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from 18์ˆ˜ํŠน9 2018 All Rights Reserved. Written by Wayne | Contact us: wayne36@daum.net | Web: wayne.tistory.com


Guitar
#9-1 ๋‚ฑ๋ง?
๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿฟํ•ด์„ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ์— ์ฝ๊ธฐ
๊ธฐ์ˆ  ๋ฐœ์ „์€ ๋†’์€ ์ˆ˜์ค€์˜ ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜๋“ค์ด ๋” ๋น ๋ฅด๊ฒŒ ์›€์ง์ด๊ณ , ๋” ๋†’์ด ๋›ฐ์–ด์˜ค๋ฅด๋ฉฐ, ๋” ์„ธ๊ฒŒ ์น˜๊ณ , ์ž์‹ ๋“ค์˜ ๊ฒฌ์‹คํ•จ์„ ํ–ฅ์ƒํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์„ ๊ฐ€๋Šฅํ•˜๊ฒŒ ํ•  ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ๋ช‡๋ช‡ (๊ธฐ์ˆ ) ๋ฐœ์ „์—๋Š” ๋˜ํ•œ ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜์˜ ์‹ ์ฒด์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ฆ๋Œ€๋œ ์œ„ํ—˜์ด ๋”ฐ๋ฅผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š”๋ฐ, ๊ทธ ์‹ ์ฒด๋Š” ๋™์ž‘์˜ ์ฆ๋Œ€๋œ ํž˜์„ ๊ฒฌ๋””์ง€ ๋ชปํ• ์ง€๋„ ๋ชจ๋ฅด๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์ด๋‹ค. ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ์ ์œผ๋กœ, ๋ถ€์ƒ์˜ ์ถ”์  ๊ด€์ฐฐ์ด ์ƒˆ๋กœ์šด ๊ธฐ์ˆ ์„ ๋ฐ›์•„๋“ค์ด๋Š” ์—˜๋ฆฌํŠธ ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜๋“ค์˜ ๋ถ€์ƒ์„ ๋ง‰๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ๋Œ€๋‹จํžˆ ์ค‘์š”ํ•˜๋‹ค. ์•ฝ 30๋…„ ์ „์— ํ’‹๋ณผ ๊ฒฝ๊ธฐ์žฅ์— ์ธ์กฐ ์ž”๋””๋ฅผ ์„œ๋‘˜๋Ÿฌ ์„ค์น˜ํ•˜๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์—์„œ ํ•œ ๊ฐ€์ง€ ์ข‹์€ ์˜ˆ๋ฅผ ์ฐพ์„ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜๋“ค์€ ์ธ์กฐ ์ž”๋”” ์œ„์—์„œ ๋” ๋น ๋ฅด๊ฒŒ ๋‹ฌ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๋” ๋†’์ด ๋›ฐ์–ด์˜ค๋ฅผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์—ˆ์ง€๋งŒ, ๋ถ€์ƒ ๋น„์œจ์€ ์ธ๊ฐ„์˜ ๊ด€์ ˆ์ด ๊ทธ ํž˜์„ ๊ฒฌ๋”œ ์ˆ˜ ์—†์—ˆ๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์— ํญ๋ฐœ ์ ์œผ๋กœ ์ฆ๊ฐ€ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ์ ์œผ๋กœ, ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜๋“ค๊ณผ ์ฝ”์น˜๋“ค์€ ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜๋“ค์˜ ๊ฒฝ๋ ฅ๊ณผ ๊ฑด๊ฐ•์„ ๋ณดํ˜ธํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ์ฒœ์—ฐ ์ž”๋”” ๊ฒฝ๊ธฐ์žฅ์œผ๋กœ์˜ ํšŒ๊ท€๋ฅผ ๊ฐ•์ œํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿฟ๋ณธ๋ฌธ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ์— ์ฝ๊ธฐ
Technological advances will enable high-performance athletes to move faster, jump higher, hit harder, and improve their consistency. However, some advances may also carry increased (A) [risk / benefit] to the athlete's body, which may not stand up to the increased forces of movement. As a result, injury monitoring is critical in order to prevent harm to elite athletes who (B) [embrace / resist] new technology. A good example can be found in the rush to install synthetic turf on football fields some 30 years ago. Athletes could run faster and jump higher on the artificial turf, but the rate of injuries exploded because human joints simply could not withstand the force. As a result, athletes and coaches (C) [forced / prohibited] a return to natural grass fields in order to protect athletes' careers and health.


Technological advances / will โŒˆenable ๊ฐ€๋Šฅํ•˜๊ฒŒ ํ•˜๋‹ค, ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ฒŒ ํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ high-performance โŒˆathletes ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜โŒ‹ / to move faster, โŒˆjump ์ฆ๊ฐ€ํ•˜๋‹ค, ์ ํ”„โŒ‹ higher, hit harder, / and โŒˆimprove ๊ฐœ์„ ํ•˜๋‹ค, ํ–ฅ์ƒํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ their โŒˆconsistency ์ผ๊ด€์„ฑ, ๋†๋„โŒ‹. ๊ธฐ์ˆ  ๋ฐœ์ „์€ ๋†’์€ ์ˆ˜์ค€์˜ ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜๋“ค์ด ๋” ๋น ๋ฅด๊ฒŒ ์›€์ง์ด๊ณ , ๋” ๋†’์ด ๋›ฐ์–ด์˜ค๋ฅด๋ฉฐ, ๋” ์„ธ๊ฒŒ ์น˜๊ณ , ์ž์‹ ๋“ค์˜ ๊ฒฌ์‹คํ•จ์„ ํ–ฅ์ƒํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์„ ๊ฐ€๋Šฅํ•˜๊ฒŒ ํ•  ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.
  




However, some advances / may also carry โŒˆincreased ์ฆ๋Œ€ํ•œโŒ‹ (A) [risk / โŒˆbenefit ์ด์ต, ํ˜œํƒโŒ‹] / to the โŒˆathlete ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜โŒ‹'s body, which / may not stand up / to the โŒˆincreased ์ฆ๋Œ€ํ•œโŒ‹ โŒˆforces ๊ตฐ๋Œ€, ๊ฐ•์š”ํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ of โŒˆmovement ์šด๋™, ์›€์ง์ž„โŒ‹. ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ๋ช‡๋ช‡ (๊ธฐ์ˆ ) ๋ฐœ์ „์—๋Š” ๋˜ํ•œ ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜์˜ ์‹ ์ฒด์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ฆ๋Œ€๋œ ์œ„ํ—˜์ด ๋”ฐ๋ฅผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š”๋ฐ, ๊ทธ ์‹ ์ฒด๋Š” ๋™์ž‘์˜ ์ฆ๋Œ€๋œ ํž˜์„ ๊ฒฌ๋””์ง€ ๋ชปํ• ์ง€๋„ ๋ชจ๋ฅด๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์ด๋‹ค.
  




As a โŒˆresult ๊ฒฐ๊ตญ, ๊ฒฐ๊ณผโŒ‹, โŒˆinjury ๋ถ€์ƒ, ์†์ƒโŒ‹ โŒˆmonitoring ๊ฐ์‹œํ•˜๋‹ค, ๋ชจ๋‹ˆํ„ฐโŒ‹ / is โŒˆcritical ์ค‘์š”ํ•œ, ๋น„ํŒ์ ์ธโŒ‹ / in order / to โŒˆprevent ๋ง‰๋‹ค, ์˜ˆ๋ฐฉํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ โŒˆharm ํ•ด์น˜๋‹ค, ํ”ผํ•ด๋ฅผ ์ž…ํžˆ๋‹คโŒ‹ / to elite โŒˆathletes ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜โŒ‹ who (B) [embrace / โŒˆresist ์ €ํ•ญํ•˜๋‹ค, ์ฐธ๋‹คโŒ‹] new technology. ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ์ ์œผ๋กœ, ๋ถ€์ƒ์˜ ์ถ”์  ๊ด€์ฐฐ์ด ์ƒˆ๋กœ์šด ๊ธฐ์ˆ ์„ ๋ฐ›์•„๋“ค์ด๋Š” ์—˜๋ฆฌํŠธ ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜๋“ค์˜ ๋ถ€์ƒ์„ ๋ง‰๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ๋Œ€๋‹จํžˆ ์ค‘์š”ํ•˜๋‹ค.
  




A good example / can be found / in the โŒˆrush ์„œ๋‘๋ฅด๋‹ค, ๊ธ‰ํ•œโŒ‹ / to install synthetic โŒˆturf ์˜์—ญ, ์„ธ๋ ฅ๊ถŒโŒ‹ / on football fields some 30 years ago. ์•ฝ 30๋…„ ์ „์— ํ’‹๋ณผ ๊ฒฝ๊ธฐ์žฅ์— ์ธ์กฐ ์ž”๋””๋ฅผ ์„œ๋‘˜๋Ÿฌ ์„ค์น˜ํ•˜๋ ค๊ณ  ํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์—์„œ ํ•œ ๊ฐ€์ง€ ์ข‹์€ ์˜ˆ๋ฅผ ์ฐพ์„ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค.
  




โŒˆathletes ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜โŒ‹ / could run faster / and โŒˆjump ์ฆ๊ฐ€ํ•˜๋‹ค, ์ ํ”„โŒ‹ higher / on the โŒˆartificial ์ธ๊ณต์˜, ์ธ์œ„์ ์ธโŒ‹ โŒˆturf ์˜์—ญ, ์„ธ๋ ฅ๊ถŒโŒ‹, but the โŒˆrate ์š”๊ธˆ, ๋น„์œจโŒ‹ of injuries exploded because human โŒˆjoints ๊ณต๋™์˜, ํ•ฉ๋™์˜โŒ‹ simply / could not โŒˆwithstand ๊ฒฌ๋””๋‹ค, ์ด๊ฒจ๋‚ด๋‹คโŒ‹ the โŒˆforce ๊ตฐ๋Œ€, ๊ฐ•์š”ํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹. ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜๋“ค์€ ์ธ์กฐ ์ž”๋”” ์œ„์—์„œ ๋” ๋น ๋ฅด๊ฒŒ ๋‹ฌ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๋” ๋†’์ด ๋›ฐ์–ด์˜ค๋ฅผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์—ˆ์ง€๋งŒ, ๋ถ€์ƒ ๋น„์œจ์€ ์ธ๊ฐ„์˜ ๊ด€์ ˆ์ด ๊ทธ ํž˜์„ ๊ฒฌ๋”œ ์ˆ˜ ์—†์—ˆ๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์— ํญ๋ฐœ ์ ์œผ๋กœ ์ฆ๊ฐ€ํ–ˆ๋‹ค.
  




As a โŒˆresult ๊ฒฐ๊ตญ, ๊ฒฐ๊ณผโŒ‹, โŒˆathletes ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜โŒ‹ / and coaches (C) [forced / โŒˆprohibited ๊ธˆ์ง€ํ•˜๋‹ค, ๋ง‰๋‹คโŒ‹] a โŒˆreturn ๋Œ์•„์˜ค๋‹ค, ๋ณต๊ท€ํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ / to โŒˆnatural ์ž์—ฐ์˜, ๋‹น์—ฐํ•œโŒ‹ โŒˆgrass ์ž”๋””, ํ’€โŒ‹ fields / in order / to โŒˆprotect ๋ณดํ˜ธํ•˜๋‹ค, ์ง€ํ‚ค๋‹คโŒ‹ โŒˆathletes ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜โŒ‹' careers / and โŒˆhealth ๊ฑด๊ฐ•, ๋ณด๊ฑดโŒ‹.๊ฒฐ๊ณผ์ ์œผ๋กœ, ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜๋“ค๊ณผ ์ฝ”์น˜๋“ค์€ ์šด๋™์„ ์ˆ˜๋“ค์˜ ๊ฒฝ๋ ฅ๊ณผ ๊ฑด๊ฐ•์„ ๋ณดํ˜ธํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ์ฒœ์—ฐ ์ž”๋”” ๊ฒฝ๊ธฐ์žฅ์œผ๋กœ์˜ ํšŒ๊ท€๋ฅผ ๊ฐ•์ œํ–ˆ๋‹ค.
  



