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from17 고1-3 어법모음 2018 All Rights Reserved. Written by Wayne.



The competition to sell manuscripts to publishers ①is fierce. I would estimate that less than one percent of the material ②sent to publishers is ever published. Since so much material is being written, publishers can be very selective. The material they choose to publish must not only have commercial value, but ③being very competently written and free of editing and factual errors. Any manuscript that contains errors stands ④little chance at being accepted for publication. Most publishers will not want to waste time with writers ⑤whose material contains too many mistakes.

The competition ⌈manuscripts / sell / to / to / publishers⌋ ①is fierce.



I would ⌈that / less / than / estimate / one⌋ percent of ⌈the / publishers / material / to / ②sent⌋ is ever ⌈published.⌋



Since so ⌈material / is / written, / being / much⌋ publishers can ⌈be / selective. / very⌋



The material ⌈to / choose / must / they / publish⌋ not only ⌈commercial / value, / ③being / but / have⌋ very competently ⌈of / free / and / editing / written⌋ and factual ⌈errors.⌋



Any manuscript ⌈that / errors / ④little / contains / stands⌋ chance at ⌈accepted / publication. / being / for⌋



Most publishers ⌈will / to / want / waste / not⌋ time with ⌈contains / too / material / writers / ⑤whose⌋ many mistakes.



Cutting costs can improve profitability but only up to a point. If the manufacturer cuts costs so deeply ①that doing so harms the product’s quality, then the increased profitability will be short­lived. A better approach is to improve productivity. If businesses can get more production from the same number of employees, they’re ②basically tapping into free money. They get more product to sell, and the price of each product falls. As long as the machinery or employee training ③needed for productivity improvements costs less than the value of the productivity gains, it’s an easy investment for any business to make. Productivity improvements are as important to the economy as they ④do to the individual business that’s making them. Productivity improvements generally raise the standard of living for everyone and ⑤are a good indication of a healthy economy.
Cutting costs ⌈improve / can / profitability / but / only⌋ up to ⌈point. / a⌋



If the ⌈costs / so / manufacturer / cuts / deeply⌋ ①that doing ⌈so / the / product’s / quality, / harms⌋ then the ⌈will / increased / short­lived. / profitability / be⌋



A better ⌈is / to / improve / approach / productivity.⌋



If businesses ⌈production / get / from / can / more⌋ the same ⌈of / employees, / ②basically / they’re / number⌋ tapping into ⌈money. / free⌋



They get ⌈to / product / more / sell, / and⌋ the price ⌈of / product / each / falls.⌋



🌚As long ⌈or / as / the / employee / machinery⌋ training ③needed ⌈productivity / improvements / costs / less / for⌋ than the ⌈value / of / gains, / the / productivity⌋ it’s an ⌈easy / investment / business / any / for⌋ to make.



Productivity improvements ⌈important / to / are / the / as⌋ economy as ⌈④do / they / the / to / individual⌋ business that’s ⌈making / them.⌋



Productivity improvements ⌈generally / of / standard / the / raise⌋ living for ⌈good / ⑤are / and / everyone / a⌋ indication of ⌈healthy / economy. / a⌋



English speakers have one of the simplest systems for describing familial relationships. Many African language speakers would consider it absurd to use a single word like "cousin" to describe both male and female relatives, or not to distinguish whether the person (A)[described / describing] is related by blood to the speaker’s father or to his mother. To be unable to distinguish a brother­in­law as the brother of one’s wife or the husband of one’s sister would seem confusing within the structure of personal relationships existing in many cultures. Similarly, how is it possible to make sense of a situation (B)[which / inwhich]a single word "uncle" applies to the brother of one’s father and to the brother of one’s mother? The Hawaiian language uses the same term to refer to one’s father and to the father’s brother. People of Northern Burma, who think in the Jinghpaw language, (C)[has / have] eighteen basic terms for describing their kin. Not one of them can be directly translated into English.
☆English speakers ⌈of / one / simplest / the / have⌋ systems for ⌈familial / relationships. / describing⌋



