knew — in a sense, we carried all the science we had over to the new computational platforms we were then just discovering. 0

(C) Now, to the contrary, we are learning that computers can work better and faster when we let them follow a different, nonhuman, postscientific method; and we increasingly find it easier to let computers solve problems in their own way — even when we do not understand what they do or how they do it. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


136. 20영독 M3-09

 

Walter Mischel was born in Vienna in 1930, in a house that was a short walk away from where Sigmund Freud lived.


(A) He suggested that the early link with Freud led him to begin his career as an advocate of Freud and psychoanalysis. However, he found that the psychoanalytic approach was of little help in his work with inner-city aggressive youngsters. 1

(B) His family moved to New York when he was 10 years old to escape from the Nazis. He studied psychology but qualified as a social worker. 0

(C) This led him to undertake a PhD in psychology at Ohio State University, where he worked with George Kelly and Julian Rotter. After graduation he worked at Harvard University and then Stanford University before moving to Columbia University in 1984. While at Harvard he worked on a project assessing performance for the Peace Corps and found that global trait measures of personality were not good predictors of performance. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


137. 20영독 M3-12

 

In no way is the use of the word "concept" intended to suggest that perceiving is an intellectual operation.


(A) It seems now that the same mechanisms operate on both the perceptual and the intellectual level, so that terms like concept, judgment, logic, abstraction, conclusion, computation, are needed in describing the work of the senses. 2

(B) The processes in question must be thought of as occurring within the visual sector of the nervous system. But the term concept is intended to suggest a striking similarity between the elementary activities of the senses and the higher ones of thinking or reasoning. 0

(C) So great is this similarity that many psychologists attributed the achievements of the senses to secret aid supposedly rendered them by the intellect. Those psychologists spoke of unconscious conclusions or computations because they assumed that perception itself could do no more than mechanically register the impingements of the outer world. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


138. 20영독 M3-13

 

One alternative to self-disclosure is to keep your thoughts and feelings to yourself.


(A) Social scientists have found that people often make distinctions between "lies of omission" and "lies of commission" — and that saying nothing (omission) is usually judged less harshly than telling an outright lie (commission). One study showed that in the workplace, holding back information is often seen as a better alternative than lying or engaging in intentional deception. 2

(B) Telling the whole truth may be honest, but it can jeopardize you, the other person, and your relationship. Most thoughtful communicators would keep quiet rather than give unwanted opinions like "You look awful" or "You talk too much." 1

(C) You can get a sense of how much you rely on silence instead of disclosing by keeping a record of when you do and don't express your opinions. You're likely to find that withholding thoughts and feelings is a common approach for you. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


139. 20영독 M3-14

 

Sociologist Erving Goffman notes "that when an individual appears before others he will have many motives for trying to control the impression they receive of the situation."


(A) In words, gestures, and small signs, we leave a trail of cues that are meant to guide the responses of our audiences. No moment in the routine events of the day is too small to be completely without persuasion. 2

(B) He referred to such strategies as impression management. Since we perform many of these roles simultaneously, we are constantly faced with the imperatives of making our actions and attitudes acceptable to others. Every role we play carries a number of possible strategies for influencing others. 1

(C) We want to be liked and to have our ideas accepted. We want others to show regard for our feelings and for the values that serve as the anchors for our actions. Goffman reminds us that children, teachers, parents, close friends, employees, employers, spouses, lovers, and coworkers all have strategies for projecting their interests to those with whom they come in contact. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


140. 20영독 M3-15

 

Entrepreneurs succeed by providing customers with businesses and services they value.


(A) Business people draw on their knowledge acquired from experience to make more accurate assessments of areas of possible demand. Part of this involves getting into the heads of the consumers to see how they perceive products in relation to their needs. In so doing, you need to be aware of changes in lifestyles of consumers and their product needs. 1

(B) This requires knowledge of what people value and how to provide those goods and services. It is hard to succeed without that knowledge. The person who observes a change in consumption patterns will not necessarily realize its importance unless he or she is familiar with the product or industry. 0

(C) With this knowledge, you can create a product that connects with the changing lifestyles of the potential market. Firms that put together new combinations of technologies and build products that fit into buyers' thought systems should have greater potential for survival than those that do not. 2


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


141. 20영독 M3-16

 

The mystery of why we are attracted to sad music is a particularly fascinating paradox that has puzzled philosophers for centuries, with very little empirical research on the subject until the last decade.