#9-2 ๋‚ฑ๋ง?
๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿฟํ•ด์„ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ์— ์ฝ๊ธฐ
Tom์€ ๊ฐ€๋”์€ ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์ด ์œ ์šฉํ•  ๊ฒƒ์ด๋ผ๋Š” ๋ฐ์—๋Š” ๋™์˜ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ, ์ž์‹ ์˜ ๋‚ด๋น„๊ฒŒ์ด์…˜ ์‹œ์Šคํ…œ์„ ์ข‹์•„ํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š๋Š”๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ๋ฐ ๊ทธ์—๊ฒŒ๋Š” ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์„ ์ž์‹ ์˜ ํ•„์š”์— ๋งž๊ฒŒ ์กฐ์ •ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ๊ทธ ์‹œ์Šคํ…œ๊ณผ ์ƒํ˜ธ ์ž‘์šฉํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•์ด ์—†๋‹ค. ๋น„๋ก ๊ทธ๊ฐ€ '์ตœ์†Œ์‹œ๊ฐ„', '์ตœ๋‹จ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ', '์ตœ๊ณ ์˜ ๊ฒฝ์น˜' ํ˜น์€ '์œ ๋ฃŒ ๋„๋กœ ํ”ผํ•˜๊ธฐ'์™€ ๊ฐ™์€ ๋ช‡๋ช‡ ๋†’์€ ์ˆ˜์ค€์˜ ์„ ํƒ์„ ํ•  ์ˆ˜๋Š” ์žˆ์ง€๋งŒ, ์™œ ํŠน์ •ํ•œ ๊ฒฝ๋กœ๊ฐ€ ์„ ํƒ๋˜๋Š”์ง€์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด ๊ทธ๋Š” ๊ทธ ์‹œ์Šคํ…œ๊ณผ ๋…ผ์˜ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์—†๋‹ค. ๊ทธ ์‹œ์Šคํ…œ์ด ์™œ ๊ฒฝ๋กœ A๊ฐ€ ๊ฒฝ๋กœ B๋ณด๋‹ค ๋” ์ข‹๋‹ค๊ณ  ์ƒ๊ฐํ•˜๋Š”์ง€ ๊ทธ๋Š” ์•Œ ์ˆ˜ ์—†๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์ด ๊ธด ๊ตํ†ต ์‹ ํ˜ธ์™€ ๋งŽ์€ ์ˆ˜์˜ ์ •์ง€ ์‹ ํ˜ธ๋ฅผ ๊ณ ๋ คํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฑธ๊นŒ? ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๋‘ ๊ฒฝ๋กœ๊ฐ€ ํ•œ ์‹œ๊ฐ„์˜ ์ด๋™ ์‹œ๊ฐ„ ์ค‘ ์•„๋งˆ ๋‹จ 1๋ถ„ ์ •๋„๋กœ ๊ฑฐ์˜ ์ฐจ์ด๊ฐ€ ์—†์œผ๋ฉด ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ๋ ๊นŒ? ์‹œ๊ฐ„์ด ์กฐ๊ธˆ ๋” ๊ฑธ๋ ค๋„ ์•„๋งˆ ๋” ์ข‹์•„ํ•  ๊ฒƒ ๊ฐ™์€ ๋Œ€์•ˆ์„ ๊ทธ๋Š” ์ œ๊ณต๋ฐ›์ง€ ๋ชปํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ ์‹œ์Šคํ…œ์˜ ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•์€ ๊ณ„์† ๊ฐ์ถ”์–ด์ ธ ์žˆ์–ด์„œ ๊ฒฐ๊ตญ Tom์ด ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์„ ์‹ ๋ขฐํ•˜๊ณ  ์‹ถ์–ด์ง€๋”๋ผ๋„, ์นจ๋ฌต๊ณผ ๋น„๋ฐ€ ์ƒํƒœ๋กœ ์ธํ•ด ๋ถˆ์‹ ์ด ๊ฐ€์ค‘๋˜๋Š”๋ฐ, ๊ณต๋™ ์ž‘์—… ์—†์ด ๋‚ด๋ ค์ง„ ์ƒ์˜ํ•˜๋‹ฌ์‹์˜ ์‚ฌ์—… ๊ฒฐ์ •์ด ์‹ ๋ขฐ๋ฅผ ๋ฐ›์ง€ ๋ชปํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ๊ณผ ๋งˆ์ฐฌ๊ฐ€์ง€์ด๋‹ค.

๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿฟ๋ณธ๋ฌธ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ์— ์ฝ๊ธฐ
Tom dislikes his navigation system, even though he agrees that at times it would be useful. But he has no way to โ‘  interact with the system to tailor it to his needs. Even if he can make some high-level choices โ€”"fastest," "shortest," "most scenic," or "avoid toll road" โ€”he can't discuss with the system why a โ‘ก particular route is chosen. He can't know why the system thinks route A is better than route B. Does it take into account the long traffic signals and the large number of stop signs? And what if two routes barely โ‘ข differ, perhaps by just a minute out of an hour's journey? He isn't given โ‘ฃ alternatives that he might well prefer despite a slight cost in time. The system's methods remain โ‘ค evident so that even if Tom were tempted to trust it, the silence and secrecy promotes distrust, just as top-down business decisions made without collaboration are distrusted.


Tom โŒˆdislikes ์‹ซ์–ดํ•˜๋‹ค, ์‹ซ์ŒโŒ‹ his โŒˆnavigation ๋„ค๋น„๊ฒŒ์ด์…˜, ํ•ญํ•ดโŒ‹ โŒˆsystem ์‹œ์Šคํ…œ, ์ œ๋„โŒ‹, even though he โŒˆagrees ๋™์˜ํ•˜๋‹ค, ํ•ฉ์˜ํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ / that / at times it / would be useful. Tom์€ ๊ฐ€๋”์€ ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์ด ์œ ์šฉํ•  ๊ฒƒ์ด๋ผ๋Š” ๋ฐ์—๋Š” ๋™์˜ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ, ์ž์‹ ์˜ ๋‚ด๋น„๊ฒŒ์ด์…˜ ์‹œ์Šคํ…œ์„ ์ข‹์•„ํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š๋Š”๋‹ค.
  




But he / has no way / to โ‘  interact / with the โŒˆsystem ์‹œ์Šคํ…œ, ์ œ๋„โŒ‹ / to โŒˆtailor ๋งž์ถ”๋‹ค, ์žฌ๋‹จ์‚ฌโŒ‹ it / to his needs. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ๋ฐ ๊ทธ์—๊ฒŒ๋Š” ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์„ ์ž์‹ ์˜ ํ•„์š”์— ๋งž๊ฒŒ ์กฐ์ •ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ๊ทธ ์‹œ์Šคํ…œ๊ณผ ์ƒํ˜ธ ์ž‘์šฉํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•์ด ์—†๋‹ค.
  




Even / if he / can make some high-level โŒˆchoices ์„ ํƒ, ๊ฒฐ์ •โŒ‹ โ€”"fastest," "shortest," "most scenic," or "avoid โŒˆtoll ๋Œ€๊ฐ€, ํ”ผํ•ดโŒ‹ road" ๋น„๋ก ๊ทธ๊ฐ€ '์ตœ์†Œ์‹œ๊ฐ„', '์ตœ๋‹จ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ', '์ตœ๊ณ ์˜ ๊ฒฝ์น˜' ํ˜น์€ '์œ ๋ฃŒ ๋„๋กœ ํ”ผํ•˜๊ธฐ'์™€ ๊ฐ™์€ ๋ช‡๋ช‡ ๋†’์€ ์ˆ˜์ค€์˜ ์„ ํƒ์„ ํ•  ์ˆ˜๋Š” ์žˆ์ง€๋งŒ, ์™œ ํŠน์ •ํ•œ ๊ฒฝ๋กœ๊ฐ€ ์„ ํƒ๋˜๋Š”์ง€์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด ๊ทธ๋Š” ๊ทธ ์‹œ์Šคํ…œ๊ณผ ๋…ผ์˜ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์—†๋‹ค.
  




โ€”he / can't โŒˆdiscuss ๋…ผ์˜ํ•˜๋‹ค, ํ† ๋ก ํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ / with the โŒˆsystem ์‹œ์Šคํ…œ, ์ œ๋„โŒ‹ / why a โ‘ก particular โŒˆroute ๊ธธ, ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•โŒ‹ / is โŒˆchosen ์„ ํƒ๋œ, ์„ ๋ฐœ๋œโŒ‹. ๊ทธ ์‹œ์Šคํ…œ์ด ์™œ ๊ฒฝ๋กœ A๊ฐ€ ๊ฒฝ๋กœ B๋ณด๋‹ค ๋” ์ข‹๋‹ค๊ณ  ์ƒ๊ฐํ•˜๋Š”์ง€ ๊ทธ๋Š” ์•Œ ์ˆ˜ ์—†๋‹ค.
  




He / can't know / why the โŒˆsystem ์‹œ์Šคํ…œ, ์ œ๋„โŒ‹ thinks โŒˆroute ๊ธธ, ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•โŒ‹ A / is better / than โŒˆroute ๊ธธ, ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•โŒ‹ B. ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์ด ๊ธด ๊ตํ†ต ์‹ ํ˜ธ์™€ ๋งŽ์€ ์ˆ˜์˜ ์ •์ง€ ์‹ ํ˜ธ๋ฅผ ๊ณ ๋ คํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฑธ๊นŒ?
  




Does it take / into โŒˆaccount ์ฐจ์ง€ํ•˜๋‹ค, ๊ณ„์ขŒโŒ‹ the long โŒˆtraffic ๊ตํ†ต, ์ฐจโŒ‹ โŒˆsignals ์‹ ํ˜ธ, ์‹œ์ž‘์„ ์•Œ๋ฆฌ๋‹คโŒ‹ / and the large number of stop โŒˆsigns ๊ณ„์•ฝํ•˜๋‹ค, ์„œ๋ช…ํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹? ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๋‘ ๊ฒฝ๋กœ๊ฐ€ ํ•œ ์‹œ๊ฐ„์˜ ์ด๋™ ์‹œ๊ฐ„ ์ค‘ ์•„๋งˆ ๋‹จ 1๋ถ„ ์ •๋„๋กœ ๊ฑฐ์˜ ์ฐจ์ด๊ฐ€ ์—†์œผ๋ฉด ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ๋ ๊นŒ?
  




And what / if two โŒˆroutes ๊ธธ, ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•โŒ‹ โŒˆbarely ๊ฑฐ์˜ ~์•Š๋‹ค, ๊ฐ„์‹ ํžˆโŒ‹ โ‘ข โŒˆdiffer ๋‹ค๋ฅด๋‹ค, ์ฐจ์ด๊ฐ€ ๋‚˜๋‹คโŒ‹, perhaps by just a minute out of an hour's journey? ์‹œ๊ฐ„์ด ์กฐ๊ธˆ ๋” ๊ฑธ๋ ค๋„ ์•„๋งˆ ๋” ์ข‹์•„ํ•  ๊ฒƒ ๊ฐ™์€ ๋Œ€์•ˆ์„ ๊ทธ๋Š” ์ œ๊ณต๋ฐ›์ง€ ๋ชปํ•œ๋‹ค.
  




He / is given โ‘ฃ โŒˆalternatives ๋Œ€์•ˆ, ๋Œ€์ฒดโŒ‹ / that he / might well โŒˆprefer ์„ ํ˜ธํ•˜๋‹ค, ์ข‹์•„ํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ despite a โŒˆslight ์•ฝ๊ฐ„์˜, ์กฐ๊ธˆโŒ‹ โŒˆcost ๋น„์šฉโŒ‹ / in time. ๊ทธ ์‹œ์Šคํ…œ์˜ ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•์€ ๊ณ„์† ๊ฐ์ถ”์–ด์ ธ ์žˆ์–ด์„œ ๊ฒฐ๊ตญ Tom์ด ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์„ ์‹ ๋ขฐํ•˜๊ณ  ์‹ถ์–ด์ง€๋”๋ผ๋„, ์นจ๋ฌต๊ณผ ๋น„๋ฐ€ ์ƒํƒœ๋กœ ์ธํ•ด ๋ถˆ์‹ ์ด ๊ฐ€์ค‘๋˜๋Š”๋ฐ, ๊ณต๋™ ์ž‘์—… ์—†์ด ๋‚ด๋ ค์ง„ ์ƒ์˜ํ•˜๋‹ฌ์‹์˜ ์‚ฌ์—… ๊ฒฐ์ •์ด ์‹ ๋ขฐ๋ฅผ ๋ฐ›์ง€ ๋ชปํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ๊ณผ ๋งˆ์ฐฌ๊ฐ€์ง€์ด๋‹ค.
  




The โŒˆsystem ์‹œ์Šคํ…œ, ์ œ๋„โŒ‹'s โŒˆmethods ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•, ๋ฐฉ์‹โŒ‹ remain โ‘ค โŒˆevident ๋ถ„๋ช…ํ•œ, ๋ช…๋ฐฑํ•œโŒ‹ / so that even / if Tom / were โŒˆtempted ์‹ถ์€โŒ‹ / to โŒˆtrust ์‹ ๋ขฐ, ๋ฏฟ์ŒโŒ‹ it, the โŒˆsilence ์นจ๋ฌต, ์กฐ์šฉํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋งŒ๋“ค๋‹คโŒ‹ / and โŒˆsecrecy ๋‚ด๋ฐ€, ๋น„๋ฐ€์„ ์ง€ํ‚ค๋Š” ๋Šฅ๋ ฅโŒ‹ โŒˆpromotes ํ™๋ณดํ•˜๋‹ค, ์ด‰์ง„ํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ โŒˆdistrust ~์„ ์‹ ๋ขฐํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š๋‹ค, ๋ถˆ์‹ โŒ‹, just / as top-down business โŒˆdecisions ๊ฒฐ์ •, ํŒ๊ฒฐโŒ‹ โŒˆmade ํ™”๋‚œ, ๋ฏธ์นœโŒ‹ / without โŒˆcollaboration ํ˜‘๋ ฅ, ํ•ฉ์ž‘โŒ‹ / are โŒˆdistrusted ~์„ ์‹ ๋ขฐํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š๋‹ค, ๋ถˆ์‹ โŒ‹.
  