🌚Many African ⌈would / speakers / language / it / consider⌋ absurd to ⌈use / like / single / a / word⌋ "cousin" to ⌈male / both / and / female / describe⌋ relatives, or ⌈not / whether / to / the / distinguish⌋ person (A)[described ⌈is / by / / / describing] / related⌋ blood to ⌈to / the / his / father / or / mother. / speaker’s⌋



🌚To be ⌈distinguish / brother­in­law / unable / a / to⌋ as the ⌈or / wife / one’s / of / brother⌋ the husband ⌈of / sister / seem / one’s / would⌋ confusing within ⌈the / structure / of / personal / relationships⌋ existing in ⌈many / cultures.⌋



🌚Similarly, how ⌈is / it / to / make / possible⌋ sense of ⌈situation / (B)[which / inwhich]a / a / /⌋ single word ⌈the / brother / to / applies / "uncle"⌋ of one’s ⌈and / brother / father / the / to⌋ of one’s ⌈mother?⌋



The Hawaiian ⌈term / language / the / same / uses⌋ to refer ⌈one’s / to / to / and / father⌋ the father’s brother.



People of ⌈who / in / Northern / Burma, / think⌋ the Jinghpaw ⌈have] / language, / eighteen / / / (C)[has⌋ basic terms ⌈for / describing / kin. / their⌋



☆Not one ⌈of / can / directly / them / be⌋ translated into English.



What comes to mind when we think about time? Let us go back to 4,000 B.C. in ancient China where some early clocks were invented. ①To demonstrate the idea of time to temple students, Chinese priests used to dangle a rope from the temple ceiling with knots representing the hours. They would light it with a flame from the bottom so that it burnt evenly, ②indicating the passage of time. Many temples burnt down in those days. The priests were obviously not too happy about that until someone invented a clock ③was made of water buckets. It worked by punching holes in a large bucket ④full of water, with markings representing the hours, to allow water to flow out at a constant rate. The temple students would then measure time by how fast the bucket drained. It was much better than burning ropes for sure, but more importantly, it taught the students ⑤that once time was gone, it could never be recovered.
What comes ⌈when / think / to / we / mind⌋ about time?



Let us ⌈to / B.C. / back / 4,000 / go⌋



in ancient ⌈China / some / clocks / early / where⌋ were invented.



🌚①To demonstrate ⌈the / idea / time / to / of⌋ temple students, ⌈Chinese / dangle / to / priests / used⌋ a rope ⌈from / temple / the / ceiling / with⌋ knots representing ⌈the / hours.⌋



They would ⌈a / with / flame / it / light⌋ from the ⌈that / so / bottom / it / burnt⌋ evenly, ②indicating ⌈of / passage / the / time.⌋



Many temples ⌈burnt / days. / down / those / in⌋



The priests ⌈happy / not / were / too / obviously⌋ about that ⌈clock / a / invented / someone / until⌋ ③was made ⌈water / buckets. / of⌋



🌚It worked ⌈holes / in / punching / a / by⌋ large bucket ⌈water, / markings / of / with / ④full⌋ representing the ⌈to / allow / hours, / to / water⌋ flow out ⌈rate. / constant / at / a⌋



The temple ⌈would / students / time / then / measure⌋ by how ⌈bucket / the / drained. / fast⌋



🌚It was ⌈burning / ropes / than / much / better⌋ for sure, ⌈but / more / it / importantly, / taught⌋ the students ⌈time / gone, / once / was / ⑤that⌋ it could ⌈never / be / recovered.⌋



Take time to read the comics. This is worthwhile not just because they will make you laugh but ①because they contain wisdom about the nature of life. Charlie Brown and Blondie are part of my morning routine and help me ②to start the day with a smile. When you read the comics section of the newspaper, ③cutting out a cartoon that makes you laugh. Post it wherever you need it most, such as on your refrigerator or at work—so that every time you see it, you will smile and feel your spirit ④lifted. Share your favorites with your friends and family so that everyone can get a good laugh, too. Take your comics with you when you go to visit sick friends ⑤who can really use a good laugh.
Take time ⌈comics. / to / the / read⌋



This is ⌈because / not / just / worthwhile / they⌋ will make ⌈you / but / laugh / ①because / they⌋ contain wisdom ⌈of / life. / about / the / nature⌋



Charlie Brown ⌈part / of / and / are / Blondie⌋ my morning ⌈routine / help / me / and / ②to⌋ start the ⌈day / smile. / a / with⌋



When you ⌈comics / the / of / read / section⌋ the newspaper, ⌈out / ③cutting / a / that / cartoon⌋ makes you laugh.