(A) Research supports this idea, with findings that people do mostly prefer to listen to up-tempo music in major keys, music which is usually perceived as happy. Counterintuitively, however, in the case of music or other aesthetic experiences, the evidence suggests that we also willingly seek out experiences of sadness, even seeming to enjoy them. 1

(B) As David Hume says, "they are pleased as they are afflicted, and never so happy as when they employ tears, sobs and cries to give vent to their sorrow." 2

(C) 'Negative' emotions such as sadness are generally held to involve avoidance behaviours according to most models of emotion, impelling us to escape from situations or people that make us feel sad, thus protecting us from potential danger. We could expect, therefore, that people would usually display a preference for listening to happy music. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


142. 20영독 M3-17

 

The form of street art changes to meet the conditions of the political system.


(A) In an authoritarian system, political matters take precedence over social, cultural, and economic questions. The opposition's push is to resolve political questions first; their themes record a regime's sins. In a competitive system, once the transition questions are resolved, the street art begins to reflect an array of pressing problems — political, social, economic, or cultural in nature. These are recorded in posters, graffiti, wallpaintings, and murals. 2

(B) In open, pluralistic societies, collectives competing for political space often utilize all forms to record their historical memory. However, in noncompetitive, authoritarian systems where government dominates public space, graffiti becomes the primary medium; posters, wallpaintings, and murals are more risky. Until the twilight of the Augusto Pinochet regime, the painting of murals ceased because of the high political risks. 0

(C) Leaflets supplemented the underground graffiti. At times they were displayed as wallposters. Themes also adapt to reflect pressing national problems. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


143. 20영독 M3-18

 

The American Revolution ranks among the most written about episodes in history.


(A) It achieved independence and forged a great nation. But historians and readers have mostly approached it as an isolated American drama, the decisive formative episode in the history of the nation-state. 0

(B) Like the French Revolution, these were all profoundly affected by, and impacted on, America in ways rarely examined and discussed in broad context. 2

(C) That it also exerted an immense social, cultural, and ideological impact on the rest of the world that proved fundamental to the shaping of democratic modernity has attracted little attention since the mid-nineteenth century until very recently. The American Revolution, preceding the great French Revolution of 1789-99, was the first and one of the most momentous upheavals of a whole series of revolutionary events gripping the Atlantic world during the three-quarters of a century from 1775 to 1848-49. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


144. 20영독 M3-19

 

A very few animal species have rudimentary culture.


(A) A local troop of Japanese macaques have learned, from the example an innovative female in their midst provided, how to clean sweet potatoes by washing them in water. Equally impressive, members of at least one chimpanzee troop use bush stems stripped of leaves to fish for termite soldiers, the suicidally aggressive insect fighters that bite and hold on to any invader of their nest. Members of a second group of chimpanzees have learned from one another how to swim and dive or otherwise move through water. 0

(B) Linguists define it as the highest form of communication, an endless combination of words translatable into symbols, and arbitrarily chosen to confer meaning. They are used to label any conceivable entity, process, or one or more attributes that define entity and process. 2

(C) These are among the very rare examples of true cultures ― behavior invented by individuals and groups and passed on by the social learning of others. But no animal species, at least none out of the more than one million known, has a language. What then is language ― what exactly? 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


145. 20영독 M3-20

 

Fear of radiation is problematic considering the trend in radiation exposures.


(A) Since 1980, the background radiation exposure level for Americans has doubled, and is likely to continue to climb. Similar patterns are occurring in all of the developed and developing countries. This increase in background radiation is almost entirely due to the expanding use of radiation procedures in medicine. 0

(B) While some people are getting no medical radiation exposure at all, others are receiving substantial doses. Under such circumstances, the "average" background radiation level means little to the individual. People need to be aware of their personal radiation exposures and weigh the risks and benefits before agreeing to subject themselves to medical radiation procedures. 2

(C) The benefits of diagnostic radiology in identifying disease and monitoring treatment progress have been significant. However, radiation has also been overused in many circumstances, conveying little or no benefits to patients while still subjecting them to increased risks. Furthermore, medical radiation is not distributed evenly across the population. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


146. 20영독 M3-21

 

Unlike conventional marketing activities, like advertising and promotions, that are planned and scripted, sports events are inherently unpredictable.