#9-3 ๋‚ฑ๋ง?
๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿฟํ•ด์„ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ์— ์ฝ๊ธฐ
์‚ฌํšŒ์  ๋ฐฐ์ œ์— ์˜ํ•ด ๋ฐœ์ƒ๋œ ํ”ผํ•ด๋ฅผ ์›์ƒํƒœ๋กœ ๋Œ๋ ค๋†“๋Š” ๊ฐ€์žฅ ์ง์ ‘ ์ ์ธ ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•์€ ๋‚ด์„ฑ์ ์ด๊ณ , ์™ธ๋กญ๊ณ  ์†Œ์™ธ๋œ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์„ ์‚ฌํšŒ์˜ ํฌ์šฉ ์†์œผ๋กœ ๋‹ค์‹œ ๋ฐ๋ ค์˜ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ์•ˆํƒ€๊น๊ฒŒ๋„ ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์€ ๋” ์ข‹์€ ์‚ฌํšŒ์„ฑ ๊ธฐ์ˆ ์„ ๊ฐ€์ง„ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์—๊ฒŒ ๋‹ฌ๊ฐ‘์ง€ ์•Š์€ ์ƒํ˜ธ ์ž‘์šฉ ํŒŒํŠธ๋„ˆ[์†Œํ†ต, ๊ด€๊ณ„ ํŒŒํŠธ๋„ˆ]๋กœ ์—ฌ๊ฒจ์ง€๋Š” ๊ฒฝํ–ฅ์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์ด๊ฒƒ์€ ๊ทธ๋“ค๊ณผ ์‹œ๊ฐ„์„ ๊ฐ™์ด ๋ณด๋‚ด๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด ๊ฐ๊ด€์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋œ ์œ ์ตํ•˜๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์ด๊ณ  ๊ทธ๋“ค๊ณผ ์–ด์šธ๋ฆฌ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด ์‚ฌํšŒ์˜ ๋ถ€์ •์ ์ธ ์ธ์‹์„ ์ˆ˜๋ฐ˜ํ•˜๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์ด๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋ฏ€๋กœ ํ•„์š”ํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์€ ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ์‚ฌํšŒ ๊ธฐ๊ด€๋“ค ๋‚ด์—์„œ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์ „๋ฐ˜์ ์ธ ์‚ฌํšŒ์—์„œ ์‚ฌํšŒ์  ํ™”ํ•ฉ์ด ์œ ์ง€๋˜๋„๋ก ๋ณด์žฅํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ์ •์ฑ…์ด๋‹ค. ๊ณ ๋ฆฝ๋œ ์–ด๋ฆฐ ํ•™์ƒ๋“ค์„ ๋” ์ฐธ์—ฌํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ฒŒ ํ•˜๋Š” ์ž‘์€ ๊ทœ๋ชจ์˜ ํ”„๋กœ๊ทธ๋žจ๋“ค์ด ์•„์ฃผ ์ œ๋Œ€๋กœ ํšจ๊ณผ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์„ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ์„œ์–‘ ์‚ฌํšŒ์˜ ๊ฐˆ์ˆ˜๋ก ๊ฐœ์ธ์ฃผ์˜์ ์ธ ์ถ”์„ธ๋ฅผ ๋’ค๋ฐ”๊พธ๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•œ ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•์„ ์ฐพ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์€ ํ›จ์”ฌ ๋” ๋ฌด๋ฆฌํ•œ ์ฃผ๋ฌธ์ด๋‹ค. ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๊ณต๋™์˜ ํ–‰๋ณต์„ ์†Œ์ค‘ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ƒ๊ฐํ•œ๋‹ค๋ฉด ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด ์กฐ์น˜๋ฅผ ์ทจํ•ด์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค; ์‚ฌํšŒ ํ†ตํ•ฉ์˜ ๊ฒฐ์—ฌ๋Š” ๋‹ค์ˆ˜์˜ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์‚ฌํšŒ์  ๋ณ‘๋ฆฌ์™€ ๋ฐ€์ ‘ํ•œ ๊ด€๊ณ„๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋‹ค.

๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿฟ๋ณธ๋ฌธ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ์— ์ฝ๊ธฐ
The most direct way of undoing the damage caused by social exclusion is to bring the shy, lonely, and alienated back into the embrace of society. Unfortunately, such people tend to be regarded as (A)[desirable / undesirable] interaction partners by those with greater social skills. This is because they are objectively less rewarding to spend time with and because associating with them carries with it a social stigma. What is necessary, therefore, are policies to ensure that social cohesion is (B) [maintained / disregarded] within various social institutions, and in society at large. Small-scale programs to get lonely schoolchildren more involved can work exceedingly well. However, finding ways to reverse the increasingly individualistic trend in Western societies is a much taller order. Yet, if we value our (C) [collective / individual] well-being, we should do something about it; a lack of social integration goes hand in hand with a host of other social pathologies.


The most โŒˆdirect ์ง์ ‘์˜, ๊ฐ๋…ํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ way of โŒˆundoing ์›์ƒํƒœ๋กœ ๋Œ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค, ํ’€๋‹คโŒ‹ the โŒˆdamage ํ”ผํ•ด, ์†์ƒโŒ‹ caused by โŒˆsocial ์‚ฌํšŒ์˜, ์†Œ์…œโŒ‹ โŒˆexclusion ๋ฐฐ์ œ, ์ œ์™ธโŒ‹ / is / to bring the โŒˆshy ์ˆ˜์ค์€, ๋ถ€๋„๋Ÿฌ์šดโŒ‹, โŒˆlonely ์™ธ๋กœ์šด, ํ˜ผ์žโŒ‹, / and alienated back / into the โŒˆembrace ํฌ์šฉํ•˜๋‹ค, ๋ฐ›์•„๋“ค์ด๋‹คโŒ‹ of society. ์‚ฌํšŒ์  ๋ฐฐ์ œ์— ์˜ํ•ด ๋ฐœ์ƒ๋œ ํ”ผํ•ด๋ฅผ ์›์ƒํƒœ๋กœ ๋Œ๋ ค๋†“๋Š” ๊ฐ€์žฅ ์ง์ ‘ ์ ์ธ ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•์€ ๋‚ด์„ฑ์ ์ด๊ณ , ์™ธ๋กญ๊ณ  ์†Œ์™ธ๋œ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์„ ์‚ฌํšŒ์˜ ํฌ์šฉ ์†์œผ๋กœ ๋‹ค์‹œ ๋ฐ๋ ค์˜ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.
  




Unfortunately, such people tend / to be โŒˆregarded ๊ด€๋ จ๋˜๋‹ค, ๊ฐ„์ฃผํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ / as (A)[desirable / โŒˆundesirable ํƒํƒ์น˜ ์•Š์€, ํƒํƒ์น˜ ์•Š์€ ์‚ฌ๋žŒโŒ‹] interaction partners by those / with greater โŒˆsocial ์‚ฌํšŒ์˜, ์†Œ์…œโŒ‹ โŒˆskills ๊ธฐ์ˆ , ์‹ค๋ ฅโŒ‹. ์•ˆํƒ€๊น๊ฒŒ๋„ ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์€ ๋” ์ข‹์€ ์‚ฌํšŒ์„ฑ ๊ธฐ์ˆ ์„ ๊ฐ€์ง„ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์—๊ฒŒ ๋‹ฌ๊ฐ‘์ง€ ์•Š์€ ์ƒํ˜ธ ์ž‘์šฉ ํŒŒํŠธ๋„ˆ[์†Œํ†ต, ๊ด€๊ณ„ ํŒŒํŠธ๋„ˆ]๋กœ ์—ฌ๊ฒจ์ง€๋Š” ๊ฒฝํ–ฅ์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค.
  




This / is because they / are objectively less โŒˆrewarding ๋ณด์ƒ, ๋Œ€๊ฐ€โŒ‹ / to spend time / with / and because associating / with them carries / with it a โŒˆsocial ์‚ฌํšŒ์˜, ์†Œ์…œโŒ‹ โŒˆstigma ์น˜์š•, ๋‚™์ธโŒ‹. ์ด๊ฒƒ์€ ๊ทธ๋“ค๊ณผ ์‹œ๊ฐ„์„ ๊ฐ™์ด ๋ณด๋‚ด๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด ๊ฐ๊ด€์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋œ ์œ ์ตํ•˜๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์ด๊ณ  ๊ทธ๋“ค๊ณผ ์–ด์šธ๋ฆฌ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด ์‚ฌํšŒ์˜ ๋ถ€์ •์ ์ธ ์ธ์‹์„ ์ˆ˜๋ฐ˜ํ•˜๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์ด๋‹ค.
  




What / is โŒˆnecessary ํ•„์š”ํ•œ, ํ•„์ˆ˜์ ์ธโŒ‹, โŒˆtherefore ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์„ ์œ„ํ•ด, ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์— ๋Œ€ํ•ดโŒ‹, / are policies / to โŒˆensure ~ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด, ๋ณด์žฅํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ / that โŒˆsocial ์‚ฌํšŒ์˜, ์†Œ์…œโŒ‹ cohesion / is (B) [maintained / โŒˆdisregarded ๋ฌด์‹œํ•˜๋‹ค, ์™ธ๋ฉดํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹] within โŒˆvarious ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ, ์—ฌ๋Ÿฌ๊ฐ€์ง€์˜โŒ‹ โŒˆsocial ์‚ฌํšŒ์˜, ์†Œ์…œโŒ‹ โŒˆinstitutions ๊ธฐ๊ด€, ํ˜‘ํšŒโŒ‹, / and / in society / at large. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋ฏ€๋กœ ํ•„์š”ํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์€ ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ์‚ฌํšŒ ๊ธฐ๊ด€๋“ค ๋‚ด์—์„œ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์ „๋ฐ˜์ ์ธ ์‚ฌํšŒ์—์„œ ์‚ฌํšŒ์  ํ™”ํ•ฉ์ด ์œ ์ง€๋˜๋„๋ก ๋ณด์žฅํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ์ •์ฑ…์ด๋‹ค.
  




Small-scale โŒˆprograms ํ”„๋กœ๊ทธ๋žจ, ๊ณ„ํšโŒ‹ / to get โŒˆlonely ์™ธ๋กœ์šด, ํ˜ผ์žโŒ‹ schoolchildren more โŒˆinvolved ๊ด€๋ จ๋œ, ๊ด€์—ฌํ•˜๋Š”โŒ‹ / can work โŒˆexceedingly ๋Œ€๋‹จํžˆ, ๋ชน์‹œโŒ‹ well. ๊ณ ๋ฆฝ๋œ ์–ด๋ฆฐ ํ•™์ƒ๋“ค์„ ๋” ์ฐธ์—ฌํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ฒŒ ํ•˜๋Š” ์ž‘์€ ๊ทœ๋ชจ์˜ ํ”„๋กœ๊ทธ๋žจ๋“ค์ด ์•„์ฃผ ์ œ๋Œ€๋กœ ํšจ๊ณผ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ์„ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค.
  




However, finding ways / to โŒˆreverse ๋ฐ˜๋Œ€์˜, ๋’ค์ง‘๋‹คโŒ‹ the โŒˆincreasingly ์ ์ , ๋”์šฑ ๋”โŒ‹ individualistic โŒˆtrend ์ถ”์„ธ, ๊ฒฝํ–ฅโŒ‹ / in Western societies / is a much taller order. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ์„œ์–‘ ์‚ฌํšŒ์˜ ๊ฐˆ์ˆ˜๋ก ๊ฐœ์ธ์ฃผ์˜์ ์ธ ์ถ”์„ธ๋ฅผ ๋’ค๋ฐ”๊พธ๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•œ ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•์„ ์ฐพ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์€ ํ›จ์”ฌ ๋” ๋ฌด๋ฆฌํ•œ ์ฃผ๋ฌธ์ด๋‹ค.
  




Yet, / if we โŒˆvalue ๊ฐ€์น˜๊ด€, ๊ฐ€์น˜โŒ‹ our (C) [collective / individual] well-being, we / should do something / about it; a โŒˆlack ๋ถ€์กฑ, ~์ด ์—†๋‹คโŒ‹ of โŒˆsocial ์‚ฌํšŒ์˜, ์†Œ์…œโŒ‹ integration goes hand / in hand / with a โŒˆhost ๊ฐœ์ตœํ•˜๋‹ค, ์ฃผ์ตœํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ of other โŒˆsocial ์‚ฌํšŒ์˜, ์†Œ์…œโŒ‹ pathologies.ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๊ณต๋™์˜ ํ–‰๋ณต์„ ์†Œ์ค‘ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ƒ๊ฐํ•œ๋‹ค๋ฉด ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด ์กฐ์น˜๋ฅผ ์ทจํ•ด์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค; ์‚ฌํšŒ ํ†ตํ•ฉ์˜ ๊ฒฐ์—ฌ๋Š” ๋‹ค์ˆ˜์˜ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์‚ฌํšŒ์  ๋ณ‘๋ฆฌ์™€ ๋ฐ€์ ‘ํ•œ ๊ด€๊ณ„๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋‹ค.
  



#9-4 ๋‚ฑ๋ง?
๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿฟํ•ด์„ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ์— ์ฝ๊ธฐ
๋งŒ์•ฝ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๊ฐ€ ์•ฝํ•ด์ง„๋‹ค๋ฉด, ๊ทธ๋“ค์€ ์ž์‹ ์„ ๋ณดํ˜ธํ•˜๋Š” ๋Šฅ๋ ฅ๊ณผ ํ•จ๊ป˜ ๋Œ€ํ™” ๋Šฅ๋ ฅ์„ ์žƒ์„ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ ‡์ง€ ์•Š๋‹ค๋ฉด, ์™œ ํ•ด์ถฉ์ด ์ด๋ฏธ ๊ฑด๊ฐ•์ด ์œ„ํƒœ๋กœ์›Œ์ง„ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋“ค์„ ๋ช…ํ™•ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ฐพ์•„๋‚ด๋Š”์ง€ ์„ค๋ช…ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์–ด๋ ต๋‹ค. ์ด๋ ‡๊ฒŒ ํ•˜๋ ค๊ณ , ๊ณค์ถฉ์€ ๋‚˜๋ฌด์˜ ๊ธด๊ธ‰ํ•œ ํ™”ํ•™์  ๊ฒฝ๊ณ ๋ฅผ ๋“ค์€ ๋‹ค์Œ ๊ทธ๋“ค์˜ ์žŽ์ด๋‚˜ ๊ป์งˆ์„ ํ•œ์ž… ๋ฒ ์–ด ๋ฌผ์–ด ๋ด„์œผ๋กœ์จ ๊ทธ ๋ฉ”์‹œ์ง€๋ฅผ ์ „๋‹ฌํ•˜์ง€ ๋ชปํ•˜๋Š” ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋“ค์„ ํ™•์ธํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์„ ๊ฒƒ ๊ฐ™๋‹ค. ๋‚˜๋ฌด์˜ ์นจ๋ฌต์€ ์‹ฌ๊ฐํ•œ ์งˆ๋ณ‘์ด๋‚˜ ํ˜น์€ ์•„๋งˆ๋„ ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์˜ ์ง„๊ท (็œž่Œ)๋ง์˜ ์†์‹ค์—์„œ ๊ธฐ์ธํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ๋ฐ, ์ด๋Š” ๊ทธ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋ฅผ ์ตœ๊ทผ ์†Œ์‹์œผ๋กœ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ์™„์ „ํžˆ ๊ณ ๋ฆฝ์‹œํ‚ฌ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ๊ทธ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋Š” ๋” ์ด์ƒ ๋‹ค๊ฐ€์˜ค๋Š” ์žฌ์•™์„ ์•Œ์•„์ฑŒ ์ˆ˜ ์—†๊ณ , ์• ๋ฒŒ๋ ˆ์™€ ๋”ฑ์ •๋ฒŒ๋ ˆ๋ฅผ ์œ„ํ•œ ๋ท”ํŽ˜์˜ ๋ฌธ์ด ์—ด๋ฆฐ๋‹ค.

๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿฟ๋ณธ๋ฌธ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ์— ์ฝ๊ธฐ
If trees are weakened, it could be that they lose their conversational skills along with their ability to โ‘ defend themselves. Otherwise, it's difficult to explain why insect pests โ‘ก specifically seek out trees whose health is already compromised. It's conceivable that to do this, insects listen to trees' urgent chemical warnings and then โ‘ข test trees that don't pass the message on by taking a bite out of their leaves or bark. A tree's โ‘ฃsilence could be because of a serious illness or, perhaps, the loss of its fungal network, which would leave the tree completely cut off from the latest news. The tree no longer registers approaching disaster, and the doors are โ‘ค closed for the caterpillar and beetle buffet.


If trees / are โŒˆweakened ์•ฝํ™”์‹œํ‚ค๋‹ค, ์•ฝํ•ด์ง€๋‹คโŒ‹, it / could be / that they โŒˆlose ์žƒ๋‹ค, ์ง€๋‹คโŒ‹ their conversational โŒˆskills ๊ธฐ์ˆ , ์‹ค๋ ฅโŒ‹ along / with their ability / to โ‘ defend themselves. ๋งŒ์•ฝ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๊ฐ€ ์•ฝํ•ด์ง„๋‹ค๋ฉด, ๊ทธ๋“ค์€ ์ž์‹ ์„ ๋ณดํ˜ธํ•˜๋Š” ๋Šฅ๋ ฅ๊ณผ ํ•จ๊ป˜ ๋Œ€ํ™” ๋Šฅ๋ ฅ์„ ์žƒ์„ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค.
  




Otherwise, it's โŒˆdifficult ์–ด๋ ค์šด, ํž˜๋“ โŒ‹ / to โŒˆexplain ์„ค๋ช…ํ•˜๋‹ค, ์•Œ๋ ค์ฃผ๋‹คโŒ‹ / why โŒˆinsect ๊ณค์ถฉ, ๊ณค์ถฉ๊ฐ•โŒ‹ โŒˆpests ํ•ด์ถฉ, ์œ ํ•ด๋ฌผโŒ‹ โ‘ก specifically seek out trees whose โŒˆhealth ๊ฑด๊ฐ•, ๋ณด๊ฑดโŒ‹ / is already compromised. ๊ทธ๋ ‡์ง€ ์•Š๋‹ค๋ฉด, ์™œ ํ•ด์ถฉ์ด ์ด๋ฏธ ๊ฑด๊ฐ•์ด ์œ„ํƒœ๋กœ์›Œ์ง„ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋“ค์„ ๋ช…ํ™•ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์ฐพ์•„๋‚ด๋Š”์ง€ ์„ค๋ช…ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์–ด๋ ต๋‹ค.
  




It's โŒˆconceivable ์ƒ์ƒํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š”, ์žˆ์Œ์งํ•œโŒ‹ / that / to do this, โŒˆinsects ๊ณค์ถฉ, ๊ณค์ถฉ๊ฐ•โŒ‹ listen / to trees' โŒˆurgent ๊ธด๊ธ‰ํ•œ, ๊ธด๋ฐ•ํ•œโŒ‹ โŒˆchemical ํ™”ํ•™์ ์ธ, ํ™”ํ•™๋ฌผ์งˆโŒ‹ โŒˆwarnings ๊ฒฝ๊ณ , ๊ฒฝ๋ณดโŒ‹ / and then โ‘ข test trees / that / do โŒˆpass ํ†ต๊ณผํ•˜๋‹ค, ์ง€๋‚˜๊ฐ€๋‹คโŒ‹ the โŒˆmessage ๋ฉ”์‹œ์ง€, ๋ฉ”๋ชจโŒ‹ / on by taking a โŒˆbite ์กฐ๊ธˆ, ์•ฝ๊ฐ„โŒ‹ out of their leaves or โŒˆbark ์ง–๋‹ค, ๋‚˜๋ฌด ๊ป์งˆโŒ‹. ์ด๋ ‡๊ฒŒ ํ•˜๋ ค๊ณ , ๊ณค์ถฉ์€ ๋‚˜๋ฌด์˜ ๊ธด๊ธ‰ํ•œ ํ™”ํ•™์  ๊ฒฝ๊ณ ๋ฅผ ๋“ค์€ ๋‹ค์Œ ๊ทธ๋“ค์˜ ์žŽ์ด๋‚˜ ๊ป์งˆ์„ ํ•œ์ž… ๋ฒ ์–ด ๋ฌผ์–ด ๋ด„์œผ๋กœ์จ ๊ทธ ๋ฉ”์‹œ์ง€๋ฅผ ์ „๋‹ฌํ•˜์ง€ ๋ชปํ•˜๋Š” ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋“ค์„ ํ™•์ธํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์„ ๊ฒƒ ๊ฐ™๋‹ค.
  




A tree's โ‘ฃsilence / could be because of a serious โŒˆillness ์งˆ๋ณ‘, ๋ณ‘โŒ‹ or, perhaps, the loss of its fungal โŒˆnetwork ๋„คํŠธ์›Œํฌ, ํ†ต์‹ ๋งโŒ‹, which / would leave the tree completely cut off / from the โŒˆlatest ์ตœ๊ทผ์˜, ์ด๋ฒˆโŒ‹ news. ๋‚˜๋ฌด์˜ ์นจ๋ฌต์€ ์‹ฌ๊ฐํ•œ ์งˆ๋ณ‘์ด๋‚˜ ํ˜น์€ ์•„๋งˆ๋„ ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์˜ ์ง„๊ท (็œž่Œ)๋ง์˜ ์†์‹ค์—์„œ ๊ธฐ์ธํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ๋ฐ, ์ด๋Š” ๊ทธ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋ฅผ ์ตœ๊ทผ ์†Œ์‹์œผ๋กœ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ์™„์ „ํžˆ ๊ณ ๋ฆฝ์‹œํ‚ฌ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.
  




The tree no longer โŒˆregisters ๋“ฑ๋กํ•˜๋‹ค, ๊ธฐ๋กํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ โŒˆapproaching ์ ‘๊ทผํ•˜๋‹ค, ์ ‘๊ทผ๋ฒ•โŒ‹ โŒˆdisaster ์žฌ๋‚œ, ์žฌ์•™โŒ‹, / and the doors / are โ‘ค closed for the โŒˆcaterpillar ์• ๋ฒŒ๋ ˆโŒ‹ / and โŒˆbeetle ๋”ฑ์ •๋ฒŒ๋ ˆ, ๋Œ์ถœํ•œโŒ‹ โŒˆbuffet ~์„ ์น˜๋‹คโŒ‹.๊ทธ ๋‚˜๋ฌด๋Š” ๋” ์ด์ƒ ๋‹ค๊ฐ€์˜ค๋Š” ์žฌ์•™์„ ์•Œ์•„์ฑŒ ์ˆ˜ ์—†๊ณ , ์• ๋ฒŒ๋ ˆ์™€ ๋”ฑ์ •๋ฒŒ๋ ˆ๋ฅผ ์œ„ํ•œ ๋ท”ํŽ˜์˜ ๋ฌธ์ด ์—ด๋ฆฐ๋‹ค.
  



#9-5 ๋‚ฑ๋ง?
๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿฟํ•ด์„ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ์— ์ฝ๊ธฐ
๊ณผํ•™๊ณผ ์ •์น˜ ์‚ฌ์ด์—๋Š” ๋Š์ž„์—†๋Š” ๊ฐˆ๋“ฑ์ด ์กด์žฌํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ณผํ•™์˜ ๊ด€์ ์—์„œ ๋ณด๋ฉด ์ •์ฑ…๋“ค์€ ๊ณผํ•™์  ๋ฐ์ดํ„ฐ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ฃผ์˜ ๊นŠ์€ ๊ณ ์ฐฐ์„ ๋ฐ˜์˜ํ•ด์•ผ ํ•˜๊ณ  ๊ณผํ•™์˜ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ ๋ฐ ๊ถŒ๊ณ ์™€ ์ผ์น˜ํ•ด์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ์ •์ฑ… ์ž…์•ˆ์ž์—๊ฒŒ ์กฐ์–ธ์„ ์ œ๊ณตํ•˜๋Š” ๊ณผํ•™์ž๋“ค์€ ์ •์ฑ… ์ž…์•ˆ ๊ณผ์ •์—์„œ ์ž์‹ ๋“ค์˜ ์กฐ์–ธ์ด ๋ฌด์‹œ๋˜๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ์™œ๊ณก๋œ๋‹ค๊ณ  ํ”ํžˆ ๋ถˆํ‰ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ •์น˜์  ๊ฐ€์น˜์™€ ํ•„์š”๋Š” ๊ณผํ•™์ž์— ์˜ํ•ด ์ œ์‹œ๋œ ๋ฐ์ดํ„ฐ์™€ ๋šœ๋ ท์ด ์ƒ์ถฉ๋  ์ˆ˜๋„ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ณผํ•™์ ์œผ๋กœ ๊ฒฐ์ •๋œ ๊ธฐ์ค€๊ณผ ์ •์น˜์˜ ํ˜„์‹ค์ ์ธ ํ•„์š” ์‚ฌ์ด์˜ ์ ˆ์ถฉ์•ˆ์— ํ•ด๋‹นํ•˜๋Š” ์ •์ฑ…์ด ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ๋  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ํšจ์œจ์ ์ธ ์ •์ฑ…์€ ๋น„์šฉ ํšจ์œจ์ด ๋†’๊ณ  ๊ณต์ •ํ•ด์•ผ ํ•˜๋ฉฐ ์ •๋ถ€์— ํ•œ์ •๋œ ์š”๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ํ•ด์•ผ ํ•˜๋ฉฐ ๋Œ€์ค‘์—๊ฒŒ ๊ทธ ๋ชฉํ‘œ๊ฐ€ ์ด๋ฃจ์–ด์งˆ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋ผ๋Š” ํ™•์‹ ์„ ์ค˜์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ •๋ถ€์˜ ์ž…์žฅ์ด ๋ฐ์ดํ„ฐ์— ์˜ํ•ด ๋’ท๋ฐ›์นจ๋˜์ง€ ์•Š์œผ๋ฉด (์ •๋ถ€๋Š”) ์ œ์•ˆ๋œ ๊ฒƒ์„ ๋ฐ›์•„๋“ค์ด๊ธฐ ๋ณด๋‹ค๋Š” ์ถ”๊ฐ€์˜ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ์š”๊ตฌํ•  ์ˆ˜๋„ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทน๋‹จ์ ์ธ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ์—๋Š” ์ •์น˜์˜ ๋ถ„๋ช…ํ•œ ์š”๊ตฌ์— ์ง๋ฉดํ•˜์—ฌ ๊ณผํ•™์  ๋ฐ์ดํ„ฐ๊ฐ€ ๋ฌปํž(๊ฐ์ถฐ์งˆ) ์ˆ˜๋„ ์žˆ๋‹ค.

๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿฟ๋ณธ๋ฌธ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ์— ์ฝ๊ธฐ
There is a constant tension between science and politics. From the perspective of science, policies should reflect careful consideration of the scientific data, and should be in line with the findings and recommendations of science. Scientists who offer advice to policy makers, however, often complain that their (A) input/output is ignored or distorted during the policy making process. Political values and necessities may conflict sharply with the data presented by scientists. A policy may be developed that represents a (B)compromise/comparison between the criteria determined by science and the pragmatic needs of politics. An effective policy should be costeffective and fair, place limited demands on government, and provide assurance to the public that the goals will be met. If an administration's position is not supported by the data, it may ask for further studies rather than (C) accept /uncover what is offered. In extreme cases, scientific data might be buried in the face of the apparent demands of politics.


There / is a โŒˆconstant ์ง€์†์ ์ธ, ๊ณ„์†๋˜๋Š”โŒ‹ โŒˆtension ๊ธด์žฅ, ๊ฐˆ๋“ฑโŒ‹ between science / and โŒˆpolitics ์ •์น˜, ์ •๊ณ„โŒ‹. ๊ณผํ•™๊ณผ ์ •์น˜ ์‚ฌ์ด์—๋Š” ๋Š์ž„์—†๋Š” ๊ฐˆ๋“ฑ์ด ์กด์žฌํ•œ๋‹ค.
  