🌚Post it ⌈wherever / most, / need / you / it⌋ such as ⌈at / refrigerator / on / your / or⌋ work—so that ⌈every / it, / time / see / you⌋ you will ⌈smile / and / feel / your / spirit⌋ ④lifted.



Share your ⌈with / and / favorites / your / friends⌋ family so ⌈that / everyone / a / can / get⌋ good laugh, too.



Take your ⌈you / comics / you / when / with⌋ go to ⌈visit / friends / sick / can / ⑤who⌋ really use ⌈good / laugh. / a⌋



Are you honest with yourself about your strengths and weaknesses? Get to really know ①yourself and learn what your weaknesses are. Accepting your role in your problems ②mean that you understand the solution lies within you. If you have a weakness in a certain area, get educated and do ③what you have to do to improve things for yourself. If your social image is terrible, look within yourself and take the necessary steps to improve ④it, TODAY. You have the ability to choose how to respond to life. Decide today to end all the excuses, and stop ⑤lying to yourself about what is going on. The beginning of growth comes when you begin to personally accept responsibility for your choices.
Are you ⌈yourself / with / about / your / honest⌋ strengths and weaknesses?



Get to ⌈and / learn / ①yourself / know / really⌋ what your ⌈are. / weaknesses⌋



Accepting your ⌈role / in / problems / your / ②mean⌋ that you ⌈understand / within / the / solution / lies⌋ you.



If you ⌈weakness / a / a / have / in⌋ certain area, ⌈and / educated / do / get / ③what⌋ you have ⌈to / do / things / to / improve⌋ for yourself.



If your ⌈is / social / image / look / terrible,⌋ within yourself ⌈steps / and / necessary / the / take⌋ to improve ⌈④it, / TODAY.⌋



You have ⌈choose / the / to / how / ability⌋ to respond ⌈to / life.⌋



Decide today ⌈to / all / excuses, / end / the⌋ and stop ⌈what / yourself / about / ⑤lying / to⌋ is going on.



The beginning ⌈of / growth / when / you / comes⌋ begin to ⌈personally / for / responsibility / your / accept⌋ choices.



In perceiving changes, we tend to regard the most recent ①ones as the most revolutionary. This is often inconsistent with the facts. Recent progress in telecommunications technologies is not more revolutionary than ②what happened in the late nineteenth century in relative terms. Moreover, in terms of the consequent economic and social changes, the Internet revolution has not been as ③important as the washing machine and other household appliances. These things, by vastly reducing the amount of work needed for household chores, ④allowing women to enter the labor market and virtually got rid of professions like domestic service. We should not "put the telescope backward" when we look into the past and underestimate the old and overestimate the new. This leads us ⑤to make all sorts of wrong decisions about national economic policy, corporate policies, and our own careers.
In perceiving ⌈changes, / regard / we / to / tend⌋ the most ⌈most / the / recent / as / ①ones⌋ revolutionary.



This is ⌈facts. / often / with / inconsistent / the⌋



Recent progress ⌈telecommunications / not / is / in / technologies⌋ more revolutionary ⌈in / ②what / than / the / happened⌋ late nineteenth ⌈relative / terms. / century / in⌋



🌚Moreover, in ⌈of / the / consequent / terms / economic⌋ and social ⌈changes, / has / Internet / revolution / the⌋ not been ⌈as / / ③important⌋ as the ⌈washing / and / machine / other / household⌋ appliances.



🌚These things, ⌈vastly / amount / the / by / reducing⌋ of work ⌈for / ④allowing / household / chores, / needed⌋ women to ⌈labor / and / the / market / enter⌋ virtually got ⌈like / rid / of / domestic / professions⌋ service.