(A) Fans, athletes, teams, and companies do not know outcomes. Despite even the most formidable track records of success, one cannot know for certain whether past sport performances will continue or whether expectations will be turned upside down. 0

(B) Yet sports fans follow sports partly because outcomes are not guaranteed. Fans have an emotional attachment to their favorite teams and athletes, irrespective (mostly) of their recent performances. If sports were scripted then they would lose credibility, spontaneity would be lost, and they would be no different than a conventional company-directed ad campaign. 2

(C) This very unpredictability separates sports from almost all other corporate marketing activities. Indeed, many business managers find this prospect of uncertainty distinctly uncomfortable and consequently shy away from using sports as a marketing platform. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


147. 20영독 M3-22

 

Formal education has had a major and positive impact on society, but it is also true that not all students meet their learning aspirations.


(A) This subset of problems is nevertheless fundamental to education and, in general, includes the difficulties that many students have in effectively learning and understanding new ideas and concepts, correcting misconceptions, achieving proficiency in math and reading, and thinking critically. Even in the best of circumstances, many students will still struggle, and many of the efforts of cognitive and educational psychologists are aimed at helping students more effectively learn and teachers more effectively teach. 2

(B) Many children and adults struggle to learn and many are left behind. The problems that undermine their efforts to succeed (and instructors' efforts to help them) arise from numerous sources. 0

(C) A short list includes poor nutrition, poor physical or mental health, a lack of motivation, boredom, social and interpersonal problems at school or at home, ineffective approaches to learning, learning disabilities, and poor access to educational resources. Successfully solving these problems will require many solutions and only a subset of them are targeted by cognitive psychologists. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


148. 20영독 M3-23

 

Whereas nineteenth-century dietary reformers worried that we'd stopped baking our own bread, today's food evangelists worry that we've stopped cooking altogether.


(A) It's true that families eat out more than in the past. And women spend less time cooking than they did a few generations ago. 0

(B) The difference is that these women previously worked inside the home, as domestic laborers, rather than in restaurants. At the peak, almost two million domestic workers were employed in American households. Anthropologist Amy Trubek notes that idealized visions of home cooking persistently neglect "the many generations of paid cooks who first worked in homes and then in commercial settings to make these meals possible." 2

(C) But oversimplified comparisons of today's families with those of previous generations fail to acknowledge the fact that Americans have long depended on the labor of others to get dinner on the table. Poor white women and women of color prepared many people's meals a century ago, just as they do today. 1


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


149. 20영독 M3-2425

 

In an experiment, more than one hundred volunteers were shown two photographs, each of a woman's face.


(A) That is, immediately after deciding that woman A was more attractive, a double-card ploy was used to confront subjects with the picture of woman B and they had to explain why they chose her (the two women depicted on the photos were quite distinct). Remarkably, most of the time the subjects were fooled. Only in fewer than 25% of trials were participants aware that their original choice was not honored, that they had been fooled. Most of the time, they ignored the discrepancy between their original conscious decision and what they were told they had decided. 1

(B) And even more remarkably, they proceeded to justify this choice even though it contradicted what they actually did a few seconds earlier: "She's radiant. I would rather have approached her than the other one. I like her earrings," even though the original choice looked solemn and had no earrings. What choice blindness reveals is that people often have no idea why they choose the way they do. But their urge to explain their actions is such that this does not prevent them from making up a story on the spot, confabulating without knowing it. 2

(C) After looking at both pictures for a few seconds, they had to choose the one that looked most attractive to them. Immediately after three such choices, subjects were shown again the face they had just chosen and were asked to explain their choice. They readily complied. On three other trials, the experimentalist, in a sleight of hand, exchanged the picture of the chosen woman with the opposite image. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


150. 20영독 M3-2628

 

It was one of the great moments in Australian sport.