From the โŒˆperspective ์‹œ๊ฐ, ๊ด€์ โŒ‹ of science, policies / should โŒˆreflect ๋ฐ˜์˜ํ•˜๋‹ค, ๋ฐ˜์„ฑํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ careful โŒˆconsideration ๊ณ ๋ ค, ๋ฐฐ๋ คโŒ‹ of the โŒˆscientific ๊ณผํ•™์ ์ธ, ์ •๋ฐ€ํ•œโŒ‹ โŒˆdata ์ž๋ฃŒ, ๋ฐ์ดํ„ฐโŒ‹, / and / should be / in line / with the findings / and โŒˆrecommendations ์ถ”์ฒœ, ๊ถŒ๊ณ โŒ‹ of science. ๊ณผํ•™์˜ ๊ด€์ ์—์„œ ๋ณด๋ฉด ์ •์ฑ…๋“ค์€ ๊ณผํ•™์  ๋ฐ์ดํ„ฐ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ฃผ์˜ ๊นŠ์€ ๊ณ ์ฐฐ์„ ๋ฐ˜์˜ํ•ด์•ผ ํ•˜๊ณ  ๊ณผํ•™์˜ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ ๋ฐ ๊ถŒ๊ณ ์™€ ์ผ์น˜ํ•ด์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค.
  




Scientists who offer โŒˆadvice ์กฐ์–ธ, ์ถฉ๊ณ โŒ‹ / to โŒˆpolicy ์ •์ฑ…, ์ œ๋„โŒ‹ โŒˆmakers ์ œ์กฐ์—…์ž, ๋งŒ๋“œ๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋žŒโŒ‹, however, often complain / that their (A) input/output / is ignored or โŒˆdistorted ์ž˜๋ชป ์ „ํ•ด์ง„, ์™œ๊ณกํ•œโŒ‹ during the โŒˆpolicy ์ •์ฑ…, ์ œ๋„โŒ‹ making โŒˆprocess ๊ณผ์ •, ์ ˆ์ฐจโŒ‹. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ์ •์ฑ… ์ž…์•ˆ์ž์—๊ฒŒ ์กฐ์–ธ์„ ์ œ๊ณตํ•˜๋Š” ๊ณผํ•™์ž๋“ค์€ ์ •์ฑ… ์ž…์•ˆ ๊ณผ์ •์—์„œ ์ž์‹ ๋“ค์˜ ์กฐ์–ธ์ด ๋ฌด์‹œ๋˜๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ์™œ๊ณก๋œ๋‹ค๊ณ  ํ”ํžˆ ๋ถˆํ‰ํ•œ๋‹ค.
  




Political โŒˆvalues ๊ฐ€์น˜๊ด€, ๊ฐ€์น˜โŒ‹ / and necessities / may โŒˆconflict ๊ฐˆ๋“ฑ, ๋ถ„์ŸโŒ‹ โŒˆsharply ๊ธ‰๊ฒฉํ•˜๊ฒŒ, ๋‚ ์นด๋กญ๊ฒŒโŒ‹ / with the โŒˆdata ์ž๋ฃŒ, ๋ฐ์ดํ„ฐโŒ‹ โŒˆpresented ํ˜„์žฌ์˜, ๋ณด์—ฌ์ฃผ๋‹คโŒ‹ by scientists. ์ •์น˜์  ๊ฐ€์น˜์™€ ํ•„์š”๋Š” ๊ณผํ•™์ž์— ์˜ํ•ด ์ œ์‹œ๋œ ๋ฐ์ดํ„ฐ์™€ ๋šœ๋ ท์ด ์ƒ์ถฉ๋  ์ˆ˜๋„ ์žˆ๋‹ค.
  




A โŒˆpolicy ์ •์ฑ…, ์ œ๋„โŒ‹ / may be developed / that โŒˆrepresents ๋Œ€ํ‘œํ•˜๋‹ค, ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚ด๋‹คโŒ‹ a (B)compromise/comparison between the criteria โŒˆdetermined ๊ฒฐ์ •๋œ, ๊ฒฐ์‹ฌํ•œโŒ‹ by science / and the pragmatic needs of โŒˆpolitics ์ •์น˜, ์ •๊ณ„โŒ‹. ๊ณผํ•™์ ์œผ๋กœ ๊ฒฐ์ •๋œ ๊ธฐ์ค€๊ณผ ์ •์น˜์˜ ํ˜„์‹ค์ ์ธ ํ•„์š” ์‚ฌ์ด์˜ ์ ˆ์ถฉ์•ˆ์— ํ•ด๋‹นํ•˜๋Š” ์ •์ฑ…์ด ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ๋  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค.
  




An โŒˆeffective ํšจ๊ณผ์ ์ธ, ํšจ๋ ฅ์žˆ๋Š”โŒ‹ โŒˆpolicy ์ •์ฑ…, ์ œ๋„โŒ‹ / should be costeffective / and โŒˆfair ๊ณต์ •ํ•œ, ๊ณตํ‰ํ•œโŒ‹, place โŒˆlimited ํ•œ์ •๋œ, ์ œํ•œ์„ ๋ฐ›์€โŒ‹ โŒˆdemands ์š”๊ตฌํ•˜๋‹ค, ์ˆ˜์š”โŒ‹ / on โŒˆgovernment ์ •๋ถ€, ๋ถ€โŒ‹, / and โŒˆprovide ์ œ๊ณตํ•˜๋‹ค, ๊ณต๊ธ‰ํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ โŒˆassurance ๋ณด์žฅ, ํ™•์–ธโŒ‹ / to the โŒˆpublic ๋Œ€์ค‘, ๊ตญ๋ฏผโŒ‹ / that the goals / will be met. ํšจ์œจ์ ์ธ ์ •์ฑ…์€ ๋น„์šฉ ํšจ์œจ์ด ๋†’๊ณ  ๊ณต์ •ํ•ด์•ผ ํ•˜๋ฉฐ ์ •๋ถ€์— ํ•œ์ •๋œ ์š”๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ํ•ด์•ผ ํ•˜๋ฉฐ ๋Œ€์ค‘์—๊ฒŒ ๊ทธ ๋ชฉํ‘œ๊ฐ€ ์ด๋ฃจ์–ด์งˆ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋ผ๋Š” ํ™•์‹ ์„ ์ค˜์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค.
  




If an โŒˆadministration ์ •๋ถ€, ํ–‰์ •โŒ‹'s โŒˆposition ์ž…์žฅ, ์ž๋ฆฌโŒ‹ / is not supported by the โŒˆdata ์ž๋ฃŒ, ๋ฐ์ดํ„ฐโŒ‹, it / may ask for further studies rather / than (C) โŒˆaccept ๋ฐ›์•„๋“ค์ด๋‹ค, ์ˆ˜์šฉํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ /uncover what / is offered. ์ •๋ถ€์˜ ์ž…์žฅ์ด ๋ฐ์ดํ„ฐ์— ์˜ํ•ด ๋’ท๋ฐ›์นจ๋˜์ง€ ์•Š์œผ๋ฉด (์ •๋ถ€๋Š”) ์ œ์•ˆ๋œ ๊ฒƒ์„ ๋ฐ›์•„๋“ค์ด๊ธฐ ๋ณด๋‹ค๋Š” ์ถ”๊ฐ€์˜ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ์š”๊ตฌํ•  ์ˆ˜๋„ ์žˆ๋‹ค.
  




In โŒˆextreme ๊ทน๋‹จ์ ์ธ, ๊ทน์‹ฌํ•œโŒ‹ โŒˆcases ๊ฒฝ์šฐโŒ‹, โŒˆscientific ๊ณผํ•™์ ์ธ, ์ •๋ฐ€ํ•œโŒ‹ โŒˆdata ์ž๋ฃŒ, ๋ฐ์ดํ„ฐโŒ‹ / might be โŒˆburied ๋ฌปํžŒ, ๋งค์žฅโŒ‹ / in the face of the โŒˆapparent ๋ถ„๋ช…ํ•œ, ๋ช…๋ฐฑํ•œโŒ‹ โŒˆdemands ์š”๊ตฌํ•˜๋‹ค, ์ˆ˜์š”โŒ‹ of โŒˆpolitics ์ •์น˜, ์ •๊ณ„โŒ‹.๊ทน๋‹จ์ ์ธ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ์—๋Š” ์ •์น˜์˜ ๋ถ„๋ช…ํ•œ ์š”๊ตฌ์— ์ง๋ฉดํ•˜์—ฌ ๊ณผํ•™์  ๋ฐ์ดํ„ฐ๊ฐ€ ๋ฌปํž(๊ฐ์ถฐ์งˆ) ์ˆ˜๋„ ์žˆ๋‹ค.
  



#9-6 ๋‚ฑ๋ง?
๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿฟํ•ด์„ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ์— ์ฝ๊ธฐ
์ผ๋ฐ˜์ ์œผ๋กœ, ์–ธ์–ด์˜ ์†Œ๋ฉธ์€ ๊ฒฝ์ œ ๋ฐœ์ „์˜ ์ˆ˜์ค€์ด ์„œ๋กœ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ๋‘ ๋ฏผ์กฑ [๋ถ€์กฑ]์˜ ๋‘ ์–ธ์–ด๊ฐ€ ์ ‘์ด‰ํ•  ๋•Œ ์ ์ง„์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋ฐœ์ƒํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ฒฝ์ œ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋œ ๋ฐœ์ „ํ•œ ์ง‘๋‹จ์—์„œ ๊ฒฝ์ œ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋” ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌํ•œ ์ง‘๋‹จ์˜ ์–ธ์–ด์— ์นœ์ˆ™ํ•œ ํ™”์ž๋Š” ๋ช…๋ฐฑํžˆ ์œ ๋ฆฌํ•œ ์ž…์žฅ์— ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋“ค์˜ 2๊ฐœ ๊ตญ์–ด ์ƒ์šฉ์€ ๊ณ ์šฉ๊ณผ ๊ธ‰์—ฌ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์ƒํ’ˆ๊ณผ ์„œ๋น„์Šค ์ด์šฉ๊ณผ ๊ฐ™์ด ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ๋‚˜์˜ค๋Š” ๋ชจ๋“  ์ด์ ๊ณผ ํ•จ๊ป˜ ๊ทธ๋“ค์ด ๋”์šฑ ๋ฐœ์ „ํ•œ ์ง‘๋‹จ์˜ ๊ฒฝ์ œ์— ์ ‘๊ทผํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ฒŒ ํ•ด ์ค€๋‹ค. ๊ทธ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋กœ ๊ทธ๋“ค์€ ์ž์‹ ์˜ ์–ธ์–ด๋ฅผ ๋œ ์œ ์šฉํ•˜๋‹ค๊ณ  ์—ฌ๊ธฐ๊ณ  ๋ฌด์‹œํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒฝํ–ฅ์ด ์žˆ๊ณ , ์ ์  ๋” ๋†’์€ ๋นˆ๋„๋กœ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์–ธ์–ด๋ฅผ ์‚ฌ์šฉํ•˜๋ฉฐ, ์ž์‹ ์˜ ์ž๋…€๋“ค์—๊ฒŒ ๊ทธ ์–ธ์–ด๋ฅผ ๋ฐฐ์šฐ๋„๋ก ๊ถŒ์žฅ ํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ์–ธ์–ด๋Š” ์–ด๋ฆฐ์ด๋“ค์ด ๋” ์ด์ƒ ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์„ ๋ฐฐ์šฐ์ง€ ์•Š์„ ๋•Œ ์†Œ๋ฉธํ•˜๊ธฐ ์‹œ์ž‘ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ด๋Ÿฐ ์‹์œผ๋กœ ์˜ˆ๋ฅผ ๋“ค์–ด ํ”„๋ž‘์Šค ๋ฐฉ์–ธ๊ณผ ๊ตฌ์†Œ๋ จ, ์ค‘๊ตญ ๋Œ€๋ฅ™, ๋Œ€๋งŒ๊ณผ ํ˜ธ์ฃผ์—์„œ ์ˆ˜๋งŽ์€ ์†Œ์ˆ˜ ์–ธ์–ด๋“ค์ด ์‚ฌ๋ผ์กŒ๋‹ค.

๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿฟ๋ณธ๋ฌธ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ์— ์ฝ๊ธฐ
As a general rule, language extinction occurs gradually when two tongues, belonging to two peoples with โ‘  different levels of economic development, come into contact. Speakers in the less economically advanced group who are familiar with the language of the more economically advanced group are at an obvious โ‘ก disadvantage. Their bilingualism gives them access to the economy of the more advanced group, with all the โ‘ข benefits that flow from it โ€”such as employment, salary and access to goods and services. As a result, they tend to consider their own language as less useful and to neglect it, using the other language with โ‘ฃ increasing frequency and encouraging their own children to learn it. However, languages begin to die when children no longer learn them. This is how French dialects and numerous minority languages in the former USSR, continental China, Taiwan and Australia, for example, have โ‘ค disappeared.


As a โŒˆgeneral ์ผ๋ฐ˜์˜, ์žฅ๊ตฐโŒ‹ โŒˆrule ๊ทœ์น™, ๊ทœ์ •โŒ‹, โŒˆlanguage ์–ธ์–ดโŒ‹ โŒˆextinction ์†Œ๋ฉธ, ๋ฉธ์ข…โŒ‹ โŒˆoccurs ๋ฐœ์ƒํ•˜๋‹ค, ์ผ์–ด๋‚˜๋‹คโŒ‹ โŒˆgradually ์ ์ฐจ์ ์œผ๋กœ, ์ ์ง„์ ์œผ๋กœโŒ‹ / when two โŒˆtongues ํ˜€, ๋งโŒ‹, โŒˆbelonging ์†ํ•˜๋‹ค, ~์˜ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹คโŒ‹ / to two peoples / with โ‘  different levels of โŒˆeconomic ๊ฒฝ์ œ์˜, ๊ฒฝ๊ธฐ์˜โŒ‹ โŒˆdevelopment ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ, ๋ฐœ์ „โŒ‹, come / into โŒˆcontact ์—ฐ๋ฝ, ์ ‘์ด‰โŒ‹. ์ผ๋ฐ˜์ ์œผ๋กœ, ์–ธ์–ด์˜ ์†Œ๋ฉธ์€ ๊ฒฝ์ œ ๋ฐœ์ „์˜ ์ˆ˜์ค€์ด ์„œ๋กœ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ๋‘ ๋ฏผ์กฑ [๋ถ€์กฑ]์˜ ๋‘ ์–ธ์–ด๊ฐ€ ์ ‘์ด‰ํ•  ๋•Œ ์ ์ง„์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋ฐœ์ƒํ•œ๋‹ค.
  