We should ⌈the / telescope / not / backward" when / "put⌋ we look ⌈underestimate / the / and / into / past⌋ the old ⌈and / the / overestimate / new.⌋



This leads ⌈us / make / ⑤to / all / sorts⌋ of wrong ⌈decisions / about / policy, / economic / national⌋ corporate policies, ⌈careers. / and / own / our⌋



Impressionist paintings are probably most popular; it is an easily understood art which does not ask the viewer ①to work hard to understand the imagery. Impressionism is ‘comfortable’ to look at, with its summer scenes and bright colours ②appealing to the eye. It is important to remember, however, that this new way of painting was challenging to its public not only in the way that it was made but also in ③that was shown. They had never seen ④such ‘informal’ paintings before. The edge of the canvas cut off the scene in an arbitrary way, as if snapped with a camera. The subject matter included modernization of the landscape; railways and factories. Never before had these subjects been considered ⑤appropriate for artists.
🌚Impressionist paintings ⌈popular; / are / it / most / probably⌋ is an ⌈which / does / understood / easily / art⌋ not ask ⌈viewer / work / hard / the / ①to⌋ to understand ⌈the / imagery.⌋



Impressionism is ⌈to / ‘comfortable’ / with / at, / look⌋ its summer ⌈②appealing / colours / bright / scenes / and⌋ to the eye.



🌚It is ⌈however, / important / that / remember, / to⌋ this new ⌈was / of / painting / way / challenging⌋ to its ⌈the / in / public / only / not⌋ way that ⌈was / also / but / it / made⌋ in ③that ⌈was / shown.⌋



They had ⌈④such / seen / paintings / ‘informal’ / never⌋ before.



The edge ⌈the / canvas / cut / off / of⌋ the scene ⌈as / an / arbitrary / way, / in⌋ if snapped ⌈a / with / camera.⌋



The subject ⌈matter / included / the / of / modernization⌋ landscape; railways ⌈factories. / and⌋



Never before ⌈subjects / had / been / these / considered⌋ ⑤appropriate for artists.



One of the simplest and most effective ways to build empathy in children ①is to let them play more on their own. Unsupervised kids are not reluctant to tell one another how they feel. In addition, children at play often take on other roles, pretending to be Principal Walsh or Josh’s mom, happily forcing ②themselves to imagine how someone else thinks and feels. Unfortunately, free play is becoming rare. Boston College research professor Peter Gray has documented a continuous and ③ultimately dramatic decline in children’s opportunities to play and explore in their own chosen ways over the past fifty years in the United States and other developed countries. The effects have been especially ④damaged, he argues, to empathy. He concludes that a decline of empathy and a rise in narcissism are exactly ⑤what we would expect to see in children who have little opportunity to play socially.
One of ⌈most / effective / and / simplest / the⌋ ways to ⌈build / in / ①is / children / empathy⌋ to let ⌈their / on / more / play / them⌋ own.



Unsupervised kids ⌈not / tell / are / reluctant / to⌋ one another ⌈how / they / feel.⌋



🌚In addition, ⌈children / play / at / often / take⌋ on other ⌈be / to / pretending / roles, / Principal⌋ Walsh or ⌈forcing / ②themselves / mom, / happily / Josh’s⌋ to imagine ⌈how / thinks / and / someone / else⌋ feels.



Unfortunately, free ⌈becoming / play / is / rare.⌋



🌚Boston College ⌈research / has / Peter / professor / Gray⌋ documented a ⌈continuous / decline / and / ③ultimately / dramatic⌋ in children’s ⌈play / opportunities / explore / and / to⌋ in their ⌈own / over / ways / chosen / the⌋ past fifty ⌈United / States / years / in / the⌋ and other ⌈countries. / developed⌋



The effects ⌈④damaged, / especially / have / he / been⌋ argues, to empathy.



🌚He concludes ⌈a / decline / of / that / empathy⌋ and a ⌈exactly / rise / in / narcissism / are⌋ ⑤what we ⌈expect / to / in / see / would⌋ children who ⌈to / opportunity / have / play / little⌋ socially.