(A) And it's you, Betty Cuthbert.' Betty's knees tremble with emotion. And yet, though hands reach out to support her, she waves them away, stands tall for the national anthem, then makes her way, still upright and unaided, 100 metres or more back into the bowels of the stadium ― using all those qualities of pride, resilience and strength that had made her such a champion all those years ago. Just one step inside the tunnel, however, the instant she is out of public view, she collapses into the arms of officials. There is a flood of tears, of pain from the multiple sclerosis and sheer emotion. It takes a while, but after she sobs out the story of what Raelene had said to her on the dais, everyone within earshot is crying too. 2

(B) But not for this occasion! No, to give Raelene her medal, Betty is determined to do it on her own two feet, and now, painfully, slowly, makes her way forward unaided right to the dais in the centre of the stadium. As the crowd roars even more, she reaches up with the gold medal to put it around the neck of the crowd's heroine, while the big screen flashes the very words the announcer is intoning to the stadium, 'RAELENE — OUR GOLDEN GIRL.' But now, as Raelene leans further forward, it brings her mouth close to Betty's ear, enabling her to whisper, 'Don't believe it. There's only one golden girl. 1

(C) You see, when Raelene Boyle won gold in her last race, at the Brisbane Commonwealth Games in 1982 — roaring home in the 400 metres ― the stadium roared even as the nation came to a standstill. Raelene, a beloved figure, who had been denied gold in the previous two Olympics at the hands of East Germans, had at least and at last the perfect finish to her career. And who has been organised to present the medal at such an emotion-charged, proud, national moment? Why, none other than Betty Cuthbert! Betty, a legend of her own time, had three Olympic gold medals to her credit from a quarter-century earlier, before she contracted multiple sclerosis — which is why in 1982 she was mostly wheelchair-bound. 0


① A-C-B ② B-A-C ③ B-C-A ④ C-A-B ⑤ C-B-A

 


[ANSWER]
1. ⑤ 2. ③ 3. ③ 4. ③ 5. ④ 6. ① 7. ④ 8. ⑤ 9. ① 10. ③


11. ③ 12. ① 13. ⑤ 14. ① 15. ② 16. ③ 17. ② 18. ③ 19. ② 20. ②


21. ① 22. ④ 23. ① 24. ② 25. ④ 26. ④ 27. ① 28. ⑤ 29. ⑤ 30. ⑤


31. ⑤ 32. ① 33. ③ 34. ③ 35. ③ 36. ④ 37. ⑤ 38. ② 39. ① 40. ⑤


41. ③ 42. ② 43. ① 44. ① 45. ② 46. ③ 47. ③ 48. ③ 49. ② 50. ⑤


51. ① 52. ② 53. ① 54. ① 55. ② 56. ② 57. ③ 58. ② 59. ⑤ 60. ④


61. ③ 62. ③ 63. ⑤ 64. ② 65. ③ 66. ④ 67. ④ 68. ① 69. ② 70. ②


71. ④ 72. ③ 73. ⑤ 74. ⑤ 75. ④ 76. ③ 77. ① 78. ⑤ 79. ⑤ 80. ①


81. ④ 82. ① 83. ③ 84. ③ 85. ③ 86. ② 87. ③ 88. ⑤ 89. ② 90. ⑤


91. ③ 92. ④ 93. ⑤ 94. ④ 95. ③ 96. ① 97. ③ 98. ③ 99. ④ 100. ②


101. ④ 102. ① 103. ② 104. ① 105. ① 106. ② 107. ① 108. ⑤ 109. ② 110. ①


111. ① 112. ① 113. ② 114. ① 115. ② 116. ① 117. ⑤ 118. ② 119. ① 120. ⑤


121. ⑤ 122. ③ 123. ① 124. ⑤ 125. ④ 126. ① 127. ④ 128. ④ 129. ② 130. ①


131. ④ 132. ③ 133. ③ 134. ④ 135. ③ 136. ② 137. ③ 138. ⑤ 139. ⑤ 140. ②


141. ④ 142. ③ 143. ① 144. ① 145. ① 146. ① 147. ③ 148. ① 149. ④ 150. ⑤


 

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