Speakers / in the less โŒˆeconomically ๊ฒฝ์ œ์ ์œผ๋กœโŒ‹ advanced group who / are โŒˆfamiliar ์ต์ˆ™ํ•œ, ์นœ์ˆ™ํ•œโŒ‹ / with the โŒˆlanguage ์–ธ์–ดโŒ‹ of the more โŒˆeconomically ๊ฒฝ์ œ์ ์œผ๋กœโŒ‹ advanced group / are / at an โŒˆobvious ๋ถ„๋ช…ํ•œ, ๋ช…๋ฐฑํ•œโŒ‹ โ‘ก โŒˆdisadvantage ๋ถˆ๋ฆฌ, ~์„ ๋ถˆ๋ฆฌํ•˜๊ฒŒ ํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹. ๊ฒฝ์ œ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋œ ๋ฐœ์ „ํ•œ ์ง‘๋‹จ์—์„œ ๊ฒฝ์ œ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋” ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌํ•œ ์ง‘๋‹จ์˜ ์–ธ์–ด์— ์นœ์ˆ™ํ•œ ํ™”์ž๋Š” ๋ช…๋ฐฑํžˆ ์œ ๋ฆฌํ•œ ์ž…์žฅ์— ์žˆ๋‹ค.
  




Their bilingualism gives them โŒˆaccess ์ ‘๊ทผ, ์ด์šฉโŒ‹ / to the โŒˆeconomy ๊ฒฝ์ œ, ๊ฒฝ๊ธฐโŒ‹ of the more advanced group, / with all the โ‘ข โŒˆbenefits ์ด์ต, ํ˜œํƒโŒ‹ / that โŒˆflow ํ๋ฅด๋‹ค, ํ๋ฆ„โŒ‹ / from it โ€”/ such as โŒˆemployment ๊ณ ์šฉ, ์ทจ์—…โŒ‹, โŒˆsalary ์›”๊ธ‰, ๊ธ‰์—ฌโŒ‹ / and โŒˆaccess ์ ‘๊ทผ, ์ด์šฉโŒ‹ / to goods / and services. ๊ทธ๋“ค์˜ 2๊ฐœ ๊ตญ์–ด ์ƒ์šฉ์€ ๊ณ ์šฉ๊ณผ ๊ธ‰์—ฌ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์ƒํ’ˆ๊ณผ ์„œ๋น„์Šค ์ด์šฉ๊ณผ ๊ฐ™์ด ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ๋‚˜์˜ค๋Š” ๋ชจ๋“  ์ด์ ๊ณผ ํ•จ๊ป˜ ๊ทธ๋“ค์ด ๋”์šฑ ๋ฐœ์ „ํ•œ ์ง‘๋‹จ์˜ ๊ฒฝ์ œ์— ์ ‘๊ทผํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ฒŒ ํ•ด ์ค€๋‹ค.
  




As a โŒˆresult ๊ฒฐ๊ตญ, ๊ฒฐ๊ณผโŒ‹, they tend / to consider their own โŒˆlanguage ์–ธ์–ดโŒ‹ / as less useful / and / to โŒˆneglect ๋ฌด์‹œ, ์†Œํ™€ํžˆ ํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ it, using the other โŒˆlanguage ์–ธ์–ดโŒ‹ / with โ‘ฃ โŒˆincreasing ์ฆ๊ฐ€ํ•˜๋Š”, ์ ์  ๋” ๋Š๋Š”โŒ‹ โŒˆfrequency ์ฃผํŒŒ์ˆ˜, ๋นˆ๋„โŒ‹ / and โŒˆencouraging ๊ฒฉ๋ คํ•˜๋Š”, ์šฉ๊ธฐ๋ฅผ ๋ถ๋‹์•„ ์ฃผ๋Š”โŒ‹ their own children / to learn it. ๊ทธ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋กœ ๊ทธ๋“ค์€ ์ž์‹ ์˜ ์–ธ์–ด๋ฅผ ๋œ ์œ ์šฉํ•˜๋‹ค๊ณ  ์—ฌ๊ธฐ๊ณ  ๋ฌด์‹œํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒฝํ–ฅ์ด ์žˆ๊ณ , ์ ์  ๋” ๋†’์€ ๋นˆ๋„๋กœ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์–ธ์–ด๋ฅผ ์‚ฌ์šฉํ•˜๋ฉฐ, ์ž์‹ ์˜ ์ž๋…€๋“ค์—๊ฒŒ ๊ทธ ์–ธ์–ด๋ฅผ ๋ฐฐ์šฐ๋„๋ก ๊ถŒ์žฅ ํ•œ๋‹ค.
  




However, โŒˆlanguages ์–ธ์–ดโŒ‹ begin / to โŒˆdie ์ฃฝ๋‹ค, ์‚ฌ๋งํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹ / when children no longer learn them. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ์–ธ์–ด๋Š” ์–ด๋ฆฐ์ด๋“ค์ด ๋” ์ด์ƒ ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์„ ๋ฐฐ์šฐ์ง€ ์•Š์„ ๋•Œ ์†Œ๋ฉธํ•˜๊ธฐ ์‹œ์ž‘ํ•œ๋‹ค.
  




This / is how French โŒˆdialects ๋ฐฉ์–ธ, ์ง€๋ฐฉ ์‚ฌํˆฌ๋ฆฌโŒ‹ / and โŒˆnumerous ์ˆ˜๋งŽ์€, ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œโŒ‹ โŒˆminority ์†Œ์ˆ˜โŒ‹ โŒˆlanguages ์–ธ์–ดโŒ‹ / in the former USSR, โŒˆcontinental ๋Œ€๋ฅ™์˜, ์œ ๋Ÿฝ ๋Œ€๋ฅ™์˜โŒ‹ China, Taiwan / and Australia, for example, / have โ‘ค โŒˆdisappeared ์‚ฌ๋ผ์ง€๋‹ค, ์—†์–ด์ง€๋‹คโŒ‹.์ด๋Ÿฐ ์‹์œผ๋กœ ์˜ˆ๋ฅผ ๋“ค์–ด ํ”„๋ž‘์Šค ๋ฐฉ์–ธ๊ณผ ๊ตฌ์†Œ๋ จ, ์ค‘๊ตญ ๋Œ€๋ฅ™, ๋Œ€๋งŒ๊ณผ ํ˜ธ์ฃผ์—์„œ ์ˆ˜๋งŽ์€ ์†Œ์ˆ˜ ์–ธ์–ด๋“ค์ด ์‚ฌ๋ผ์กŒ๋‹ค.
  



#9-7 ๋‚ฑ๋ง?
๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿฟํ•ด์„ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ์— ์ฝ๊ธฐ
๋‘๋ ค์›€์˜ ํ•œ ๊ฐ€์ง€ ์ด์œ ๋Š” '๋ชฌํ…Œ์นด๋ฅผ๋กœ์˜ ์˜ค๋ฅ˜'์— ์˜ํ•ด ์„ค๋ช…์ด ๋  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋ชฌํ…Œ์นด๋ฅผ๋กœ์˜ ์˜ค๋ฅ˜(๋˜๋Š” ๋„๋ฐ•์‚ฌ์˜ ์˜ค๋ฅ˜)๋Š” ์–ด๋–ค ๊ฒƒ์ด ์–ด๋–ค ๊ธฐ๊ฐ„ ๋™์•ˆ ๋ณดํ†ต ๋•Œ๋ณด๋‹ค ๋” ์ž์ฃผ ์ผ์–ด๋‚œ๋‹ค๋ฉด, ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์€ ์•„๋งˆ๋„ ์ž์—ฐ์˜ ๊ท ํ˜•์„ ๋งž์ถ”๋Š” ์ˆ˜๋‹จ์œผ๋กœ์„œ ์•ž์œผ๋กœ ๋œ ์ž์ฃผ ์ผ์–ด๋‚  ๊ฒƒ์ด๋ผ๋Š” ์ž˜๋ชป๋œ ๋ฏฟ์Œ์ด๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ž˜์„œ ๋™์ „์„ ๋˜์ง„ ๋ˆ„๊ตฐ๊ฐ€๊ฐ€ ์—ฐ์†์œผ๋กœ ์—ฌ์„ฏ ๋ฒˆ ์•ž๋ฉด์ด๋ผ๋Š” ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ์–ป์—ˆ๋‹ค๋ฉด, ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๋Š” ๊ทธ ๋‹ค์Œ๋ฒˆ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๊ฐ€ ๋’ท๋ฉด์ด ๋  ๊ฒƒ์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ๋ฏฟ์„ ๊ฐ€๋Šฅ์„ฑ์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์‚ฌ์‹ค, ํ™•๋ฅ ์€ ๋ณ€ํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค. ๋‹ค์Œ ๋ฒˆ (๋™์ „) ๋˜์ง€๊ธฐ์˜ ํ™•๋ฅ ์€ ์—ฌ์ „ํžˆ 50:50์ด๋‹ค. ๋ชฌํ…Œ์นด๋ฅผ๋กœ์˜ ์˜ค๋ฅ˜์˜ ๋ฌธ์ œ์ ์€ ์ž‡๋”ฐ๋ผ ํ–‰์šด์„ ์–ป์€ ๋ˆ„๊ตฐ๊ฐ€๋Š” ๋ฌด์˜์‹์ ์œผ๋กœ ์ž์‹ ์˜ ๋‹ค์Œ๋ฒˆ ๋ชจํ—˜์ด ๋ถˆ์šดํ•  ๊ฒƒ์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ๋ฏฟ๋Š” ๊ฒฝํ–ฅ์ด ์žˆ๊ณ , ๊ทธ ๋ฐ˜๋Œ€์˜ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ๋„ ๋งˆ์ฐฌ๊ฐ€์ง€๋‹ค. ์‚ฌ์‹ค์ƒ, ๋ชฌํ…Œ์นด๋ฅผ๋กœ์˜ ์˜ค๋ฅ˜๋Š” ๋น„ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ์ ์ธ ํ–‰๋™์„ ๊ฐ•ํ™”ํ•œ๋‹ค.

๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿฟ๋ณธ๋ฌธ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ์— ์ฝ๊ธฐ
One reason for fear can be explained by the 'Monte Carlo Fallacy'. The Monte Carlo Fallacy (or Gambler's Fallacy) is the mistaken belief that if something happens more frequently than normal during some period, then it will happen (A) [less / more] frequently in the future, presumably as a means of balancing nature. So if someone tossing a coin got six consecutive heads, one is likely to (B) [believe / deny] that the next result will be tails. The truth is that the odds haven't changed. The odds of the next toss are still 50:50. The problem with the Monte Carlo Fallacy is that someone who has had a spate of good luck automatically tends to believe that his next venture will be unlucky or vice versa. In effect, the Monte Carlo Fallacy (C) [reinforces/ prevents] irrational behaviour.


One โŒˆreason ์ด์œ , ์›์ธโŒ‹ for โŒˆfear ๋‘๋ ค์›€, ์šฐ๋ คโŒ‹ / can be โŒˆexplained ์„ค๋ช…ํ•˜๋‹ค, ์•Œ๋ ค์ฃผ๋‹คโŒ‹ by the 'Monte Carlo Fallacy'. ๋‘๋ ค์›€์˜ ํ•œ ๊ฐ€์ง€ ์ด์œ ๋Š” '๋ชฌํ…Œ์นด๋ฅผ๋กœ์˜ ์˜ค๋ฅ˜'์— ์˜ํ•ด ์„ค๋ช…์ด ๋  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค.
  




The Monte Carlo Fallacy (or GamblerโŒˆ's cannot์˜ ๋‹จ์ถ•ํ˜•โŒ‹ Fallacy) / is the โŒˆmistaken ์ž˜๋ชป๋œ, ์˜คํ•ดํ•œโŒ‹ belief / that / if something happens more โŒˆfrequently ์ž์ฃผ, ์ข…์ข…โŒ‹ / than โŒˆnormal ์ •์ƒ, ํ‰๋ฒ”ํ•œโŒ‹ during some period, then it / will happen (A) [less / more] โŒˆfrequently ์ž์ฃผ, ์ข…์ข…โŒ‹ / in the โŒˆfuture ๋ฏธ๋ž˜, ์•ž์˜โŒ‹, presumably / as a means of balancing โŒˆnature ์ž์—ฐ, ๋ณธ์„ฑโŒ‹. ๋ชฌํ…Œ์นด๋ฅผ๋กœ์˜ ์˜ค๋ฅ˜(๋˜๋Š” ๋„๋ฐ•์‚ฌ์˜ ์˜ค๋ฅ˜)๋Š” ์–ด๋–ค ๊ฒƒ์ด ์–ด๋–ค ๊ธฐ๊ฐ„ ๋™์•ˆ ๋ณดํ†ต ๋•Œ๋ณด๋‹ค ๋” ์ž์ฃผ ์ผ์–ด๋‚œ๋‹ค๋ฉด, ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์€ ์•„๋งˆ๋„ ์ž์—ฐ์˜ ๊ท ํ˜•์„ ๋งž์ถ”๋Š” ์ˆ˜๋‹จ์œผ๋กœ์„œ ์•ž์œผ๋กœ ๋œ ์ž์ฃผ ์ผ์–ด๋‚  ๊ฒƒ์ด๋ผ๋Š” ์ž˜๋ชป๋œ ๋ฏฟ์Œ์ด๋‹ค.
  