In early modern Europe, transport by water was usually much cheaper than transport by land. An Italian printer calculated in 1550 ①that to send a load of books from Rome to Lyons would cost 18 scudi by land compared with 4 by sea. Letters were normally carried overland, but a system of transporting letters and newspapers, as well as people, by canal boat ②developed in the Dutch Republic in the seventeenth century. The average speed of the boats was a little over four miles an hour, ③slow compared to a rider on horseback. On the other hand, the service was regular, frequent and cheap, and allowed communication not only between Amsterdam and the smaller towns, but also between one small town and another, thus ④equalizing accessibility to information. It was only in 1837, with the invention of the electric telegraph, that the traditional link between transport and the communication of messages ⑤were broken.
In early ⌈by / transport / modern / Europe, / water⌋ was usually ⌈transport / by / than / much / cheaper⌋ land.



🌚An Italian ⌈1550 / ①that / printer / in / calculated⌋ to send ⌈books / a / load / of / from⌋ Rome to ⌈scudi / Lyons / 18 / would / cost⌋ by land ⌈sea. / 4 / by / with / compared⌋



🌚☆Letters were ⌈a / normally / carried / but / overland,⌋ system of ⌈newspapers, / transporting / and / as / letters⌋ well as ⌈②developed / people, / boat / canal / by⌋ in the ⌈seventeenth / Republic / the / in / Dutch⌋ century.



The average ⌈speed / was / the / of / boats⌋ a little ⌈over / hour, / an / four / miles⌋ ③slow compared ⌈on / rider / horseback. / to / a⌋



🌚On the ⌈service / other / the / hand, / was⌋ regular, frequent ⌈allowed / and / communication / cheap, / and⌋ not only ⌈the / Amsterdam / between / and / smaller⌋ towns, but ⌈small / one / also / between / town⌋ and another, ⌈to / information. / ④equalizing / accessibility / thus⌋



🌚It was ⌈the / in / with / only / 1837,⌋ invention of ⌈telegraph, / that / the / electric / the⌋ traditional link ⌈the / transport / between / and / communication⌋ of messages ⌈broken. / ⑤were⌋



Though most bees fill their days visiting flowers and collecting pollen, some bees take advantage of the hard work of others. These thieving bees sneak into the nest of an ①unsuspecting "normal" bee (known as the host), lay an egg near the pollen mass being gathered by the host bee for her own offspring, and then sneak back out. When the egg of the thief hatches, it kills the host’s offspring and then eats the pollen meant for ②its victim. Sometimes called brood parasites, these bees are also referred to as cuckoo bees, because they are similar to cuckoo birds, which lay an egg in the nest of another bird and ③leaves it for that bird to raise. They are more ④technically called cleptoparasites. Clepto means "thief" in Greek, and the term cleptoparasite refers specifically to an organism ⑤that lives off another by stealing its food. In this case the cleptoparasite feeds on the host’ hard-earned pollen stores.
Though most ⌈fill / bees / days / their / visiting⌋ flowers and ⌈take / pollen, / collecting / bees / some⌋ advantage of ⌈the / work / hard / of / others.⌋



🌚☆These thieving ⌈sneak / into / the / nest / bees⌋ of an ⌈(known / bee / ①unsuspecting / as / "normal"⌋ the host), ⌈lay / near / egg / the / an⌋ pollen mass ⌈by / being / gathered / host / the⌋ bee for ⌈own / offspring, / then / her / and⌋ sneak back ⌈out.⌋



When the ⌈thief / the / hatches, / of / egg⌋ it kills ⌈host’s / then / and / offspring / the⌋ eats the ⌈pollen / ②its / meant / victim. / for⌋



🌚☆관계대명사_계속적용법
Sometimes ⌈parasites, / brood / bees / called / these⌋ are also ⌈cuckoo / referred / bees, / as / to⌋ because they ⌈similar / to / birds, / cuckoo / are⌋ which lay ⌈in / the / an / nest / egg⌋ of another ⌈③leaves / bird / it / for / and⌋ that bird ⌈to / raise.⌋



They are ⌈more / ④technically / called / cleptoparasites.⌋



Clepto means ⌈and / Greek, / in / the / "thief"⌋ term cleptoparasite ⌈organism / refers / specifically / to / an⌋ ⑤that lives ⌈by / stealing / its / another / off⌋ food.



In this ⌈on / case / cleptoparasite / the / feeds⌋ the host’ ⌈hard-earned / pollen / stores.⌋



The most dramatic and significant contacts between civilizations were ①when people from one civilization conquered and eliminated the people of another. These contacts normally were not only violent but brief, and ②they occurred only occasionally. Beginning in the seventh century A.D., relatively ③sustained and at times intense intercivilizational contacts did develop between Islam and the West and Islam and India. Most commercial, cultural, and military interactions, however, were within civilizations. While India and China, for instance, were on occasion invaded and subjected by other peoples (Moguls, Mongols), both civilizations ④having extensive times of "warring states" within their own civilization as well. Similarly, the Greeks fought each other and traded with each other far more often than they ⑤did with Persians or other non­Greeks.
The most ⌈and / contacts / between / significant / dramatic⌋ civilizations were ⌈from / one / ①when / civilization / people⌋ conquered and ⌈of / another. / people / eliminated / the⌋



☆These contacts ⌈only / normally / violent / were / not⌋ but brief, ⌈only / ②they / occasionally. / and / occurred⌋



🌚Beginning in ⌈seventh / the / relatively / century / A.D.,⌋ ③sustained and ⌈contacts / times / intercivilizational / at / intense⌋ did develop ⌈the / and / between / Islam / West⌋ and Islam ⌈and / India.⌋



Most commercial, ⌈interactions, / and / cultural, / military / however,⌋ were within civilizations.



🌚While India ⌈were / and / instance, / China, / for⌋ on occasion ⌈and / by / other / subjected / invaded⌋ peoples (Moguls, ⌈Mongols), / ④having / extensive / both / civilizations⌋ times of ⌈own / their / within / "warring / states"⌋ civilization as ⌈well.⌋



Similarly, the ⌈Greeks / other / each / and / fought⌋ traded with ⌈more / far / other / each / often⌋ than they ⌈with / Persians / ⑤did / other / or⌋ non­Greeks.



The lack of real, direct experience in and with nature has caused many children to regard the natural world as mere abstraction, that fantastic, beautifully filmed place ①filled with endangered rainforests and polar bears in peril. This overstated, often fictionalized version of nature is no more real―and yet no less real―to them than the everyday nature right outside their doors, ②waits to be discovered in a child’s way, at a child’s pace. Consider the University of Cambridge study which found that a group of eight-year-old children was able to identify ③substantially more characters from animations than common wildlife species. One wonders whether our children’s inherent capacity to recognize, classify, and order information about their environment―abilities once essential to our very survival―is slowly devolving to facilitate life in ④their increasingly virtualized world. It’s all part of ⑤what Robert Pyle first called "the extinction of experience."
🌚The lack ⌈direct / experience / real, / of / in⌋ and with ⌈children / caused / has / nature / many⌋ to regard ⌈the / as / mere / natural / world⌋ abstraction, that ⌈place / filmed / fantastic, / ①filled / beautifully⌋ with endangered ⌈polar / and / rainforests / bears / in⌋ peril.



🌚This overstated, ⌈fictionalized / of / often / nature / version⌋ is no ⌈yet / more / no / real―and / less⌋ real―to them ⌈right / nature / than / the / everyday⌋ outside their ⌈②waits / to / doors, / discovered / be⌋ in a ⌈at / way, / child’s / child’s / a⌋ pace.