So / if someone โŒˆtossing ๋˜์ง€๋‹ค, ๋’ค์ฒ™์ด๋‹คโŒ‹ a โŒˆcoin ๋™์ „, ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด๋‚ด๋‹คโŒ‹ got six โŒˆconsecutive ์—ฐ์†๋˜๋Š”, ์—ฐ์†์ ์ธโŒ‹ heads, one / is likely / to (B) [believe / โŒˆdeny ๋ถ€์ธํ•˜๋‹ค, ๋ถ€์ •ํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹] / that the next โŒˆresult ๊ฒฐ๊ตญ, ๊ฒฐ๊ณผโŒ‹ / will be tails. ๊ทธ๋ž˜์„œ ๋™์ „์„ ๋˜์ง„ ๋ˆ„๊ตฐ๊ฐ€๊ฐ€ ์—ฐ์†์œผ๋กœ ์—ฌ์„ฏ ๋ฒˆ ์•ž๋ฉด์ด๋ผ๋Š” ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ์–ป์—ˆ๋‹ค๋ฉด, ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๋Š” ๊ทธ ๋‹ค์Œ๋ฒˆ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๊ฐ€ ๋’ท๋ฉด์ด ๋  ๊ฒƒ์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ๋ฏฟ์„ ๊ฐ€๋Šฅ์„ฑ์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค.
  




The โŒˆtruth ์ง„์‹ค, ์‚ฌ์‹คโŒ‹ / is / that the โŒˆodds ์ด์ƒํ•œ, ํŠน์ดํ•œโŒ‹ havenโŒˆ' cannot์˜ ๋‹จ์ถ•ํ˜•โŒ‹t changed. ์‚ฌ์‹ค, ํ™•๋ฅ ์€ ๋ณ€ํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค.
  




The โŒˆodds ์ด์ƒํ•œ, ํŠน์ดํ•œโŒ‹ of the next โŒˆtoss ๋˜์ง€๋‹ค, ๋’ค์ฒ™์ด๋‹คโŒ‹ / are still 50:50. ๋‹ค์Œ ๋ฒˆ (๋™์ „) ๋˜์ง€๊ธฐ์˜ ํ™•๋ฅ ์€ ์—ฌ์ „ํžˆ 50:50์ด๋‹ค.
  




The problem / with the Monte Carlo Fallacy / is / that someone who / has had a โŒˆspate ์ŠคํŒป, ๊ตด์˜ ์•ŒโŒ‹ of good โŒˆluck ํ–‰์šด, ์šดโŒ‹ automatically tends / to believe / that his next โŒˆventure ๋ชจํ—˜, ํˆฌ๊ธฐ์  ์‚ฌ์—…โŒ‹ / will be โŒˆunlucky ๋ถˆ์šดํ•œ, ๋ถˆ๊ธธํ•œโŒ‹ or โŒˆvice ๋Œ€๋ฆฌ์˜, ์•…โŒ‹ versa. ๋ชฌํ…Œ์นด๋ฅผ๋กœ์˜ ์˜ค๋ฅ˜์˜ ๋ฌธ์ œ์ ์€ ์ž‡๋”ฐ๋ผ ํ–‰์šด์„ ์–ป์€ ๋ˆ„๊ตฐ๊ฐ€๋Š” ๋ฌด์˜์‹์ ์œผ๋กœ ์ž์‹ ์˜ ๋‹ค์Œ๋ฒˆ ๋ชจํ—˜์ด ๋ถˆ์šดํ•  ๊ฒƒ์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ๋ฏฟ๋Š” ๊ฒฝํ–ฅ์ด ์žˆ๊ณ , ๊ทธ ๋ฐ˜๋Œ€์˜ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ๋„ ๋งˆ์ฐฌ๊ฐ€์ง€๋‹ค.
  




In effect, the Monte Carlo Fallacy (C) [reinforces/ โŒˆprevents ๋ง‰๋‹ค, ์˜ˆ๋ฐฉํ•˜๋‹คโŒ‹] โŒˆirrational ๋น„์ด์„ฑ์ ์ธ, ๋น„ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ์ ์ธโŒ‹ โŒˆbehaviour ํ–‰๋™, โŒˆbehavior ํ–‰๋™, ํ–‰์œ„โŒ‹โŒ‹.์‚ฌ์‹ค์ƒ, ๋ชฌํ…Œ์นด๋ฅผ๋กœ์˜ ์˜ค๋ฅ˜๋Š” ๋น„ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ์ ์ธ ํ–‰๋™์„ ๊ฐ•ํ™”ํ•œ๋‹ค.
  



#9-8 ๋‚ฑ๋ง?
๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿฟํ•ด์„ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ์— ์ฝ๊ธฐ
๊ด€๊ด‘์€ ์ƒ์ƒ์˜ ์˜์—ญ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๋ฌผ๋ฆฌ์ ์ธ ์„ธ๊ณ„์˜ ์˜์—ญ์—์„œ ๋™์‹œ์— ์ผ์–ด๋‚œ๋‹ค. ๋ฌธํ•™ ๋˜๋Š” ์˜ํ™”์™€๋Š” ๋‹ฌ๋ฆฌ, ๊ด€๊ด‘์€ '์‹ค์ œ์ ์ธ', ๊ฐ์ง€ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ์„ธ๊ณ„๋กœ ํ†ตํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐ˜๋ฉด, ๊ทธ๋Ÿผ์—๋„ ๋ถˆ๊ตฌํ•˜๊ณ  ํ™˜์ƒ, ๊ฟˆ, ์†Œ์› โ”€ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ ๊ณ  ์‹ ํ™”์˜ ์˜์—ญ๊ณผ ์—ฌ์ „ํžˆ ๊ด€๋ จ๋˜์–ด ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ ‡๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์— ๊ด€๊ด‘์€ ์‹ ํ™”์ ์ธ ์ƒ๊ฐ์„ ์˜์‹์œผ๋กœ ํ–‰ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ฒŒ ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์ด ํ…”๋ ˆ๋น„์ „์—์„œ ํžˆ๋ง๋ผ์•ผ์‚ฐ๋งฅ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์˜ํ™”๋ฅผ ์‹œ์ฒญํ•˜๊ณ  ์žฅ์—„ํ•œ ์‚ฐ๋ด‰์šฐ๋ฆฌ์˜ '๋ณธ๋ž˜ ๊ทธ๋Œ€๋กœ์˜ ์ž์—ฐ'์— ์—ด๊ด‘ํ• ์ง€ ๋˜๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์ด ์ผ์–ด๋‚˜์„œ ๋„คํŒ”๋กœ ๊ธด ์—ฌํ–‰์„ ํ• ์ง€์— ๊ด€ํ•ด์„œ๋Š” ์ƒ๋‹นํ•œ ์ฐจ์ด๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์‹ฌ์ง€์–ด ํ›„์ž์˜ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ์—๋„, ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์€ ์ ์–ด๋„ ๋ถ€๋ถ„์ ์œผ๋กœ๋Š” ๊ฐ€์ƒ์˜ ์„ธ๊ณ„์— ๋จธ๋ฌผ๋Ÿฌ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋“ค์€ ์ง‘์—์„œ ์ฑ…, ์•ˆ๋‚ด ์ฑ…์ž, ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์˜ํ™”์—์„œ ์ด๋ฏธ ๋ณด์•˜๋˜ ์ˆœ๊ฐ„์„ ๊ฒฝํ—˜ํ•œ๋‹ค. ๋ณธ๋ž˜ ๊ทธ๋Œ€๋กœ์˜ ์ž์—ฐ๊ณผ ์นœ์ ˆํ•˜๊ณ  ์ˆœ์ง„ํ•œ ํ† ์ฐฉ๋ฏผ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๊ทธ๋“ค์˜ ๊ฐœ๋…์€ ์•„๋งˆ๋„ ํ™•๊ณ ํ•ด์งˆ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ์ด์ œ ์ด ํ™•๊ณ ํ•จ์€ ๋ฌผ๋ฆฌ์ ์ธ ๊ฒฝํ—˜์— ๋‹จ๋‹จํžˆ ๊ธฐ๋ฐ˜์„ ๋‘๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ์‹ ํ™”๋Š” ํ…”๋ ˆ๋น„์ „, ์˜ํ™”, ๋˜๋Š” ์ฑ…์— ์˜ํ•œ ๊ฒƒ๋ณด๋‹ค ํ›จ์”ฌ ๋” ๊ฐ•๋ ฅํ•œ ๋ฐฉ์‹์œผ๋กœ ์ „๋‹ฌ๋œ๋‹ค.

๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿฟ๋ณธ๋ฌธ ํ•œ๋ฒˆ์— ์ฝ๊ธฐ
Tourism takes place simultaneously in the realm of the โ‘  imagination and that of the physical world. In contrast to literature or film, it leads to 'real', tangible worlds, while nevertheless remaining tied to the sphere of fantasies, dreams, wishes โ€”and myth. It thereby โ‘ก allows the ritual enactment of mythological ideas. There is a considerable difference as to whether people watch a film about the Himalayas on television and become excited by the 'untouched nature' of the majestic mountain peaks, or whether they get up and go on a trek to Nepal. Even in the latter case, they โ‘ขremain, at least partly, in an imaginary world. They experience moments that they have already seen at home in books, brochures and films. Their notions of untouched nature and friendly, innocent indigenous people will probably be โ‘ฃ confirmed. But now this confirmation is anchored in a โ‘ค mystical experience. The myth is thus transmitted in a much more powerful way than by television, movies or books.


Tourism takes place โŒˆsimultaneously ๋™์‹œ์—, ์ผ์ œํžˆโŒ‹ / in the โŒˆrealm ์˜์—ญ, ์™•๊ตญโŒ‹ of the โ‘  โŒˆimagination ์ƒ์ƒ, ์ฐฉ๊ฐโŒ‹ / and / that of the physical world. ๊ด€๊ด‘์€ ์ƒ์ƒ์˜ ์˜์—ญ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๋ฌผ๋ฆฌ์ ์ธ ์„ธ๊ณ„์˜ ์˜์—ญ์—์„œ ๋™์‹œ์— ์ผ์–ด๋‚œ๋‹ค.
  




In โŒˆcontrast ๋Œ€์กฐ, ๋Œ€๋น„โŒ‹ / to โŒˆliterature ๋ฌธํ•™, ๋ฌธ์˜ˆโŒ‹ or โŒˆfilm ์˜ํ™”๊ณ„, ์˜ํ™”โŒ‹, it leads / to 'real', โŒˆtangible ์œ ํ˜•์˜, ๋งŒ์ ธ์„œ ์•Œ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š”โŒ‹ worlds, / while nevertheless remaining tied / to the โŒˆsphere ์˜์—ญ, ๋ถ„์•ผโŒ‹ of fantasies, โŒˆdreams ๊ฟˆ, ๊ฟˆ๊พธ๋‹คโŒ‹, wishes โ€”/ and myth. ๋ฌธํ•™ ๋˜๋Š” ์˜ํ™”์™€๋Š” ๋‹ฌ๋ฆฌ, ๊ด€๊ด‘์€ '์‹ค์ œ์ ์ธ', ๊ฐ์ง€ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ์„ธ๊ณ„๋กœ ํ†ตํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐ˜๋ฉด, ๊ทธ๋Ÿผ์—๋„ ๋ถˆ๊ตฌํ•˜๊ณ  ํ™˜์ƒ, ๊ฟˆ, ์†Œ์› โ”€ ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ ๊ณ  ์‹ ํ™”์˜ ์˜์—ญ๊ณผ ์—ฌ์ „ํžˆ ๊ด€๋ จ๋˜์–ด ์žˆ๋‹ค.
  




It thereby โ‘ก allows the โŒˆritual ์˜์‹, ์ œ์‚ฌโŒ‹ enactment of โŒˆmythological ์‹ ํ™”ํ•™์˜, ์‹ ํ™”์˜โŒ‹ ideas. ๊ทธ๋ ‡๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์— ๊ด€๊ด‘์€ ์‹ ํ™”์ ์ธ ์ƒ๊ฐ์„ ์˜์‹์œผ๋กœ ํ–‰ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ฒŒ ํ•œ๋‹ค.
  




There / is a โŒˆconsiderable ์ƒ๋‹นํ•œ, ๊ฝคโŒ‹ difference / as / to whether people โŒˆwatch ๋ณด๋‹คโŒ‹ a โŒˆfilm ์˜ํ™”๊ณ„, ์˜ํ™”โŒ‹ / about the Himalayas / on television / and become โŒˆexcited ํฅ๋ถ„ํ•œ, ์‹ ์ด ๋‚œโŒ‹ by the 'โŒˆuntouched ์•„์ง ์†๋Œ€์ง€ ์•Š์€, ๋ฏธ๋‹ต์˜โŒ‹ โŒˆnature ์ž์—ฐ, ๋ณธ์„ฑโŒ‹' of the โŒˆmajestic ์žฅ์—„ํ•œ, ์œ„์—„ ์žˆ๋Š”โŒ‹ mountain โŒˆpeaks ์ตœ๊ณ ์˜, ์ ˆ์ •โŒ‹, or whether they get up / and go / on a trek / to Nepal. ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์ด ํ…”๋ ˆ๋น„์ „์—์„œ ํžˆ๋ง๋ผ์•ผ์‚ฐ๋งฅ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์˜ํ™”๋ฅผ ์‹œ์ฒญํ•˜๊ณ  ์žฅ์—„ํ•œ ์‚ฐ๋ด‰์šฐ๋ฆฌ์˜ '๋ณธ๋ž˜ ๊ทธ๋Œ€๋กœ์˜ ์ž์—ฐ'์— ์—ด๊ด‘ํ• ์ง€ ๋˜๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์ด ์ผ์–ด๋‚˜์„œ ๋„คํŒ”๋กœ ๊ธด ์—ฌํ–‰์„ ํ• ์ง€์— ๊ด€ํ•ด์„œ๋Š” ์ƒ๋‹นํ•œ ์ฐจ์ด๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋‹ค.
  