🌚Consider the ⌈University / of / which / study / Cambridge⌋ found that ⌈group / a / children / of / eight-year-old⌋ was able ⌈to / ③substantially / characters / more / identify⌋ from animations ⌈than / wildlife / species. / common⌋



🌚One wonders ⌈our / whether / inherent / capacity / children’s⌋ to recognize, ⌈order / classify, / about / and / information⌋ their environment―abilities ⌈essential / to / very / our / once⌋ survival―is slowly ⌈in / devolving / facilitate / life / to⌋ ④their increasingly ⌈world. / virtualized⌋



It’s all ⌈of / part / Robert / Pyle / ⑤what⌋ first called ⌈extinction / experience." / of / "the⌋



People seeking legal advice should be assured, when discussing their rights or obligations with a lawyer, ①which the latter will not disclose to third parties the information provided. Only if this duty of confidentiality is respected ②will people feel free to consult lawyers and provide the information required for the lawyer to prepare the client’s defense. Regardless of the type of information ③disclosed, clients must be certain that it will not be used against them in a court of law, by the authorities or by any other party. It is generally considered to be a condition of the good functioning of the legal system and, thus, in the general interest. Legal professional privilege is ④much more than an ordinary rule of evidence, limited in its application to the facts of a particular case. It is a fundamental condition on which the administration of justice as a whole ⑤rests.
🌚People seeking ⌈should / advice / assured, / be / legal⌋ when discussing ⌈rights / obligations / or / their / with⌋ a lawyer, ⌈will / the / latter / ①which / not⌋ disclose to ⌈information / parties / third / provided. / the⌋



🌚Only if ⌈this / is / duty / of / confidentiality⌋ respected ②will ⌈to / feel / consult / people / free⌋ lawyers and ⌈provide / information / for / required / the⌋ the lawyer ⌈the / to / prepare / client’s / defense.⌋



🌚Regardless of ⌈type / information / the / of⌋ ⌈③disclosed, / be / must / certain / clients⌋ that it ⌈be / used / against / will / not⌋ them in ⌈of / law, / court / by / a⌋ the authorities ⌈or / party. / other / by / any⌋



It is ⌈considered / a / be / to / generally⌋ condition of ⌈the / the / good / of / functioning⌋ legal system ⌈and, / the / thus, / general / in⌋ interest.



Legal professional ⌈privilege / is⌋ ④much ⌈rule / an / than / more / ordinary⌋ of evidence, ⌈application / to / limited / its / in⌋ the facts ⌈particular / of / a / case.⌋



It is ⌈which / a / on / condition / fundamental⌋ the administration ⌈a / whole / justice / as / of⌋ ⑤rests.



Psychologists who study giving behavior ①have noticed that some people give substantial amounts to one or two charities, while others give small amounts to many charities. Those who donate to one or two charities seek evidence about what the charity is doing and ②what it is really having a positive impact. If the evidence indicates that the charity is really helping others, they make a substantial donation. Those who give small amounts to many charities are not so interested in whether what they are ③doing helps others─psychologists call them warm glow givers. Knowing that they are giving makes ④them feel good, regardless of the impact of their donation. In many cases the donation is so small─$10 or less─that if they stopped ⑤to think, they would realize that the cost of processing the donation is likely to exceed any benefit it brings to the charity.
🌚Psychologists who ⌈noticed / study / giving / ①have / behavior⌋ that some ⌈to / give / amounts / substantial / people⌋ one or ⌈charities, / others / give / while / two⌋ small amounts ⌈many / to / charities.⌋



🌚Those who ⌈donate / to / or / two / one⌋ charities seek ⌈what / evidence / charity / about / the⌋ is doing ⌈really / and / is / ②what / it⌋ having a ⌈impact. / positive⌋



If the ⌈that / the / charity / indicates / evidence⌋ is really ⌈they / a / others, / helping / make⌋ substantial donation.



🌚Those who ⌈small / give / many / amounts / to⌋ charities are ⌈in / whether / interested / so / not⌋ what they ⌈are / ③doing / call / others─psychologists / helps⌋ them warm ⌈givers. / glow⌋



Knowing that ⌈④them / giving / makes / they / are⌋ feel good, ⌈of / impact / regardless / the / of⌋ their donation.



🌚***In many ⌈the / donation / cases / is / so⌋ small─$10 or ⌈less─that / stopped / if / they / ⑤to⌋ think, they ⌈realize / the / cost / that / would⌋ of processing ⌈likely / donation / to / the / is⌋ exceed any ⌈brings / the / it / benefit / to⌋ charity.



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