Even / in the latter โŒˆcase ๊ฒฝ์šฐโŒ‹, they โ‘ขremain, / at least partly, / in an โŒˆimaginary ์ƒ์ƒ์˜, ๊ฐ€์ƒ์˜โŒ‹ world. ์‹ฌ์ง€์–ด ํ›„์ž์˜ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ์—๋„, ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์€ ์ ์–ด๋„ ๋ถ€๋ถ„์ ์œผ๋กœ๋Š” ๊ฐ€์ƒ์˜ ์„ธ๊ณ„์— ๋จธ๋ฌผ๋Ÿฌ ์žˆ๋‹ค.
  




They experience โŒˆmoments ์ˆœ๊ฐ„, ์ง€๊ธˆโŒ‹ / that they / have already seen / at home / in books, brochures / and โŒˆfilms ์˜ํ™”๊ณ„, ์˜ํ™”โŒ‹. ๊ทธ๋“ค์€ ์ง‘์—์„œ ์ฑ…, ์•ˆ๋‚ด ์ฑ…์ž, ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์˜ํ™”์—์„œ ์ด๋ฏธ ๋ณด์•˜๋˜ ์ˆœ๊ฐ„์„ ๊ฒฝํ—˜ํ•œ๋‹ค.
  




Their notions of โŒˆuntouched ์•„์ง ์†๋Œ€์ง€ ์•Š์€, ๋ฏธ๋‹ต์˜โŒ‹ โŒˆnature ์ž์—ฐ, ๋ณธ์„ฑโŒ‹ / and friendly, โŒˆinnocent ์ฃ„ ์—†๋Š”, ์ˆœ์ˆ˜ํ•œโŒ‹ โŒˆindigenous ๊ณ ์œ ์˜, ํ† ์ฐฉ์˜โŒ‹ people / will probably be โ‘ฃ โŒˆconfirmed ํ™•์ธ๋œ, ์Šน์ธ๋œโŒ‹. ๋ณธ๋ž˜ ๊ทธ๋Œ€๋กœ์˜ ์ž์—ฐ๊ณผ ์นœ์ ˆํ•˜๊ณ  ์ˆœ์ง„ํ•œ ํ† ์ฐฉ๋ฏผ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๊ทธ๋“ค์˜ ๊ฐœ๋…์€ ์•„๋งˆ๋„ ํ™•๊ณ ํ•ด์งˆ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.
  




But now this โŒˆconfirmation ํ™•์ธ, ํ™•์ฆโŒ‹ / is โŒˆanchored ์•ต์ปค, ๋‰ด์Šค์บ์Šคํ„ฐโŒ‹ / in a โ‘ค โŒˆmystical ์‹ ๋น„๋กœ์šด, ๋ถˆ๊ฐ€์‚ฌ์˜ํ•œโŒ‹ experience. ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ์ด์ œ ์ด ํ™•๊ณ ํ•จ์€ ๋ฌผ๋ฆฌ์ ์ธ ๊ฒฝํ—˜์— ๋‹จ๋‹จํžˆ ๊ธฐ๋ฐ˜์„ ๋‘๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค.
  




The myth / is thus transmitted / in a much more powerful way / than by television, movies or books.๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ์‹ ํ™”๋Š” ํ…”๋ ˆ๋น„์ „, ์˜ํ™”, ๋˜๋Š” ์ฑ…์— ์˜ํ•œ ๊ฒƒ๋ณด๋‹ค ํ›จ์”ฌ ๋” ๊ฐ•๋ ฅํ•œ ๋ฐฉ์‹์œผ๋กœ ์ „๋‹ฌ๋œ๋‹ค.
  



๐Ÿ‘๐ŸฟVOCAB. ์—ฌ๋Ÿฌ๋ฒˆ ์“ฐ๋ฉด์„œ ์—ฐ์Šตํ•˜์„ธ์š”!!!
access ์ ‘๊ทผ
account ๊ณ„์ขŒ. ์„ค๋ช…
administration
alien ์™ธ๊ตญ์˜
alter ๋ฐ”๊พธ๋‹ค
alternat
alternative ๋Œ€์•ˆ์˜;๋Œ€์•ˆ
apparent ๋ช…๋ฐฑํ•œ
approach ๋‹ค๊ฐ€๊ฐ€๋‹ค;์ ‘๊ทผํ•˜๋‹ค
artificial ์ธ๊ณต์˜
associat ์—ฐ๊ด€์‹œํ‚ค๋‹ค
assur ๋ณด์ฆํ•˜๋‹ค
assurance
bare ๋ฒŒ๊ฑฐ๋ฒ—์€;๊ฐ„๊ฒฐํ•œ
barely ๊ฑฐ์˜ ~์•Š๋‹ค
behav
behaviour ํ–‰๋™
belonging
chemical ํ™”ํ•™์˜
collaborat
collaboration
complet
compromise ํƒ€ํ˜‘
confirm ํ™•์ธํ•˜๋‹ค;ํ™•์ฆํ•˜๋‹ค
conflict ๊ฐˆ๋“ฑ;๋…ผ์Ÿ
consecutive
considerable ์ƒ๋‹นํ•œ;์ค‘์š”ํ•œ
consideration ๊ณ ๋ ค ์‚ฌํ•ญ
consist
consistency ์ผ๊ด€์„ฑ
constant ์ง€์†์ ์ธ
continent ๋Œ€๋ฅ™
continental
criteria ๊ธฐ์ค€;์ฒ™๋„
critic ๋น„ํŒ๊ฐ€
critical ๋น„ํŒ์ ์ธ;์ค‘์š”ํ•œ
demand ์š”๊ตฌํ•˜๋‹ค
deny ๋ถ€์ธํ•˜๋‹ค
determin ๊ฒฐ์‹ฌํ•˜๋‹ค
determined ๋‹จํ˜ธํ•œ;๊ฒฐ๋‹จ๋ ฅ ๊ฒฐ์‹ฌํ•˜๋‹ค
differ
disappear ์‚ฌ๋ผ์ง€๋‹ค
disaster ์žฌ๋‚œ
disregard ๋ฌด์‹œํ•˜๋‹ค
distort
distorted
economic ๊ฒฝ์ œ์ ์ธ
economical ๊ฒฝ์ œ์ ์ธ
economically ๊ฒฝ์ œ์ ์œผ๋กœ
effective ํšจ๊ณผ์ ์ธ
embrace
employ ์‚ฌ์šฉํ•˜๋‹ค(
employment ๊ณ ์šฉ
enabl
enact
enactment
encouraging ๊ณ ๋ฌด์ ์ธ ๊ฒฉ๋ คํ•˜๋‹ค;ํ•˜๊ฒŒํ•˜๋‹ค
ensure ํ™•์‹คํžˆ ํ•˜๋‹ค
evident
exceed ๋Šฅ๊ฐ€ํ•˜๋‹ค
exclusion ๋ฐฐ์ œ
explod
extinct ์‚ฌ๋ฉธํ•œ;๋ฉธ์ข…๋œ
extinction ๋ฉธ์ข…
fair ๊ณต์ •ํ•œ;์ƒ๋‹นํ•œ
flow ํ๋ฅด๋‹ค;๋„˜์ณํ๋ฅด๋‹ค
force ๊ฐ•์š”ํ•˜๋‹ค
frequency ์ž์ฃผ ์ผ์–ด๋‚จ;๋นˆ๋ฒˆ
frequent ๋นˆ๋ฒˆํ•œ
frequently ๋นˆ๋ฒˆํžˆ;์ข…์ข…
fur ๋ถ€๋“œ๋Ÿฌ์šด ํ„ธ;๋ชจํ”ผ
gene ์œ ์ „์ž
govern ํ†ต์น˜ํ•˜๋‹ค;๋‹ค์Šค๋ฆฌ๋‹ค
gradual ๋‹จ๊ณ„์ ์ธ;์ ์ฐจ์ ์ธ
gradually ์ ์ฐจ์ ์œผ๋กœ
heal ์น˜๋ฃŒํ•˜๋‹ค
host ์ฃผ์ธ
ignore ๋ฌด์‹œํ•˜๋‹ค;์†Œํ™€ํžˆ
imaginary ์ƒ์ƒ์˜;๊ฐ€์ƒ์˜
imagination ์ƒ์ƒ๋ ฅ;์ƒ์ƒ
increasingly ์ ์  ๋”
indigenous
injur ๋‹ค์น˜๊ฒŒ ํ•˜๋‹ค
injury ๋ถ€์ƒ
innocent ์ˆœ์ˆ˜ํ•œ;์ˆœ๊ฒฐํ•œ
input
institution ํ˜‘ํšŒ;๋‹จ์ฒด
integration ํ†ตํ•ฉ;์กฐํ™”
interact ์ƒํ˜ธ์ž‘์šฉํ•˜๋‹ค
interaction ์ƒํ˜ธ์ž‘์šฉ
involv ํฌํ•จํ•˜๋‹ค
involved ํฌํ•จํ•˜๋‹ค
irrational
limited ์ œํ•œ๋œ
literature ๋ฌธํ•™
majestic ์žฅ์—„ํ•œ;์œ„์—„
means ์ˆ˜๋‹จ
minority ์†Œ์ˆ˜;์†Œ์ˆ˜๋ฏผ์กฑ
mistaken
moment ์ˆœ๊ฐ„
monitor ๊ฐ์‹œํ•˜๋‹ค;๋ชจ๋‹ˆํ„ฐํ•˜๋‹ค
mount ์˜ค๋ฅด๋‹ค;์Šน๋งˆ
movement ์›€์ง์ž„;์šด๋™
navigat ํ•ญํ•ด;๋ฐ”๋กœ๊ฑท๋‹ค
navigation ํ•ญํ•ด
neglect ๋ฌด์‹œํ•˜๋‹ค
norm ํ‘œ์ค€
numerous ๋‹ค์ˆ˜์˜;์ˆ˜๋งŽ์€
objective ๋ชฉ์ ;๊ฐ๊ด€์ ์ธ
occur ๋ฐœ์ƒํ•˜๋‹ค
odd ์ด์ƒํ•œ;ํ™€์ˆ˜์˜
pat ์“ฐ๋‹ค๋“ฌ๋‹ค;์• ๋ฌดํ•˜๋‹ค
peak
perspective ์›๊ทผ๋ฒ•;ํˆฌ์‹œํ™”๋ฒ•
pest
policy ์ •์ฑ…;๋ฐฉ์ฑ…
politics ์ •์น˜;์ •์น˜ํ•™ ์ •์น˜
prefer ์„ ํ˜ธํ•˜๋‹ค
process ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ
prohibit ๊ธˆ์ง€ํ•˜๋‹ค
promote ์Šน์ง„์‹œํ‚ค๋‹ค
protect ๋ณดํ˜ธํ•˜๋‹ค
realm ์˜์—ญ
recommend ์ถ”์ฒœํ•˜๋‹ค
recommendation ์ถ”์ฒœ
reflect ๋ฐ˜์‚ฌํ•˜๋‹ค;๋ฐ˜์˜ํ•˜๋‹ค
regard ๊ฐ„์ฃผํ•˜๋‹ค
register ๋“ฑ๋ก์‹œํ‚ค๋‹ค;๋“ฑ๋กํ•˜๋‹ค
represent ์˜๋ฏธํ•˜๋‹ค;๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚ด๋‹ค
resist ์ €ํ•ญํ•˜๋‹ค
reverse ๊ฑฐ๊พธ๋กœ ํ•˜๋‹ค
ritual
salary ๊ธ‰์—ฌ
sharp ๋ช…๋ฐฑํ•œ
signal ์‹ ํ˜ธ
simultaneous ๋™์‹œ์˜
slight
specific ๊ตฌ์ฒด์ ์ธ;ํŠน์ •ํ•œ
synthetic ํ•ฉ์„ฑ์˜
tailor ์žฌ๋‹จ์‚ฌ
tangible
tempt ์œ ํ˜นํ•˜๋‹ค
tension ๊ธด์žฅ
tie ๋งค๋‹ค;๋ฌถ๋‹ค
toll
transmit ๋ณด๋‚ด๋‹ค;๋ฐœ์†กํ•˜๋‹ค
trend ๊ฒฝํ–ฅ
trust ์‹ ๋ขฐ;์‹ ์šฉ
undo ์›์ƒํƒœ๋กœ ๋Œ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค
urge ๊ถŒ์œ ํ•˜๋‹ค;์ฃผ์žฅํ•˜๋‹ค
urgent ๊ธด๊ธ‰ํ•œ
value ๋†’์ด ํ‰๊ฐ€ํ•˜๋‹ค;๊ฐ€์น˜
venture
warn ๊ฒฝ๊ณ ํ•˜๋‹ค
weaken ์•ฝํ•ด์ง€๋‹ค
withstand ์ €ํ•ญํ•˜๋‹ค

#WeAreSmart #010-3338-3436 #์œ„์Šค๋งˆํŠธ #๊ตฌ๋ฆฌ์‹œ #์ธ์ฐฝ๋™ #์˜์–ดํ•™์› #๊ณ ๋“ฑ #์ค‘๋“ฑ #๋‚ด์‹  #์ˆ˜๋Šฅ #ํ…์Šค #TEPS #ํ† ํ”Œ #ํ† ์ต
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